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iHrtn'um of lntrr*Commimfcatfon 



"When found, make a note of." — Captain Ottl«." 


January — June 18G8. 










4*8.1. J ax. V6*.] 





Our Fourth Series, 1. 

NOTES: — The Caricatures of Samuel Ward of Ipswich, 1 

— Thomas Churchyard and the Romance of ■' iortuna- 
tus" 2 — George Turbcrvile: a New-Year Gift, 3 — The 
\uthor of M The Cherrie and the Slae," and his Descen- 
dants, 4 — Ancient Drinking-Glass, 7 — M A True aud 
\dmirable Historie of a Mayden of Confolens, &c, lb.— 
Lambeth Library and its Librarians, 9 — Folk-Lore : Su- 
perstitions — Irish Folk-Lore — Names retaining then- 
Ancient Sound — The Madonna della Sedia (after Raf- 
faelle) by many Engravers — First Turkish Newspaper in 
London — Scripture Baptismal Names — Lines by Dr. 
Henry King — Baker's "History of Northampton- 
shire," 10. 

QUERIES: — William Caxton, 11 — "Adeste Fideles" — 
Anglican Episcopate— Consistory Courts, Ac. — Cicin- 
delw — The Creed and Lord's Prayer — Dryden Queries — 
Ealing School — Every Thing, Every Body — Faustus' Con- 
juring Book — Greyhound — Bishop Home — Hurst mon- 
ceaux Tombs, Ac. — Job's Disease — George Lockcy — Mar- 
riage License — Admiral Moulton — Rudee : Defamedcn : 
Birc — Silbury Hill — Sisyphus and his Stone — Three 
Eclipses — Wednesday, 12. 

Queries with Answtrs: — Sir Henry Cavendish's "De- 
bates " — Merchant Taylors' Company— Tom Paine's 
Bones— Arms of Canterbury — The Hundred Rolls — 
W. M. Thackeray's Portrait, 15. 

REPLIES: — Eobanus, 16 — Writing known to Pindar: a 
Homeric Society Suggested, 18— Dances mentioned in Sel- 
den's "Table-Talk" — Naval Songs — "Ultima Ratio 
Regum " — An Etching Query — The Silent Woman — 
Louis XIV. and Chevalier d'Ishington — Aggas's Map of 
London, 15(50— Execution of Louis XV I.— La t ten or Bronze 

— Letters of Gottlieb Schick — Spanish Dollars — The 
Champion Whip — Medical Query — British Museum Dup- 
licates— Prophecy of Louis-Philippe — James Keir, F.R.8., 
Ac, 18. 

Notes on Books &c. 

regrets, as our thoughts turn to those who have dropped 
one by one from our side as we have journeyed to our 
present stand-point. Must we not at such a moment re- 
member what we owe to that profound scholar and learned 
divine, who wrote our opening address, and contributed 
so largely to our early numbers — to that acute critic 
and unflinching advocate of truth, who has in our columns 
thrown so much light on our secret history, both literary 
and political — to that distinguished scholar and states- 
man, whose articles in Notes and Queries may be 
numbered by hundreds, and whose last literary essay ap- 
peared in its pages ? 

Were we at a moment like the present to forget these. 

and the many other kind friends who have helped to 
make us what we are, we should ill deserve a continu- 
ance of that encouragement and assistance, without 
which Notes and Queries would lose all its usefulness 
— encouragement which we are happy to say we receive 
at all hands — assistance which is still so liberally pro- 
mised us, that we feel ire are holding out no unfounded 
expectation when we declare our belief that, like good 
wine, Notes and Queries will improve with age (and 
our own experience), and that our Fourth Series will 
be found to be au excellent vintage. 






" l-nnra Ntuta mnniim notus Cutlaeus haU hut, 
Eilius at centum monibus complectitur orbem. 


E« \t> H - 

preacher as an emblematist or caricaturist has been 
the subject of frequent comment in the pages of 
" N. & Q." On that one occasion, and on that only, 
does he appear to have exercised his satirical ta- 
lent upon a subject which may be termed political. 
By so doing he gave great offence in high quarters. 
lie represented, as I gather from the descriptions 
of the picture given in your pages and elsewhere, 

After eighteen years of, we hope, increasing usefulness, 
and, we gratefully acknowledge, of increasing public fa- 
vour, we are preparing to give an account of our recent the p Q x pe and £j g Council in the centre of the pic- 
stewardship in the shape of a General Index to our Third 
Series ; and in the meantime we invite the attention of 
our Friends and Readers to the Series which is here com- 


the other the Gunpowder Treason. The print was 
published in 1621, when Gondomar was in England 

Embassador. lie complained of it as 

In doing so we are specially gratified at being able to ^suiting to his master ; and Ward, whose name 

point to the various interesting papers in the following 
pages by those old and valued friends who contributed to 
our opening number in November, 1841) — who lent the 
bantling a helping hand when he first tried to walk 
alone, and now are ready to stand by him, as he does 
his best to keep the crown of the causeway. We grate- 
fully acknowledge their long-continued kindness, and the 

was engraved upon the print as the designer, was 
thereupon sent for by a messenger. After ex- 
amination by the Council, he was remitted to the 
custody of the messenger. I have lately seen two 
petitions of his, presented whilst he remained in 
custody, which have relation to this affair, and 
have never, I believe, been published. One^ of 
more so, that we regard it as evidence of their recognition \ them gives some additional particulars respecting 

of our endeavour to maintain the principle that all dis- 
cussions in Notes and Queries shall be carried on in 
a catholic, courteous, and friendly spirit, and of their 
willingness, when we fail, to 

** Piece out our imperfections with their thoughts. " 

But this proud retrospect is not unalloyed with deep 

/ / 

the history of his caricature, and both seem worthy 
of a place in " N. & Q." The first was addressed 
to the Council, apparently very shortly after Ward 
had been before them, and whilst he seems to 
have expected that there would be some proceed- 
ings asramst him in the Star-Chamber : 



[4 th S. I.: Jan. 4, '68. 

" To the Right honorable the Lords of his Majesties 
most honorable Privy Councell. 

" The humble Petition of Samuell Warde. 

44 Whereas hee was charged with three Articles before 
your Lordships, whereunto hee hopeth hee hath given a 
satisfactorie answere, and doth in all things most humbly 
gubmitt himselfe to your Lordships. 

44 Hee doth in all submissive manner beseech your 
Lordships that hee may be discharged from legall and 
expensive proceedings, and dismissed to the attendance 
on his charge, promising to be more cautelous for the 
future, and ever to pray to God," &c. 

It was probably intimated to him in reply to 
this petition, that he had given special offence to 
his majesty, who deemed the publication of the 
caricature to be an endeavour to excite in the 
country an anti- Spanish feeling, and thus to 
thwart the royal policy, which at that time aimed 
at alliance and union with Spain. Ward then 
addressed King James in the following words: 


To the Kings most excellent Majesty. 

44 The humble petition of Samuel Ward, committed 
for publishing the picture of '88 and November 
the 6th. 

44 Ilumblie shewing that this embleme was by him 
composed, the english verses excepted, and some other 
addicion of the Printers, five yceres since, in imitacion of 
auntient rites grateful^' preserving the memories of ex- 
tniordinaric favors and deliverances in Coines, Archer, 
and such like monuments, sent nigh a yeere since to the 
printers, coupling the two grand blessings of God to this 
nation, which Divines daylie ioynein their thanksgivings 
publique, without anie other sinister intencion, especiallie 
of meddling in anv of vour Majesties secrett affaires : of 
which at the tyme of the publishing your petitioner was 
altogether ignorant, and yet heares nothing but by un- 
certainc reportes As hee lookes for mercie of God and 
to bee pertaker of your Kovall clemency. 

44 May it therefore please your most excellent Majesty 
to accept of this declaration of your petitioners sinceritie, 
and after his close and chargable restraint, to restore 
him againe to the exercise of his funccion, wherein your 
peticioner as formerlie will most faithfully and fervently 
recommend both your person and intensions to the spe- 
ciall direccion and blessing of the King of King*." 

The soft-hearted monarch was probably mol- 
lified by this appeal. Ward was released, and re- 
turned to Ipswich, where lie never again meddled 
with Pope or King of Spain, but confined his 
talents in that way to the ornamentation of the 
title-pages of his published sermons. His con- 
trast of the Old Times and the New on the title- 
page of his Woe to Drunkard* (Lond. 8vo, 1635), 
ought to be reckoned among emblems or carica- 
tures, but does not seem to have been so regarded 
by writers on those branches of pictorial illustra- 
tion. It is in two compartments. In the upper, 
entitled " Thus of Old/' there is the muscular 
leg, and the foot firmly fixed in the stirrup, and 
armed with a powerful spur ; and opposite are a 
mailed arm, and a gauntleted hand grasping a 
lance; with an open book in the centre of the 
compartment. In the lower compartment, entitled 
" Thus Now," there is a dwarfed leg and a slip- 
pered foot, the former ornamented with ribands 


the arm, no longer mailed, is set forth by a laced 
cuff, and the hand holds a lighted pipe and a cup 
in which lurks a cockatrice. Between the leg 
and the hand, cards and dice occupy the place of 
the open book. 

Such pictorial illustration, which tells a whole 
history at a glance, probably helped to sell his 
books, and thus to add to that great influence 
which he exercised throughout the eastern coun- 
ties of England until he fell into the iron grasp 
of Bishop Wren and Archbishop Laud. 

John Brucjs. j 

5, Upper Gloucester Street, Dorset Square. 



It is known from his True Discourse historical! 

of the succeeding Governors in the Netherlands ) 1602, 
and from other sources, that Thomas Churchyard 
served for some time during 1585, 158G, and 1587 
in the wars of the Low Countries ; and, as he was 
always fond of writing, he even then kept his 
pen employed. Among his other acquirements 
he learned Dutch or German ; and while abroad 
he translated, or, as he terms it, " abstracted " the 
romance of Fortunatus, which had its origin on 
the Continent. When he returned to England 
lie brought his manuscript with him, and pub- 
lished it under his initials " T. C," which, before 
and afterwards, he prefixed to not a few of his 
productions, whether in prose or verse : The right 
pleasant and variable History of Fortunatus thus 
made its first appearance in English as " ab- 
stracted by T. C' The popularity of the romance 
was so great, that it became the foundation of a 
most celebrated play by Thomas Dekker, which 
was purchased by llenslowe for his theatre in 
1590, and came out in a printed shape in 1600. 
There seems to have been even an older drama 
upon the subject, which had been acted in 1595, 
and of which it is most likelv that Dekker availed 
himself: and hence we mav be led to conclude 
that Churchyard's prose narrative had come out 
before 1595. Be that as it mav. it 




that, often and often as it must have been reprinted 
in the interval, the oldest known copy of the 
romance bears date about eighty years afterwards, 
and that has only very recently been discovered. 
It was then, as the title-page shows, " Printed by 
A. Purslow for George Sau bridge, at the sign of 
the Bible on Luddgate Hill, near Fleet-Bridge 

167G." 12mo. 

Many later impressions published by " J. Blare 
on London Bridge," &c. are extant, but that of 
1G7G seems to be the only one which has pre- 
served two copies of verses by Churchyard: at 
later dates it was, perhaps, not thought neces- 
sary to reprint them, because, as the price of 

4"> S. I. Jax. 4, '68.] 



the chap-book was only twopence, the publisher 
seems to have fancied that the expense of adding 
the four pages might be avoided. Both pieces 
are highly characteristic of Churchyard, the first 
being headed u The Moral Documents and Consi- 
derations which are to be noted in this Book/' 
and the other u The Sum and Argument" of the 
whole story. In the last, consisting of fifty-six 
lines, the old poet, with much ingenuity, com- 
presses all the main incidents; but as the former 
is quite in his style of versification and reflection, 
and as neither has ever been hitherto noticed, 
perhaps it may be thought worth while here to 
subjoin "the moral documents" which Church- 
yard deduced from his narrative : 

"How careless youth, to pleasure bent, 
when wealth doth flow at will, 
Till raging riot all hath spent, 
thev never have their fill. 

44 How falshood, wrought by flattery, 
the simple doth assail, 
When spite with open enmity 
by no means can prevail. 

u How bankrouts pincht with poverty, 
when grace is not their stay, 
Do seek relief by villany 
to work their just decay. 

44 How those which murder do conceal 
to plague the Lord is bent, 
Which all men ought for to reveal, 
though guiltless of consent. 

44 How thieves by custom, in their need, 
do venture for their prey. 
Until, when they think best to speed, 
they work their own decay. 

4 How some that fear their state to stain 
for dread of worldly shame, 
Will sin procure for private gain, 
deserving no less blame. 

44 How Venus, lust inticing, may 
soon force the amorous knight 
His greatest secrets to bewray 
to work his wofull plight. 

44 1 low strength and beauty soon do fail, 
and health and wealth decay : 
All fortune's gifts do nought avail, 
where wisdom bears no sway. 

u How virtuous life an honest end 
doth commonly ensue, 
And they which sin do still pretend 
with violent death shall rue." 

Opposite each stanza Churchyard places refer- 
ences to the forty-seven chapters into which the 
work is divided, adding that what he has stated 
"appears by the whole course of the history, espe- 
cially by the divers dispositions, and final destinies 
~ r Fortunatus and his two sons." The above verses 

\ certainly not of much value in themselves, but 
they deserve preservation as a relic of a poet who 
was a writer of verse for nearly half a century be- 
fore the demise of Elizabeth. It is worth adding, 
that the edition of 1G76 is in black-letter— that the 

numerous woodcuts are obviously from Dutch or 
German designs, and that, from their worn and 
worm-eaten state, it is probable they were the 
very same that were used for the work when it 
first came out in English anterior to the 



J. Payne Collier, 

Maidenhead, Xmas, 1867. 


I never could quite reconcile myself to the 
phrase / wish you a merry Christmas. It has 
seemed to me, adopting the modern interpretations 
of merriment, as an incongruity. On further in- 
quiry, this is my conclusion : the phrase is an 
archaism, and the word meiry should be inter- 
preted in accordance with the sense which it bore 
in early times, i. e. Pleasant, sweety agreeable, etc. 
{Jos. Bosworth -+- Todd on Johnson). 

The other wish of the season is beyond the 
reach of objection. Nevertheless, an incidental 
circumstance must here be recorded. Christmas 
day was formerly the commencement of a new 
year (T. I). Hardy) — so we now join the two 
wishes without the reason which prompted it ! 

To conciliate the lovers of folk-lore, I waive 
that point and proceed. When we salute our 
friends with A happy nerr-year to yoti ! we unite 
the duties of charity and courtesy, and I hope 
the custom will never be laid aside. It has sub- 
stantial claims to perpetuity. 

The sympathising wish accepted, it rests with 
the receiver to turn it to account. The question is, 
What most contributes to happiness P I should 
be inclined to advocate, in plain prose, The culture 
of the wits; but I find the task so skilfully per- 
formed, and in attractive verse, that I avail myself 
of it without any misgiving as to their appre- 
ciation. It was set forth by a man of note, now 
seldom named, in the year 1507 : 


Wit farre exceedeth wealth. 

Wit princely pompe excels, 
Wit better is than beauties beames. 

Where pride and daunger dwels. 
Wit matcheth kindly crowne, 

Wit maisters witlesse rage ; 
Wit rules the fonde affects of youth. 

Wit guides the steps of age. 
Wit wants no reasons skill 

A faithfull friend to know : 
W r it wotes full well the way to voide 

The smooth and fleering fo. 
Wit knowes what best becomnies. 

And what unseemely showes : 
Wit hath a wile to ware the worst, 

Wit all good fashion knowes. 
Since wit by wisedome can 

Doe this, and all the rest. 
That I imploy my painefull head 

To come bv wit is best : 




[4* S. I. Jan. 4, >G8. 

Whome if I might attainc, 

Then wit and I were one ; 

But till time wit and I doe cope, 

I shall be post alone. 

Geonrc Tukbervilk. 

script** tells us. "When debarred/' says the 
writer, < 4 by the Presbyterians to use the "Word, 
he took the sword, and valiantly wielded the same 

of genius and taste are to be met with in English 
literature before Spenser had framed a sonnet or 
Shakspere had learned his A B C. 


Barnes, S.W. 

against the Irish; and he got a command, in whicli 

T . . .. , ., , ° . , . he served diverse years in the beginning of the 

I have transcribed the above verses as a suitable d Tehellion [abo ' ut 1641] inIrel * nd( a £ d never 

new-year gift to the authors and readers of Notes g mwd ^ Qn ^ g J nor f q^ 

and Queries, and as an additional proof that^marks ^^ gQ he ^ deaep ? ed tbe satisfaction which 

Ids posterity has for his said services before June 
1(>49." The author further says, he lived till 
1658, and quotes the following epitaph, which he 
had from " Mr. Alexander M'Causland " : — 

u Now he to nature his last debt bequeaths, 
Who, in hi» life, charged through a thousand deaths. 
One man vhave seldom seen on stage to doe 
The parts of Samuell and of Sampson too; 
Fit t to convince or hew an Agag down, 
Fierce in his arms and priestlike in his gown. 
These characters were due as all may see 
To our divine and brave Montgomery. 
Now judge with what a courage he will rise 
When the last trumpet sounds the great assize." 

Montgomery could thus wield the Word or the 

He married Margaret 



When, by the rebellion of (VXeil, in the latter 
years of the reign of Elizabeth, the greater part 
of the North of Ireland came to be at the disposal 
of the Crown, Sir Hugh Montgomery of Braidstane, 
a cadet of the Eglintoun family, managed affairs so 
judiciously at the court of James I., that the lands 
of ( )'Neil were, by a tripartite arrangement, divided 
between liraidstane, Hamilton, and (VXeil. The 
latter was Chief of Ulster, and held the district 
by the Celtic law of tanistry, which, being ille- 
gal, no doubt had its influence in bringing him 

Letters patent 
to this effect passed the great seal of Ireland on 
the IGth April,* 1005. At that time the Xorth of 
Ireland, it is said, resembled the wilds of America, 
with this difference, that it was not u encumbered 
with great woods to be felled and grubbed/' but 
nearly as desolate in point of population. Under 
the leadership of Montgomery, who became Vis- 
count of Ardes in 1022, the colony of Scots, with 
whom he had peopled Ulster, speedily became 
a thriving community. Upwards of a thousand 
settlers, chiefly from Ayrshire, including trades- 
men of all kinds, followed him at first, and nu- 
merous others found their way across the channel 

into the schemes of Montgomery. 

sword with equal power. 
Coningham, sister of Sir Arthur Coningham, an 
ancestor of the Marquis of Conyngham. By this 
lady he had at lea«*t two sons, the eldest of whom, 
John, was a major in "the third viscount's party." 
and was taken prisoner "by the usurpers sol- 
He was 
amongst others, 


in subsequent years. It was these people who 
introduced the manufacture of linen, which ulti- 
mately became the staple trade of the district, 
and it was by their means that Protestantism took 
such a prominent position in the Xorth of Ireland. 
Though the familv of the Viscount has failed in 
the male line, and the title of Mount- Alexander is 
extinct, yet there are branches of the Montgomery 
and other Scottish families, who, springing out of 
this settlement, have taken root and still flourish. 

Amongst those who joined the community from 
Scotland, some years afterwards, was " Mr. Alex- 
ander Montgomery," whom the Viscount of Ardes 
settled near Deny ; and, being a minister, he 
became prebend of Do. There is no appearance 
of Do having been connected witli a cathedral ; 
but that he was an Episcopalian is confirmed by 
what the author of The Montgomery Manu- 

diers," during the Cromwellian struggle, 
proprietor of several estates 
Castle Aghray, in the county of Donegal, 
his death his* will was recorded in the Probate 
Court, Dublin, on the 28th August, 1079; and, 
singular enough, adhibited to his signature are 
the arms of the Montgomeries of Hcmlheid, with 
the initials " A. M." above. Major John left a 
family, whose descendants still enjoy the property ; 
and one of them, with the true Montgomery pen- 
chant for arms, ;is a brigadier-general in the 
Bombay armv, and may now be on his way to 


This brings us to inquire whether Captain Alex- 
ander Montgomery, author of " The Cherrie and 
the Slae," had a family. Although one of the 
best and most celebrated poets of his age, little 
is known of his personal history. When Dr. 
Irving printed his Lives of the Scottish Poets, 
in 1802, he literally knew nothing of him, save 
a few inferences derived from his writings, to 
which he added his belief that he belonged to 
the Eglintoun family. When he published the 
collected poems of Montgomery, however, in 1822, 
lie brought proof enough that he was of the 
Ilessilheid branch — the first of whom was Hugh, 
third eon of Alexander, Master of Montgomery, 
and grandson of the first Lord Montgomery. The 
poet was the second son of Hugh Montgomery, 
third laird of Ilessilheid. He was born, not at 

Published at Belfast in 1830. 

4*S.I. Jan. 4, '68.] 



Hessillieid,.as Pont states, but in Germany, as he 
says himself; and he further incidentally men- 
tions that his birth took place " on Eister-day at 
morne"; but in what year the world is left to guess 

perhaps in 1554. 

Of the early habits and education of Montgo- 
mery little is known for certain. His aunt Marian, 
sister of his father, married for her third husband 
John Campbell of Skipnish, in Argyleshire. It is 
supposed from what Hume of Pol wart says, in one 
of their flyting epistles, that he had passed some 
portion of his boyhood at Skipnish ; and Demp- 
ster remarks that he was usually designated equcs 
Montana*, a phrase synonymous to u Highland 
trooper." The poet himself alludes to his resi- 
dence in the Highlands in his epistle to Robert 
1 ludeon : — 

44 Thi* is no life that I live vpalaml,* 

On raw red herring related in the reik : 
Syn I am subject sometymc to be seik, 
And day lie deeing of my auld diseise." 

As te his personal appearauce, Montgomery savs, 
" I nchame not of my schape ; " and adds, " though I 
be laich, I beir a michtie mynd. M He is invariably 
styled Captain, and, from Melville & Diary, it 
would appear that he was captain of one of the 
companies maintained in Edinburgh under the 
regenc}' of Morton in 1570. It is curious, at the 
same time, that his name does not occur in the 
Treasurer's Accounts, either during the regency 
or the reign of James VI. There are, to be sure, 
several volumes wanting — as for example from 
1574 to 1570, and from 1584 to 1590. Then* are 
at least six captains, with their companies, men- 
tioned — the germs of a standing army — during the 
regency of Morton — almost all of whom disap- 
pear after the accession of the king. At the same 
time it is universally understood that the poet 
was a favourite at court. He had a pension of 
five hundred merks, payable out of the rents of 
the archbishopric of Glasgow, given by the 

at Falkland, 27th September, 1583. This 
pension he seems to have quietly enjoyed until 
1580, when he obtained the royal licence to travel 
abroad for the space of five years. The best ac- 
count, perhaps, of this affair, and his consequent 
troubles, is supplied by the Privy Seal itself. 

. . . "Ane lettre maid, makand mentioun that our 
soueranc lord, (For divers guid causes and consideratiounis 
moving his hienes, and for the gude, trew, and thankfuli 
service done and to be done to his Maicstie be his gude 
servitour Capitane Alex r Montgomerie, with avise and 
consent of the lordis of his Maiesties secrcit Counsal), 
gevand, grantand and disponand to him ane zeirlie pen- 
sioun, during all the dayis of his lifetyme, of the soume 
of fyve hundreth merks money of this realme,to be zeirlie 
lane, and vpliftit furth of the reddiest maills, &c. of the 
Hishoprick of Glasgow Begin na ml the first pay- 
ment thairof off the cropc and zeir of (jod Jaj V c four 
scoir tua zeiris .... according to the quhich the said 


* A mountainous country. 

Capitane Alexander obtainit. decreit of the Lordis of 
Counsall, with letters in the foil re formes thairupoun, be 
vertew of the quhilkis he become in peacabill possessioun 
of vplifting and intrometting with his said pensioun fra 
the tenentis and otheris addebtit, in payment thairof, 
continuallie quhile the zeir of God Jaj V« four scoir sex 
zeiris, at the quhilk tyme, upoun speciall and guid re- 
spects moving our said soueranc lord, his hienes gave and 
grantit to the said Capitane Alex r his Maiesties licence to 
depairt and pass of this realme to the pairtis of France, 
Flanderis, Spaine and otheris bezoud sey, for the space of 
fyve zeiris thaireftir, during the quhilk space our said 
souerane lord tuik the said Capitane Alex r and his said 
pensioun under his Maiesties protectioun, mantenance and 
saifgaird, as the protectioun maid thairupoun at mair lenth 
beiris, according to the quhilk he depairtit of this realme 
to the pairtis of Flanders, Spaine, and otheris beyond sey, 
quheras he remanit continewallie sensyne, deteynit and 
halden in prison and captivitic, to the greit hurt and 
vexatioun of his persoun, attour the lose of his guidis. 
In the menetyme, notwithstanding of the said licence and 
protectioun, the said Capitane Alex r , his facto uris and 
servitouri*, has bene maist wranguslie stoppit, hinderit 
and debarrit in the peceabill possessioun of his said p.n- 
sioun, but ony guidordour or forme of justice, to his greit 
hurt, hinder and prejudice, quhairas his guid service 
merited rather augmeiitatioun nor diminisching of the 
said pensioun, his hieness thairfoir, movit with the pre- 
mises, and willing the said Capitane Alexander sail have 
better occasioun to contincw in his said service to his 
maiestie in all tynic hcircftir, now efter his hienes lauch- 
full and perfyte aige of xxi zeiris compleit, and general 1 
revocatioun maid in Parliament, ratefeand, apprevand 
and confermand to the said Capitane Alex r all and haile 
the lettres of pensioun above snecifeit. . . . In the mcan- 
tvme, and .special lie the restitution of James Bishop of 
Glasgow, out of the quhilk our said souerane lord now as 
then sjieciallie except is and reservis to the said Capitane 
Alex r the said pensioun, sua that he may bruik the 
samin siclykeasgif the said present restitutioun had never 
bene grantit ; attour his hienes of new gevis, grant is and 
disponis to the said Capitane Alex r . during all the dayis 
of his lvletvnie, all and haill the said zeirlie j>ensioun of 
fyve hundreth inerkis money foirsaid. . . . Beginnand 
the first terme's payment of the crfipe and zeir of (Jod 
Jaj V c fourscoir audit zeiris, fourscoir nyne zeiris ap- 
proacheand, and siclykc zeirlie and termclie in tyine 

Thus we see that the poet's pension had been 
illegally interfered with during nis absence, not- 
withstanding the king's protection, and he him- 
self thrown into prison. In his sonnets the author 
makes heavy complaint on the subject, and hesi- 
tates not to accuse the Lords of Session of a per- 
version of justice. 

"The Cherrie and the Slae," on which the fame 
of Montgomery chiefly rests, was first printed by 
Robert Waldegrave in 1597; and although it 

seems inferable that he resided in or about Edin- 
burgh, yet no memorial of this is to be found. It 
is supposed that he died between 1005 and 1015. 
At all events he certainly was dead before the lat- 
ter year. He appears never to have posse .-sed any 
landed property, hence the impossibility of tracing 
him in the public records'. That he was married, 
and had at least two of a family — Alexander and 
Margaret — is the problem we shall now attempt 
to demonstrate* 



[4* S.I. Jan. 4, 'G8. 

A trial for witchcraft took place in Glasgow, on 
the 22nd March, 1022. Margaret Wallace was 
accused of having consulted the late Cristiane 
Grahame, a notorious witch, for various purposes ; 
and a somewhat voluminous charge was made 
against her, amongst other things for having be- 
witched the child of Alexander Vallange, or Val- 
lance, burgess of Glasgow, and Margaret Mont- 
gomery, his spouse. The verdict sufficiently ex- 
plains the accusation : 

" And siclyk, all in ane voice, ffyleshirof the fourt poynt 
of dittay, and haill circumstances mcntionct thairintill, 
anent the consulting with umquhile Cristiane Grahame, 
ane notorious witche, for cureintf of hir aelff of ane suddane 
disease, he taking the samyn olf hir, and laying it vponc 
Alexander Vallange bairne : and thairefter cureing the 
said bairne of the said disease, in forme and maimer speci- 
fiet in the dittay."* 

"Mr. Alexander Montgomery/' brother of Mrs. 
Vallance, had been called as a witness regarding 
the trouble of the child, but he absented himself, 
on the ground of sickness, and forwarded a certifi- 
cate to that effect. In the pleadings it was urged 
specially that "his (Mr. Alexander's) deposition 
could nocht have been ressauvit gif he had com- 
peirit, becaus it wald haife bene objoctit contrair 
him, that he and Margaret Montgomerie (Mrs. Val- 
lance) are brother bairns of the turns of Hessilheid, 
quhais doehter is allegit to haif bene witchit," &c. 

Now, there was no one to whom the expression 
"brother bairns'' could apply save to the children 
of Captain Alexander Montgomery, whose elder 
brother, John, succeeded to the family estate of 
Ile^ilheid. True, when the trial took place, in 
1G22, Robert, the grand-nephew of the poet, was in 
possession of the property ; but the passage does 
not state the precise relationship of the parties ; 
it merely says that they were " brother bairns 
of the nous of Hessilheid ;" and there are no 
others in the pedigree of that family to whom such 
a reference could be made but to the brothers 
John and Alexander. 

The Glasgow city parish register in so far con- 
firms the prolocutor's statement at the trial : 

" 5th Mav 1614. Alexander Vallance, Margaret Mont- 
gomerie, ane laufull doehter, Margaret. Godfatheris, Mr. 
Johnne Huchesoune, William Cleland." 

This apparently was their first child. In 1017 
they had a son baptised Robert, at whose baptism 
one of the godfathers was "Mr. Robert Mont- 
omerie," for whom the child was no doubt called. 

been the minister of 
the archbishopric 
He was a younger brother 
of Captain Montgomery. There was, indeed, only 
one other Mr. Robert Montgomery, described in 
his latter will, which is recorded 4th April, 1611, as 
u sumtyme minister at Stewartoun." It therefore 

* Criminal Trials. 

Symington, who surrendered 
of Glasgow in 1587. 

could not be this Mr. Robert. Alexander Vallance 
and Margaret Montgomery had several other chil- 
dren: Marie in 1(519, and Christian e in 1621. The 
poet seems to have been dead before his daugh- 
ter's marriage to Vallance— hence his name does 
not occur as a witness at any of the baptisms 
The presence, however, of "Mr. Robert," his 
younger brother, shows the connection. Did the 
parish register of Glasgow or Beith go far enough 

back, we might have found the marriage of Val- 
lance and his spouse. 

u Mr. Alexander Montgomery," brothor of Mrs. 
Vallance, was no doubt the same party who after- 
wards became "prebend of Do." That his father, 
Captain Alexander Montgomery, was an Episco- 
palian is to be presumed from his being a courtier 
of James VI., and from his intimacy with "Bishop 
Beton" (Archbishop of Glasgow from 1552 to 
15(50, and again from 1598 to his death in 1603): 
hence the fact of his son being also an Episcopa- 
lian, "prebend of Do." lie had every inducement 
to go to Ireland. The Viscount of Ardes was his 
cousin, by the mother's side, and the houses of 
Braidstane and Hessilheid were descended from 
the same source. Nor had he reason to complain 
of the reception he met with from the viscount. 

These facts aro confirmed by the Hessilheid 
arms, which, as given in Pont's MSS., Advocates' 
Library, are: "Azure, two lances of tournament, 
proper, between three fleurs-de-lis, or, and in the 
chief point an annulet, or, stoned, azure, with an 
indentation in the side of the shield, on the dexter 

The arms of the poet, being a youngor son, 
were slightly different — two lances, with threo 
lleurs-de-lis in chief, and three annulets in base 
which he and his family seem to have cherished. 
They are found on a tombstone at Do, where 
"Mr. Alexander" was prebend, united in a shield 
with those of the Conynghams — now Marquis of 
Conyngham — descended from the Earls of Glen- 
cairn, together with this inscription: 

44 Hero lyeth the body of Margaret Montgomery, Alis 
Coningham, who was the wife of Alexander Montgomery, 
whoe deceased the 18 of June, Anno Domeny 1675." 

Margaret Coningham had thus outlived her 
husband seventeen years. 

The arms attached to the will of Major John 
Montgomery, in 1079, with the initials U A. M." 
must have belonged either to his father or grand- 
father. With the exception of his son, the poet 
was the only one of the Hessilheid branch called 
Alexander, and the probability is that he himself 
had the seal engraved when he went abroad in 1586. 
In his day it was customary for gentlemen going on 
a tour to carry with them proofs of their descent, if 
from a noble or ancient family — and coats of arms 
were considered amongst the most effective. "Mr* 
Alexander," on joining his relations in Ireland, did 
not need such evidence of his descent, 

4* S. I. Jan. 4, '68.] 



It will thus appear that there are substantial 
reasons for believing that the house of Hessilheid 
is still represented by the descendants of the au- 
thor of " The Cherrie and the Slae." J. Pn. 


I have met with a coloured drawing of the 
figures upon a very interesting old drinking glass 
of the date of 1590, which at the time when the 
drawing was made (1818) was in the possession 
of the Comte Francis de Thiennes, at Ghent. 
The crlass measured ten inches in height and fif- 

erence. The fol- 

and six-eighths in circumt 
iff inscrintion runs round 

of the 


"Die Romische KaVserliche Majestat Samrat den 
Sieben Churfte : In trey [illegible] durg ampt und 

Below these words, the emperor appears in the 
middle, seated on his throne, wearing his imperial 
robes and crown, and holding a globe and sceptre, 
with an escutcheon before him emblazoned with 
the black double-headed eagle displayed. On his 
right, stand three prince- bishop electors, with the 
arms ot each on a shield before him, and each 
holds the insignia of his office. These are, Trier f 
holding a roll of parchment ; Coin, holding a glove ; 
and Mainlz, bearing a deed, to which a seal is 
appended, in one band, and a pointer, or puncturing 
style, in the other. 

On the left hand of the emperor are four other 
figures. The first is the Kins of Bohemia, crowned, 
and carrying a covered golden vase and a sceptre ; 
and above him is inscribed beheni. Next comes 
the Count Palatine, bearing three cushions piled 
up, and bound with abroad band, and long sleeves 
or legs depending from his wrists. Over his head 
is the word Pfah. The Duke of Saxony stands 
next, bearing a sword of state, and the word 
Sachsen appears over his head. Last is the Mar- 
grave of Brandenburg, holding a huge golden key, 
from the bow of which hang three small keys. 
Above him is tbe word brandenburg. These, like 
the other three, have each arms on their shields 

red eagle, si 


inscription : 



44 Also in all ihren ornat, 

Sitzet kayserliche Majestat, 

Sampt den sieben ChQflirste .*.)•,/ •» , 
Wie den ein jedtr aitzen ] illegible. 

In churfustelicher kleidung sein 
Mit an Zeygung der ampts hin. 

1 596." 

Under the three prince-bishop electors are these 
lines : — 

* Der ErtzbischofF zu Mentz bekandt 
ist cantzler in dem Deutzscben laudu 

So is der Bischoff zu Coin gleich 
Auch Cantzler diirch gantz Frankreich, 
dar nacb der ErtzbischofT zu Trier 
ist Cantzler in Welches resiers." 

Below the four figures on the other side are 
inscribed the following verses : 

44 der konig in boh men der ist 
des reiche ertzshenck zu aller frist 
darnach der Pfaltzgraff bey den rein 
des heyligen reichs truchfass thut it in. 
der Herzog zu Sachsen geboren 
ist des Reiches marschaith auserkorn 
der Margraff von Brandenburg gutt 
der Reiciis ertzkammer fein thut." 

Between the two groups of electors rises a very 
conventional lily of the valley. But what is most 
striking is to consider what the Margrave of Bran- 
denburg, who ranks here the last, has since be- 

F. C. H. 





I have before me a little volume of consider- 
able rarity, which undoubtedly came from the 
prolific pen of Anthony Munday, although it only 
bears his initials. It is not mentioned in Mr. J. 
Payne Collier's " List of Anthony Monday's 
Works," prefixed to John a Kent and John a 
Cumber, printed for the Shakespeare Society in 
1851 ; nor in the same gentleman's valuable Bib* 

liof/raphical Account of Early English Literature. 
The copy about to be described I purchased some 
eight or ten years back of Mr. Bumstead the 
bookseller. It has the book-plate of "Edward 
Winstanley," and, as far as 1 can learn, is the 
only known exemplar. Until a slight mention of 
it appeared in Mr. W. Carew Ilazhtt's Hand-book 
of Popular English Literature, it had entirely 
escaped notice. 

The title of this rarity is as follows : 

" A True and admirable Historic of a Mayden of Con- 
folens, in the Prouince of Poictiers : that for the space of 
three veeres and more hath lined, and yet doth, without 
receiuing either mrate or drinke. Of whom his Maitstie 

in person hath had the view, and (by his commauntl) his 
best and chief est Phisitians haue tryed all meanes to find 
whether this fast and abstinence be by deceit or nn. In 

this Historic is also discoursed, whether a man may liue 
many dayes, moneths, or yeeres, without receiuing any 
sustenance. Published by the Kings especiall Priuiledge. 
At London, Printed by J. Roberts, and are to be sold at 
his house in Barbican. Anno Dora. 1603." 

The tract consists of 102 pages in octavo, exclu- 
sive of title-page and preliminary matter, 
pying 1(5 pages more. It is dedicated 

44 To the Worshipfull M. Thomas Thorney, Maister. 
M. William Martin, M. Edward Jhydes, and M. Thomas 
Martin: Gouernours of the Misterie and Cominaltie of 
the Barber Chirurgians. And to the whole Assistants of 
the clothing: happie success in all their actions most 
hartily wished." 




[4« h S. I. Jan. 4, '68. 

In the dedication, which is subscribed " Your 
worships in true affection, A. M.," the writer 

" The author of this labour in French, as (by reading) 
I am sure your selues will say no lesse, is both an excel- 
lent Philosopher, Phisitian, Chirurgian, and a ski 1 full 
Anatomiste, and of all these hath made good witnesse in 
this discourse. I could not be-thinke me, to bestowe my 
paines any where more desertfullie, then on such as are 
answerable to the first Authours qualitie : which neither 1 
would not ouer-boldly presume to doo, till (by a kinde 
examen) of some of your selues the worke was thought 
worthie your entertayning. It hath cost me good paines, 
and therefore may merit the kinder acceptauncc : which 
if it do linde at your hands, as 1 would be sorie but it 
should, I remaine yours in my more serious imploy- 

The dedication is f )llo\ved by an address li To 
the Reader," which commences thus: 

" Friendly Reader, hauing seriously read ouer (and 
with no meane admiration) this present Historic : I made 
stealth of some priuate houres, from my more weightie 
imp)ovments,«to let thee haue the same in thine owne 
familfare language. Wherein (I hope) thou wilt thank- 
fully accept, if not my paines yet (at least) the kinde 
affection I beare thee, in acquainting thee with one of 
the rarest meruailes which can be found among the his- 
tories of elder ages, or those more recent and of later 

We have then the testimonies in Latin and 
French (sometimes Englished) of many u worthie, 
grave, and credible persons/' in favour of the 
u marvel. 

These include the names of N. Ila- 
inus, F. Citois, M. Vidard, Pasch. Lo Coq, L. ])t> 
a Koque, and others — 

" Who have all seenc the Maiden now in question, and 
(by his Majesties eommaundement, they booing his best 
and chcefest Phisitians) they haue made triall to their 
verie vttermost, to linde out the least scruple of deceite 
heerein to be imagined. They haue committed her from 
her Parents, to diuers Noble and woorthie person^ some of 
which haue kept her close lookt vp, some foure, liue, or 
sixe weekes, some for as many and more monethes to- 
gether, where not so much as the sent of any foode was 
to bee felt : and notwithstanding, they found her in the 
verie same estate as when they shut hor vp vpon this 

After these testimonies we have a poetical 
epistle, in French and English, "To Monsieur 
Lescarbot, vpon the traducing of this history ; " 
and another in English (by far the most interest- 
ing thing in the book), which I shall make no 
apology for transcribing in full : 

"To his good friend A. M. 

" Wonder, bee dumb : and (now) no more prefer, 
(Like to some selfe lou'd, boasting Trauailer) 
Thy past Aduentures : for an Age is borne, 
Upon whose forhead, caracters are worne 
So strangely, that ee'ne Admiration stands 
Amazde to read them (with heau'd eyes and hands). 
Times oldest Chronicle p roues it most cleere, 
England neere spent such a miraculous yeere, 
And (Fraunce !) thy maiden child-birth goes (by far) 
Beyond all those, bred in thy ciuill warre : 

The wonder being (by thus much) greater growne, 
Last day she spake no language but her owne, 
t Yet now shec's vnderstood by Englishmen, 
Such Magick waitcs (deere friend) vpon thy pen. 

" Tuo. Dekkeu." 

If any doubt existed as to this brochure being 
the work of Anthony Munday, that doubt must 

vanish after reading the testimony of Dekker to 
his " good friend." The two poets were associated 
in 1598 (in conjunction with Robert Wilson) in 
a play called Cliance Medley ; and again in 1002, in 
another play entitled The Two Hmyyes [Harpies?") 
(in conjunction with Middleton, Webster, and 
Drayton). Both plays are mentioned by Hen- 
slowe, but they have not come down to our time. 
We now come to the text of the book itself, 
which may be very briefly dispatched. It is made 
up of copious extracts from the ancients, inter- 
mixed with the experience and opinions of the 
moderns, as to the possibility of human and 
animal life being sustained witliout food — an ex- 
periment which I feel assured that none of the 
readers of u N. & Q." will care to try. The story 
of the maiden " who for the space of three years, 
and even till this day, hath lived and doth," 
without any bodily food or sustenance, is briefly 
this : — 

"The Maiden is about II yceres of age, and is named 
Jane flalan, her lather John Balan, a Locksmith, and 
her Mother Laurvnria ChamMla : her stature is answer- 
able to her age, somewhat Country-like of behauiour, a 
natiue of the Towne of Gmfotcrns, vpon the Kiuer of 
Vienna, in the confines of Liinosin, and also of Poictu. 
In the eleuenth yeere of her age, being seazed on by a 
continuall Feauer, the 10 day of Februarie, 1599, shee 
bath since then been assailed with the acccsse of diuers 
other sicknesses : and beyond all the rest, with a con- 
tinuall casting or vomiting for the space of 20 dayes toge- 
ther. The Feauer hauing somewhat left her, she grew 
to be speechlessc, and continued so 28 dayes, without 
the deliuerie of anv one word : at the end of which time, 
she came to her selfe againe, and spake as she had done 
before (sauing that her words were full of feare, and void 
of good sence). Xowe came vppon her a weakened, and 
benumming of all her sences and bodilie moouings, from 
beneath the head, in such sort, that Oesophagus it selfe, 
(beeing that part of the stomack, which serues as con- 
duct for passage of meate and drink, into that which we 
terme the little bellie) being dissolu'd, it lost the force 
attractiue. Since which time, could not any one per- 
swade this Mayden (in any manner) to eate, albeit they 
made trial, to haue her but suck or lick meates, delicate 
fruits, and sweet things, agreeable to such young yeeres. 
Notwithstanding, the vse and motion of her members, 
came to her againe about fiue months after : except in 
one hippe, on which side yet she goes with some difficultie. 
One onely impotencie remaineth to her, that she cannot 
swallow or let down any thing, for she altogether loathes 
and abhors mightily, both meates and drinkes." 

Whether the maiden's secret was ever dis- 
covered, as doubtless it was, I have no present 
means of knowing. The more recent instances of 
pretended abstinence from food — viz. that of 
Martha Taylor, " the fam'd Darbyshire damsel," 

4* S. I. Jan. 4, '68.] 



1G69; the Swedish maid, Estrid, "who lived six 
years without food," 1711; and the celebrated 
Ann Moore of Tutbury, 1813— are, I believe, 
well-known cases of imposture. 

Edward F. Rimbault. 


At a moment when the whole world of letters 
is watching with anxiety the fate of this remark- 
able library, a few notes on its origin and con- 
tents, and on the eminent scholars to whose care 
it has been from time to time entrusted, will, I 
hope, not be considered inopportune. 

Archbishop Bancroft was the first founder of 
this library, who by his will dated 28th October, 
ltflO, gave all his books to his " successors and 
tjie Archbishops of Canterbury for ever," pro- 
vided they bound themselves to the necessary as- 
surances for the continuance of such books to the 
archbishops successively ; otherwise the books 
were bequeathed to His Majesty's College at Chel- 
sea u if it be erected within these six years," or 
otherwise " to the publique library of the Univer- 

sity of Cambridge." 

Bancroft's immediate successor used all proper 
means to secure and perpetuate this generous De- 
quest to the succeeding Archbishops of Canter- 
bury, as will be seen bv a remarkable document 
drawn up by him in October 1012, and which 
DucjuvI has printed in his History of Lambeth, 
pp. 48-o2. From this we learn that — 

• 4 . Tames the First, conceiving it to be a monument of 
fame within his kingdome, and of great use to himsolfe 
and his successors, as well as to the Church of God, that 
in a place no neare unto his myall palace these bookes 
should be preserved, did, after mature deliberation, com- 
mend the care and consideration hereof unto Sir Francis 
Hacon, Knight, his majesties sollicker, that he should 
thinke upon sonv course how the custody of the librarv 
might be established, and that by the negligence of those 
that came after so excellent a work might not be frus- 
trated to the hurt of the Church and Commonwealth." 

Bacon tirst directed that a catalogue of the 
books " should be carefully and exquisitely made/' 
that it might be known in the ages to come what 
were the books so loft to successive archbishops, 
and that this catalogue should be sent to the 
Dean and Chanter, to be there laid up in orchitis, 
and that a duplicate should remain in the library 
at Lambeth, that each succeeding archbishop 
might know what books were in his custody, and 
carefully look to the conservation of them. 

The document then recites tho difficulties which 
Uacon saw in the way of binding each successive 
archbishop by bond, and the steps which Arch- 
bishop Abbot took to carry out, as far as possible, 
Bancroft's wishes. Catalogues were duly made, 
the books compared with them, and the accu- 
racy of the catalogues attested by the subscrip- 
tion of the compilers. 

The archbishop, after solemnlv pledging himself 
to keep the books safely to the Ibest of his power, 
then declares his intention to bequeath his own 
books to " encreaso that number which my pre- 
decessor left to the greater use and more ample 
benelit of those that shall succeed me ; " and of 
leaving a catalogue of such books, that those 
which come after may see that he had not been 
u a diminisher or dissipator of that which was en- 
trusted to him, but rather an enlarger and in- 
creaser of the same." 

The words with which this interesting: docu- 

ment concludes are too important to admit of 
being abridged. 

44 It remaineth now that I do pray and beseech those 
that shall succeede me in this arehbishopricke, which by 
these presents I do, and in the bow el Is of Christ Jesus do 
adjure, as thev will answer unto me and to my prede- 
cessor in that fearful day of God, that with the like care 
and diligence they looke to the preservation of this Li- 
brary, and setting aside all subteltie, or fraude, or pretence, 
which worldly wisedome may devise to the contrary, they 
do suffer them, as farre as lveth in them, to descend from 
a^c to age, and from succession to succession, to the ser- 
vice of (Jod and his Church, of the Kings and Common- 
wealth of this realme, and particularly of the Archbishops 
of Canterbury. And God, who knoweth herein the in- 
tegritie of my harte, blesse this purpose and endeavour 
of my predecessor and myselfe, and blesse all them to 
whom the care of this may any wayes appertains to the 
honour of his name, the good of his Church, and their own 
everlasting comfort. 

44 G. Cant. 

44 October loth, 1612." 

The library thus constituted by the munificence 
and piety of Bancroft and Abbot,* continued at 
Lambeth till, as Ducarel tells us, " the approach 
of the troublesome times when ('Chelsea College 
having failed, and the order of bisnops being voted 
down) Selden, to secure their preservation (they 
had been seized by the Parliament and transferred 
to Sion College) suggested to the University of 
Cambridge their right to the books ; and eventu- 
ally, by his advice and with his assistance and 
that of Dr. Hill, Master of Trinity and Vice- 
Chancellor, they wero delivered to the Univer- 

After the Restoration, they were reclaimed by 
Archbishop Juxon ; but he dying before the books 
were restored, it was left to his successor Sheldon 
to see them replaced at Lambeth, who, moreover, 
by his will bequeathed a portion of his own 
library " towards the encrease and improvement 
of the publique library of the See of Canterbury, 
now settled at Lambeth house." 

Archbishop Sancroft had actually placed his 
valuable collection of books and MSS. in the 
library for tho use of his successors ; but upon 

• There are but few of Laud's books at Lambeth ; his 
entire library, both of books and MSS. which he had in 
the Palace having (according to Ducarel) been plundered 
by Colonel Scott about the vear 1G44. 



[4* S. I. Jan. 4, '68. 

his deprivation, presented them to Emmanuel Col- 
lege, Cambridge, of which he had been Master. 

Archbishop Tennison bequeathed a portion of 
his library to Lambeth, a part to St. Paul's Ca- 
thedral, and part to the library which he had 

the Darish of St. Martin's-in-the- 


founded in the parish 

which part was sold by auction a few 
years since ! 

During the next fifty years, when the see was 
filled by Wake, Potter, Herring, and Ilutton, few 
additions were made to the library. But Arch- 
bishop Seeker, besides expending upwards of 300/. 
in improving the MS. library, directed by his 
will all the books in his own library of which there 
existed no copies in the archiepiscopal collection 
to be added to it. 

Archbishop Cornwallis caused the large col- 
lection of tracts which had accumulated be- 
tween the time of Henry VII. and Queen Anne 
to be arranged and bound in sixty volumes ; and 
Archbishop Manners-Sutton is said to have largely 
added to the collection of theology. 

Of the nature and value of the library it is 
impossible to speak at length in these columns. 
The names of the donors are a guarantee for the 
richness, utility, and importance of the books. 
But there is one class of works which deserves to 
be specially noticed, the more so that neither 
Dr. Ducarel nor Mr. Beriah Botfield makes any 
allusion to it. I mean the books sent in for the 
approval of the licenser ; but which, in conse- 
quence of the license being refused, were never 
published. The copies sent in for approval were, 
however, retained in the library, and have thus 
been preserved for reference at the present day. 

The library, which consists of about twenty-five 
thousand volumes, is now deposited in the Great 
Hall built by Juxon, and beautifully restored for 
the purpose by Blore, at the cost of Archbishop 

The books 


and Commonwealth of this Realm," opens up a 
point which does not seem to have been duly 
considered — namely, that while on the one hand 
the archbishop may fairly be called upon to con- 
tribute somewhat to the maintenance of the 
library, in return for the advantages which he 
may derive from it, the larger contribution should 
be made by or on behalf of the Crown, the 
Church, and the Commonwealth, who share that 
advantage, but in a much larger proportion. 

I must reserve for another paper my notes on 
the librarians. William J. Thoms. 

Folk-Lore : Superstitions. — Pretty well ac- 
quainted with popular superstitions, I have this 
week met with two which are either new or very 
faintly remembered. A worthy laundress neigh^ 
bour is in sore distress — the cock has crowed on 
two or three nights at nine o'clock ! It is the 
sure sign of an early death in her family, and that 
will be the dying hour. The event happened 
exactly as fore-crowed when she lost her last 
daughter. The " robin weeping " on the window- 
sill was another certain indication of approaching 
death ! As I had never heard of a robin weeping, 
I asked what was meant, and was told the name 
was given to the little sharp querulous note of the 
bird often heard when it perches near without 
breaking into song. Are these superstitions gene- 
rallv known ? BusiieyIIea.tii. 

Irish Folk-Lore. 

Howley. The books are arranged in oaken book- 
cases which surround the room and project at 
intervals from the walls, making in each recess a 
little book-room, the very beau-ideal of a place of 

Such is the origin of this remarkable and most 
important library — a library which the present 
excellent Primate has declared it was "his wish 

The two following bits of 
folk-lore are, I think, worth being laid up in the 
treasury of " N. & Q." Some years ago I was on 
a visit at the house of a relative in the West of 
Ireland. The lands had been a grant from Queen 
Elizabeth to an ancestor, and the house had been 
inhabited by members of the family for nearly 
three hundred years. Originally a farra-h 
rooms had been added on as required, with perfect 
contempt of facility of access. Sons brought 
home their wives, and of course settled down in 
the paternal mansion. Orphan cousins were 
adopted, particularly if of the weaker sex, until 
provided for by marriage (some never married), 
and at one time, exclusive of " the master's " 
family, two male and three female branches of the 
stock, all long past the usual or unusual age of 
matrimony, were residing in the house, and a 
happier family was unknown through the length 
and breadth of the land. When I saw it, the 
house had taken the form of two sides of a right- 
angled triangle, and scarcely one room in it was 
accessible without passing through two or three 
others! Having been originally thatched, the 
additions were also thatched; and now comes my 
first bit of folk-lore. The tenants who had " lived 
under his honour and his honour's father and 
service of God and His Church, and of the Kings I grandfather for hundreds of years,'' were highly 

and intention to render as useful as possible to the 
public" — thereby acting entirely in the spirit of 
the founders, who, as we have seen, adjured their 
successors to suffer the books, "as far a^ lieth in 

them, to descend from age to age, and from suc- 
cession to succession, to the service of God and His 
Church, of the Kings and Commonwealth of this 
Realme, and particularly of the Archbishops of 

The fact that, though intended particularly for 
the Archbishops of Canterbury, the library was 
not intended for their exclusive use, but for u the 

4* S. I. Jan. 4, '68. ] 



clannish in their feelings towards the " ould 
family," and regularly on Candlemas Day the 
principal man among them, who was a sort ot 
overseer of the rest, came with much ceremony 
and deposited in various parts of the roof short 
sticks, each with three branches, as a preservative 
against fire; and as the house was not burned 
down, no doubt the remedy was infallible. As 
my other bit of folk-lore contains a query as well 
as* a note, I will keep it till another opportunity. 


Porth-yr-Aur, Carnarvon. 



is curious to remark how often, and for how long 
a period, names retain their ancient sound in the 
vernacular pronunciation, though their written 
form may have been greatly changed. Thus, in 
a charter of King Alfred, the two manors of Gissic 
and Fitntmal are granted to Shaftesbury Abbey, 
much more nearly representing the ordinary pro- 
nunciation than Gussaye and Fontmel, as these 
names are now written. 

Again, in auother ancient West Country docu- 
ment, I find the word flannel written, as it is 
still commonly called bv the poor, flanncn, sug- 
gestive rather of a Celtic than a Romance deri- 

But I would also call attention to another fact, 
which, if there be anything in it, is still more re- 
markable. There is a family in this neighbour- 
hood whose name is constantly written Elsicorth, 
but pertinaciously pronounced by the common 
people FJford. I have sometimes dreamed that 
this mavp 

v )lybetho old Saxon name of Wttlf- 

hrard, still lingering amongst us, land in Chesel- 
borne, Dorset, having been granted by Eadgar to 
a person of that name. C. W. Bingham. 

The Madonna della Sedia (after Raf- 

faellb) by many Engravers. — This most charm- 
ing picture of Raphael's seems to have been the 
favourite theme of many engravers. In the cata- 
logue of the *• Valuable Stock and Collection of 
Works of Art of the late John Clowes Grundy," 
of Manchester,* I find the names of the following 
engravers, who all have immortalised themselves 
in this work: Calametta, Garavaglia, E. Mandel, 
Raphael Morghen (two different plates — the small 
one is a very gem), Johann Gotthard Miilier (per- 
haps the most refined of all modern engravers, 
the worthy pupil of the great Wille), Perfetti, 
P. Pel<5e, Petersen, Schaeffer, Schuler, and Schia- 
vone. Herman Kindt. 

First Turk 


Mukhbir, the first Turkish weekly newspaper in 
London, was begun in August of this year. It is 

* Well known a* an excellent connoisseur of works of 
art, and as the earliest friend of David Cox. The sale 
lasted from November 4th to the 23rd of the same month. 

edited by Suavi Effendi. It was first published 
in Constantinople, and suppressed. 

Hyde Clarke. 

Being called 

32, St. George's Square, S.W. 

Scripture Baptismal Names. 

on to give private baptism last Sunday (third in 
Advent) to a child, I was struck with the names of 
child and mother ; and on inquiry found, with some 
personal interesting family history, that the mo- 
ther's family consisted of six sons, named respec- 

, Azariah, Ezra, 

and benjamin ; and six daughters, named Tamar, 
Abigail, Naomi, Tirzah, Unice, and Zippurah. I 
thought it worthy of a note in u N. & Q." 

George Lloyd. 


tively Absalom, Barzillai, El 


At no groat dis- 
of Mr. J. M. 

tance from the communica 
Cowper and Dr. Rix, in pages 390 and 48G of 
your valuable miscellany, should appear the fol- 
lowing lines by Dr. King, 1591 — 1009 : — 

" Sic llta. 

" Like to the falling of a star, 
Or as the flights of eagles are; 
Or like the fresh spring's gaudy hue, 
Or silver drops of morning dew ; 
Or like the wind that chafes the flood ; 
Or bubbles which on water stood ; 
Ev'n such is man, whose borrow'd light 
Is straight call'd in, and paid to night. 
The wind blows out, the bubble dies; 
The spring entombed in autumn lies; 
The dew dries up ; the star U shot ; 
The flight is past — and man forgot." 

J. Manuel. 


Baker's "History of Northamptonshire." 

This valuable but unfinished work has an index 
to arms and a general index to vol. i. only. In the 
Northampton Herald of Dec. 21 is an index, bv 
Sir Henry Dryden, Bart, of the pedigrees in both 

St. Neots. 

JosEPn Rix, M.D. 



The interest felt in everything connected with 
Caxton and the introduction of printing to 
England, is perhaps more widely spread at 
the present time than at any former period ; 
and I therefore hope that the following data, 
all seen in the original by myself, will be fopnd 
interesting, as they form the foundation on 
which any correct account of Caxton must be 
built. The documents in full were published 
by me five years ago, although not in the con- 
secutive form here given. The publication last 
month of an imposing folio on u The History of 
the Art of Printing," by II. Noel Humphreys, in 
which Caxton is asrain dressed up in much of the 



[4*8.1. Jan. 4, '68. 

outlandish costume provided for him 100 years 
ago by Bagford and his successors, and in which 
most of the following " facts " 





although the author quotes the very volume in 
which they appear, induces me to beg for them a 
greater publicity in the pages of " N. & Q." than 
they will otherwise receive. 

1438. Caxton was bound apprentice to Robert Large : 

therefore the usual year ascribed to his birth 

(1412) must be erroneous. 
Legacy from Large to Caxton of twenty marks; 

the other and older apprentices receiving larger 

141!>. Caxton at Bruges, and defendant in the trial of 

John Selle versus William Caxton. 
Caxton came from Bruges to London, to take up 

his livery in the Mercers' Company. Caxton 

fined for not attending the "riding" on Lord 

Mayor's day. 

14G2. A letter from* Caxton at Bruges to the Mercers at 


Caxton appointed to the highest office a foreigne 
could hold at Bruges — "Governor of the Lnglish 
Nation.'' Tin's was the connecting link between 
Caxton and the Court of the Duke of Burgundy. 

A letter from the Mercers to Caxton at BruiAs, 
sent by special courier. Caxton appointed an 
ambassador by Edward IV. 

Letter from the Merchant Adventurers at London 
to Caxton at Bruges. 

Reply from Caxton to the Mercers, enclosing a 
letter he had received from the Earl of Warwick 
concerning trade regulations. This was the 
nobleman to whom the Chess-book was dedicated. 
Also a reply from the Mercers' Company, signed 
by J. Tate, probably the same who erected the 
first paper-mill in England. 

Caxton, with two others, is recommended by the 
Court of Mercers as a tit man to be sent by the 
King on a trade embassy. 

14 03. 

1 104. 






Caxton as arbitrator gives a judgment at Bruges. 
The translation of" Le Kecueil " completed. 
Caxton finishes the translation of the Chess-book. 
" Dictes and Sayingcs"; the first book connected 

with Caxton in which the date of printing is 


Will Mr. Humphreys kindly state why he 
changes the name of Caxtnn's master, Iiobert 
Large, to Robert Strange (six times repeated) r 
— why he makes Caxton a partner in the business, 
while he was yet an apprentice ? — why he says 
we know nothing of Caxton between* 1441 and 
1404 ? — and finally, on what evidence he turns our 
printer out of the Almonry and sets him up in 
King Street, Westminster? Willi A3i Blades. 

11, Abchurch Lane. 



Fl DELES.' ■ 


tuguese hymn " tune used to be commonly con- 
sidered of Roman Catholic and Continental origin, 
but of late years divers editors have attributed it 
to John Reading, about whom they are not agreed. 
In the Congregational Psalmist, by Allon and 
Gauntlett, we read: 

" Heading, John, born in 1690, a pupil of Dr. Blow, or- 
ganist of St. John's, Hackney. St. Dunstan's. d-c.,died in 
1766. Author of the 'Portuguese hymn,' which was 
first sung in Lincoln Cathedral. The Duke of Leeds, then 
director of the Concerts of Ancient Music, heard it at the 
Portuguese Chapel about 1785. Supposing it to be pecu- 
liar to the Portuguese service, he introduced it into the 
Concerts of the Society, under the title of Portuguese 

In the Christian Knowledge Hymnal we are 
told that 

"The tune is by John Reading, organist of the Cathe- 
dral at Winchester 1675, who died 1692, and further, the 
Adeste Fideles was arranged by the late Vincent Novello 
for the Portuguese Chapel, of which he became organist* 
in 171*7, and hence it appears to have obtained the name 
of the Portuguese hymn." 

These statements are sufficiently discrepant, and 
I cannot attribute much authority to either, as 
both the books contain numerous historical errors. 

The question 


He would also be glad of similar in- 

lished, or where is the original to be found? 
During the examination of many hundred volumes 
of psalmody, I have not met with it before the 
end of the last century. If composed in the 17th 
century, where was it all the while? In the 
present state of the argument I have not ventured 
to name any composer in my Church of England 
Psalmody, but as I am now making a final revision 
of that work, I should be glad to be able to do so.* 

Henry Parr. 

Voxford Vicarage. 

Anglican Episcopate. — A Student would be 

thankful to be informed when, and where, Arch- 
bishop Cramner received deacon's and priest's 

formation with regard to Merrick, Bishop of Ban- 
gor, 1559; Bentham, Bishop of Litchfield, 1559; 
Alley, Bishop of Exeter, 1559; Scambler, Bishop 
of Peterborough, 1560; Downhara, Bishop of 

Chester, 1501 ; and Hooper, Bishop of Gloucester, 
1550, and Worcester, 1552. 

Consistory Courts, etc — At what date were 

consistory courts first held in cathedrals ? At 
what date were fixed pulpits introduced into the 

naves of cathedrals? Edmund B. Ferrey. 

Cictndeljk. — As I was seated in front of a 
friend's villa close to the ruins of Velia, famed in 
Roman times for the mildness of its climate (Hor. 
Epist. I. xv. 1 ; Plutarch, Aimil. 89), I was sui> 
prised in the gloaming to see the whole landscape 
become suddenly lighted up with star-like points. 
On asking my friend how it was caused, he said, 
"These are little insects which we call 'luciole.'" 
They appear in the month of May, when I saw 
them, and again in August. I have no doubt that 

[• In " N. & Q." 3rd 8. vi. 61, Dr. Rimbault has given 
some account of three musicians of the name of John 
Reading, which may have occasioned the discrepancies 
in the notices of the author of "Adeste Fideles."— Ed.} 

4«» S. I. Jax. 4, '68. J 



they are the " cicindehe " of Plinv (xviiL 66, 4, 
ed. Lemaire) who thus speaks of them : " Atque 
etiam in eodein arvo est signum illius maturitati, 
et horuin sationi commune, lucentes vespere per 
arva cieindeke. Ita appellant rustici stellantes 
volatile, Graeci vero lampyridas, incredibili benig;- 
nitate naturae." No better expression than " stel- 
lantes volatus" could be selected to give the 
precise appearance, as they floated before the eye; 
and the benignity of nature was equally great as 
in the time of Pliny a. p. 23-79, for the whole air 
seemed to be replete with them. I tried to catch 
them, but their brightness at once disappeared, 
and I could make nothing of them. My friend, who 
was an entomologist, said that the bright light 
was given out from the abdomen, which was visi- 
ble as the wings moved, disappearing when they 
closed. It is curious, though I was afterwards in 
every part of Italy, that I never witnessed the 
same scene. Have any of your correspondents 
ever seen them in other parts of Italy? My 
friend said that they were also called "baticesola." 
What can this mean ? "Luciole" is plain enough. 
Can any one give the etymology of " baticesola'":' 
I have heard " cesendolo" applied to an oil lamp. 
This seems to have some connection with the other 

Craufurd Tait Ramaok. 


The Creei* and Lord's Prayer. — When did 

the custom commence of placing the Creed and 
Lord's Prayer in churches? What is the pro- 
bable date of the oldest example of this practice 'f 
Were these formularies usually inscribed in Latin 
or English ? I find that the Ten Commandments 
were tirst ordered, by Queen Elizabeth's adver- 
tisements, to bo set upon the east wall in the vear 
16G4. W. II. S. 


Dryden Queries.— 1. What action is alluded 

to in these lines of Dryden in his poem addressed 
to Nathaniel Lee ? — 

44 As his heroic worth struck envy dumb, 
Who took the Dutchman, and who cut the boom. 


Scott explains the lines as referring to an action 
of Sir Edward Spragge against the Algerines in 
the Mediterranean ; but as u the Dutchman " was 
the enemy, that explanation cannot be correct. 

2. Can any of your correspondents fix the dates 
of the composition of Dryden's epitaphs on 
" Young Mr. Rogers of Gloucestershire," and on 
u Mrs. Margaret Paston of Burningham in Nor- 
folk," or the dates of the deaths of thd parties ? 

The Rogers's of Gloucestershire are of Dowdes- 
well in that county. 

3. Is there any knowledge of the persons for 
whom Dryden's pastoral elegy "On the Death 
of Amyntas," and his poem " On the Death of a 
very young Gentleman," were intended? Can the 
dates of these poems be fixed ? CI1. 

Ealing School. — Can any of the readers of 
" N. & Q." point out where an account of the 
rise, progress, &c. of Ealing School, Dr. George 
Nicholas, may be found? and if any of Dr. 
Nicholas's sons are now living?* Mr. Charles 
Knight, the eminent publisher, we learn from the 
story of his life, was at one period a pupil. 

II. S. C. 


The article on 

Every Thing, Every Body. 
Grammar which Dr. Stoddart (afterwards Sir 
John Stoddart) wrote for the Encyclopedia Mttro- 
volitana is one of the best, if not the best, in our 
language, lie may therefore be taken as a good 
authority. On referring lo that article, it will be 
found that he never joined adjectives and sub- 
stantives together, as is sometimes done at the 
present time. For instance, he always used 
" every " as an adjective, thus: even/ thing, every 
body; but these words are now frequently joined 

Can anv of your readers inform me 

why ? 

N # *R. 

Fa us r us' Conjuring Book.— In Mr. Theodore 

Martin's Memoir of William Edmonddoune Ay- 
toun % pp. 40, 41, is a quotation from one of his 
lectures, in which he speaks of having examined 
when in Germany the conju ring-book of Dr. Faus- 
tus. When he saw it, the volume was preserved 
in the archives of the town of Aschaflenburg-on- 
the-Maine. Where shall I see any further infor- 
mation about this wonderful manuscript P 

K. P. I). E. 
Greyhound. — The etymology of this word is 

very doubtful. It is occasionally spelt grehowid 
or grei hound Mr. Shirley, in his work on Deer 
Park*, quotes (p. 100) : 

"A little before Lady Day, 1489, King Henry VII. 

roade into Wiltshire on hunting, and slew his gres 
[buck] in three places in that shire." — From Lclund, 
Collect., vol. iv. p. 243. 

One would like authority for this meaning of 
"gres," because, if it is correct, greyhound only 
means buck-hound. J. Wilkins, B.C.L. 

Bisnor Horke. — u The influence of the mathe- 
matical pursuits to which Bishop Home assigns 
the heterodox propensities of some Cambridge 
theologians." Where ? Cyril. 

IIurstmonceafx Tonus, &c. — The line tomb 
of Lord Dacre and his son 1537, in Hurstmonceaux 
Church, Sussex, is perfect on the south side, but 
on the north the stone has greatly decayed. I am 
told it was built of two materials, Caen stone and 
Sussex marble. I was too late in the day to 
observe accurately the structure, when I last 

[* George F. Nicholas, the doctor's eldest 

rector of Haddbcoe in 18C0. See " N. <fc Q. t " 

son, died 
3«* S. xi. 



[4* S. I. Jax. 4, '68. 

visited Hurstmonceaux. Perhaps some Sussex 
correspondent will explain the cause. The Fiennes 
brass is hardly safe in its position on the floor. A 
little more care is needed to preserve the present 
state of the castle, or ere Ion? the finest specimen 
of an English manor-house of its date will be lost. 

Tnos. E. Winnington. 

'"" Job's Disease. — A paper on this subject was 
read before the Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh 
towards the end of the last century, and excited 
much criticism. Can any of your readers refer 
me to it ? Cyril. 

George Locket. — A rude ballad once existed 
in a broadside form commemorating the execution 
of George Lockey, of Gainford, in the county of 
Durham, who murdered a person called Barker in 
a solitary place near Easby Abbey. lie was 
hanged at Tyburn, near York, on Monday, March 
23rd, 1789. I am anxious to see a copy of this. 
Some extracts from it are given in Walbran's 
Hist, of Gainford, p. 55. Corxub. 

Marriage License. — A man about to marry 
obtains a license, consisting of a piece of parchment 
or paper, which he hands to the officiating clergy- 

This is not returned to him, but is retained 
by the clergyman. What does he do with it? Is 
it returned to the Probate Court of the Diocese, 
or put into the waste-paper basket of the vestry- 
room ? If sent to the Court, is it registered, and 
rendered accessible ? If so, would it not be the 
quicker mode of ascertaining where a marriage 
took place, say, a hundred years since, than hunt- 
ing in the registers of divers parishes? W. 1\ 

Admiral Moulton. — Will any of your readers 
be good enough to inform me where I can find an 
account of this worthy of the 17th century — what 
his exploits were, and of what family of that name 
he was ? N. V. 

Rudee : Defameden : Bire. — What is the 
meaning of rudee, in the following passage ? — 

" Sothely no man sendith ynne a medlynge of rudee 
clothe in to an olde clothe." — Wvcliffe/ St. Matthew, 
ix. 10. 




Is rudee the same as ruddy; ana are we 
understand this ruddy in the sense of fresh, new ? 
We talk of a "fresh complexion," meaning a 
ruddy one ; and rode or ruddc, is " the complexion" 
itself. Are the ideas of redness and newness syno- 
nymous? If so, does this meaning of red come 
from the Anglo-Saxon dag-rcd=Aa.wn ? 

In verse 31 of the same chapter, defameden 
seems used in the general, not the bad, sense : 

" But thei goynge out, defameden hym thoru3 al that 

In chap. viii. v. 32, we have another unusual 
word, bire= force : — 

" And thei goynge out wente in to the hoggis ; & loo ! 
in a greet bire al the droue wente heedlynge in to the see." 

In Sir Gaicayne and the Green Knight, we have 

" With alle J>e bur in his body he ber hit on lofte." 

1. 2261. 

Again, in The Arcadia (edition 1629, p. C4) : 

"... while the terrible wit of Gynecia, carried with 
the Beere of violent love, runes through us all." 

Joiin Addis, Jxrs. 

Kustington, Littlehampton, Sussex. 

Silbury Hill. — As Silbury Hill has attracted 
some special notice of late, I enclose an extract 
from an old memorandum-book of my great uncle, 
dated 177G. It will of course only bo taken for 
what it is worth, but it mentions the fact of Sil- 
bury Hill having been opened in 1723, and some 
articles found there. Is there any record of the 
examination then made ? — 

From an old Memorandum Book of Mr. John Morgan of 

Tredegar, 1776. 

" Silbury Hill. — Cumdha, King, buried at Silbury. 
His body taken up in 1723, in March, near the surface at 
top of the hill, which is GO cubits in diameter. There was 
also a bridle-bit, some buck horns, and an iron knife with 
a bone handle taken up. Diameter of Silbury 100 ft. and 
50u ft. at bottom. Exact perpendicular altitude, 100 
cubits or 170 ft. ; the solid contents of Silbury Hill 
amount to 13,558,800 cubic feet. Supposed now to make 
such a hill would cost 20,000/." 

Octavius Morgan. 

The Friars, Newport, Monmouth. 


d nis Stone. — I have an indis- 

tinct recollection of two (I think) hexameter lines 
in one of the Latin poets, describing very graphic- 
ally, by the clever use of spondees and dactyls, the 
work of Sisyphus in Hades with his stone. I 
should be much obliged if you can give me the 
lines, and the name of the author. A. Smither. 

Three Eclipses — As calculated and drawn out 
by Shri Nat Veiaz, a Brahmin at Cambay, accord- 
ing to a Sanskrit MS. in the Fraser Collection, 

v. p. 37, Eraser's Nadir Shah. 

1. What memorable events were celebrated on 
the festivals of the different eclipses, Sun or Moon, 
above referred to, and what particulars are given 
regarding the Hindu days of the week and month 
on which they fell ? 

2. What account is given of the parentage of 
Shri Nat Veiaz of Cambay, and can he be iden- 
tified with Vyasa, the celebrated astronomer, 
who officiated at a sacrifice held at Harihara, in 
Western India, on an eclipse of the sun visible in 
Europe on April 7, a.d. 1521 ? 

3. What date is affixed to the work ? Who 
was the ruling authority at the time in Gujrat, 
and what account is given of the chief to whom 
it is dedicated ? R. R. W. Ellis. 

Starcross, near Exeter. 

Wednesday. — Johnson derives this word from 
the Anglo-Saxon " Woden's-day," or Odin's day. 
Zalkind Hourwitz (who lived in the last century), 
a learned Jew and the author of ApoJogie des Juifs, 

4* S. I. Jan. 4, '68.] 



La Polygraphie, &c. &c, in his work, Origine des 
Zangues, favours us with a different derivation. 
He says that Wednesday is from " Wedian," + n 
•wed, and that it means u wedding day." He 


the same meaning. 

marks that in all the languages of the north, no 
deity is connected with the day. Thus, he says, 
in German it is mit-woch, t. e. u middle week " ; in 
the Russian and Sclavonic it is chroda, which has 

But the Swedish and Ice- 
landic are certainly northern tongues, and in them 
the names are Woensday and Wensday. (Vide 
Johnson.) Hourwitz would perhaps have argued 
that the Swedish and Icelandic names are derived 
from the same Saxon or Gothic root as tvoo, " to 
court, to make love." Hourwitz contends that 
our name is of Jewish origin. He quotes the 
Talmud, Cteboth, cap. i. to prove that the Hebrew 
name signifies " marriage-day,'' and that Wed- 
nesday is " especially set apart for the marriage of 
virgins." Perhaps some Talmudical scholar will 
favour " N. & Q." with a "note." Does the 
Catholic church consider Wednesday more appro- 
priate for marriages than other days ? I cannot 
remember any old Anglo-Saxon or Early English 
authority for a Woden's day." I know of course 


Fine old ballad of Sir Patrick Spcn.%" 

as Coleridge calls it, and I am aware that there 
we have " Woden's day" ! But I am too good a 
balladist to rely on the authority of a modern- 
antique by Lady Wardlaw. I leave her " Woden's 
day " to keep company with her " skipper " and her 
u cork-heel shoon, " blood-red wine, &c. &c. 

St. Maurice, Valais. 

J. n. Dixon. 

teutvizi to it|) £ntftoer<. 
Sir Henry Cavendish's "Debates." — May I 

ask you kindly to inform me how many volumes 
of Sir Henry Cavendish's Debates of the House of 
Commons, 1768-1774, have appeared in print? I 
have a copy of vol. L, published in London in the 
year 184L Abhba. 

[Sir Henry Cavendish's Debate* of the Parliament 
which met on May 10, 1768, and was dissolved June 22, 
1 774 — and which, from the strict enforcement of the stand- 
ing order of the House of Commons excluding strangers 
from the gallery, has been 
Parliament "- 

called "the 

were intended by the editor, Mr. Wright, 
to have formed four volumes ; and he promised to give 
an account ot the MS. notes in the preface to the 
last volume. It was published in parts, four of which 
were intended to form a volume ; but so little was the 
encouragement which the editor received, that only 
seven of these parts were published, and the work ter- 
minates abruptly at p. 480 of the second volume, in the 
middle of a speech of Mr. Sergeant Glynn, on May 27, 
1771, on the motion for the committal of the Lord Mayor 

to the Tower. When the important period covered by 
these reports is considered — a period which embraces the 
whole of the Junius controversy, and the early stages 
of the dispute with our American Colonies— and that 
they contain upwards of 250 unpublished speeches of 
Mr. Burke, one almost wonders that some patriotic mem- 
ber of the Commons has not brought the propriety of 
securing their publication in a complete form before the 

It should be added, that Sir Henry Cavendish's Debates 
on the Bill for mailing more effectual Provision for the Govern- 
inent of the Province of Quebec were published under the 
editorship of Mr. Wright in 1839.] 

Merchant Taylors' Company. — Will some 
reader have the kindness to give the title of a 
work containing: the biography, &c. of the citizens, 
&c. of the company from the commencement or 
incorporation up to 1(>00 or thereabouts ? 


[We have never met with a separate history of the 
Merchant Taylors' Company ; but an extended account 

of it is tfiven in Herbert's History of the Twelve Great 
Livery Companies of London, ii. 383-529. There is much 
relating to the early history of this worshipful Company 
in Wilson's History of the Merchant Taylors' School, 4to, 
1814; and a MS. List of the Livery of this Company is 
in the Corporation library at Guildhall. One worthy, 
said to be formerly connected with this fraternity must 
not be passed over, namely, Robert Fitzwalter, who left 
a gammon of bacon at Dunmow, as we are infor.ned in 

The Three Ancient and Curious Histories, print el in 1743, 

4 to. This, however, must be left an open question, for 

this Society, originally styled " The Taylors and Linen 
Armourers," was incorporated by Edward IV., a.i>. 1466 ; 

whereas we find Dan Chaucer (oh. Oct. 25, 1 100) makes 

his Wife of Bath say, 

" The bacon was not fet for hem, I trowe, 
That some men have in Essex e at Donmowe." 

William Winstanley also published " The Honour of 
Merchant Taylors, wherein is set forth the valiant deeds 
and heroick performances of Merchant Taylors in former 
ages, &c. ; together with their pious acts and large bene- 
volences ; their building of publick structures, especially 
that of Blackwell Hall, for a market-place for the selling 
of woollen cloaths : Lond. 16G8, 4 to." Two interesting 
papers on this Company appeared in The City Press of 
Dec. 27, 18G2, and Jan. 31, 18G3.] 

Tom Paine\s Bones. — A distinguished physi- 
cian of New York, Dr. E. G. Ludlow — a success- 
ful and well-known practitioner of more than 
fifty years' service, and who is now iu Germany 
informed me that Tom Paine, author of The Age 
of Reason, died in New York, and was buried at 
West-Chester in that state. That some years 
after his death, some English friend had his re- 
mains removed to England, where it was intended 
a monument should be erected to him. The 
doctor states that the last he knew or heard about 



[4<»>S. I. J ax. 4/68. 


the matter was, that Paino's bones were left with 
Cobbett, and he thinks that they were with 
Cobbett when he died. Is this statement ^ true, 
and was any monument ever erected to Paine in 
England? J>r. Ludlow communicates many in- 
teresting particulars about Paine, with whom he 
was acquainted, and which have never appeared in 

print. W. W. Murphy. 


[On the day after the decease of Thomas Paine, his 
body was removed, attended by seven persons, to New 
Rochelle, where he was interred upon his own farm. A 
stone was placed at the head of his grave, according to 
the direction in his will, bearing the following inscrip- 
tion : " Thomas Paine, author of Common Sense, died 
June 8th, 1800, aged seventy-two years and live months." 
In the year 1811) Cobbett disinterred his bones, and 
brought them to England ; but instead of arousing, as he 
expected, the enthusiasm of the republican party in this 
country, he only drew upon himself universal contempt. 
It appears that Cobbett left the bones of Paine in the 
hands of a committee, who intend to honour them with a 
public funeral at some future day. Paint's political 
admirers in America erected in 18311 a showy monument, 
with a medallion portrait, over his empty grave at New 

Arms ok Canterbury. — Can anv of your 

readers explain why the city of Canterbury still 
retains on its arms the three Cornish choughs 
borne by Thomas u Becket on his escutcheon ? 
Hasted says they were adopted by Canterbury in 
honour of its once popular saint. I pon Bocket 
being "unsainted" bv Henry VIII. thev were 
ordered to be struck from the arms of the citv. 
At what time were they restored ? A. II. P. 

[Our correspondent should have given an authority for 
the statement that " Henry VIII. ordered Beckct's arms 
to be struck from the arms of the city." The arms of 
Canterbury are, Argent, three Cornish choughs proper, 
two and one ; on a chief, gules, a lion passant guardant, 
or. Hasted adds in a note, " It appears that this city 
formerly regarded St. Thomas Becket as its patron and 
tutelar saint, and therefore borrowed and retains at this 
clay a part of its arms from those borne by him, which 
were three Cornish choughs proper." — Hasted's Kent, 
edit. 1799, iv.i)99.J 

TnE Hundred Rolls. — In your number of 
Dec. 21 (p. 503), there is an allusion to the 
u Rotuli IIundredorum, v temp. Edward I. Would 
you kindly give me some account of these rolls ? 
Were they taken in each reign, and for each 
county ? Where are they to be seen P 

A Subscriber. 


[The "Hundred Rolls " contain inquisitions taken in 

longing to the king or to others. From the returns cer- 
tain rolls were drawn up for the Court of Exchequer, 
containing a selection of u Extracts," which supply the 
deficiency of the lost original Inquisitions, as, for a few 
counties, no Hundred Rolls have been yet discovered. 


"Extracts" are now in the State Paper Office, 
Fetter Lane. The Hundred Rolls and Extracts have 
been printed by the Record Commissioners, aud entitled 

Rotuli Ilundredorum, temp. lien. III. et Edtc. I. in Tvrri 
Lond. et in Curia Recepta Scaccarii West, usservati" 

2 vols, folio, 1812-1818. Sec Situs's Manual for the 
Genealogist, tfce. cd. 185C, p. 104.] 

W. M. Thackeray's Portrait. — In one of 

Thackeray's earlier novels, illustrated, I think, by 
himself, there was a vignette portrait of the 
author, which I have long searched for again in 
vain. I should be greatly obliged to any of your 
readers who could refer me to the edition, and 
the page where it may be found. C. \V. B. 

[This admirable vignette, "drawn to life," occurs in 
Thackeray's Vanity Fair, as the tail-piece to Chap. ix. 
p. 78, of the edition of 1818.] 


(3 rd S. xii. 435.) 

When S. S. S. says, " Of Eobanus I know little, 
and that not to his credit," I suppose he alludes 
to the great poet's having unfortunately been a 
votary to Bacchus as well as to the Muses. This 
was indeed a lamentable fact, but it was not that 
which caused his name to go down to posterity ; 
and one may perhaps be allowed to question 
whether it would be considered altogether fair, 
speaking of some other master-spirits of our day, 
in a no less enlightened country and in a more 
civilized age, who were equally addicted to this 
deplorable failing, such as It. 13. Sheridan or C. J. 
Fox, c tittti quanti, to say, u I know but little of 
them, and that not to their credit." I trow not. 
Eobanus, who from his love of poetry had pre- 
fixed the word Ilelius to his name, and added 
Hessus to it, from the land of his birth, was the 
son of poor people in the employ of the monastery 
of Heine in Ilessen, and born — some say under a 
tree — in January, 1448, at Beckendorf, a small 
locality belonging to the convent, where it was 
that he received, from the prior himself, the first 
rudiments of learning. Later he had the good 
fortune to become acquainted with the Arnold 
family, who had him brought up with their own 
son, and, when fourteen years of age, he travelled 
with this youth to Frankenberg, where the re- 
nowned Jacob Horlaus had established a school. 

pursuance of a commission appointed by 2 Edward I., to J This learned doctor soon discerned the high men- 
tal faculties of his pupil, and predicted— if he 
would make a good use of them — he would rise to 

survey all cities, boroughs, and market towns, and to 
inquire of all demesnes touching fees and tenements be- 


4*8.1. Jan. 4, '68.] 



celebrity. Eobanus next went to study in Erfurt, 
and in his seventeenth year first gave out some 
Latin poems. lie was highly favoured by nature, 
well physically as mentally. Strong, tall, and 
handsome, he was very expert in riding, dancing, 
swimming, fencing, and all kinds of athletic 
exercises; but these accomplishments gave him, 
perhaps, too much youthful conceit, and he strove 
to excel in everything, even in undignified strug- 
gles — such, for instance, as contend against pre- 
lates and noblemen as to who should have the 
mastery in drinking ! Camerarius, his friend and 
future biographer, alluding to this, says, " I)e 
palma in isto genere cum Eobano contendere nemo 
volebat;" but he had many redeeming qualities. 
In 1518 he travelled to Louvain, in the Nether- 
lands, where that powerful genius Erasmus was 
then residing. At first but coldly received by 
him, he was, however, soon duly appreciated, 
and they often interchanged letters. Eobanus 
likewise kept up an active correspondence with 
such men as Luther, Melanchthon,Spalatin,Sabin, 
and other celebrated doctors, such as Justus Jonas, 
Joh. Draco, Joach. Camerarius, Jac. Micyllus, and 
the learned physician (Jeo. Sturz. That of itself 
>hows his sterling. worth. Eobanus was one of 
the first who frankly and openly advocated Lu- 
ther's doctrines of Reformation, and he inspired 
his numerous scholars and friends with the same 
feelings. When, in 1521, Charles V. summoned 
the Monk of AVittemberg to appeal- before him at 
the Diet of Worms, Eobanus sallied forth from 
Erfurt, with many other men of note, on horse- 
back and on foot, to meet Luther, lie welcomed 
him in a heartfelt harangue, and all escorted him 
to the Imperial City. 

Eobanus, who was married to Katherine Spat- 
tarin, and had several children, seeing that he 
could not gain the livelihood of so many persons 
by his poetry alone, at first thought of following 
the law, which he had studied formerly ; but by 
the advice of his worthy friend Sturz, who had 
given him instruction in his art, he turned his 
mind seriou.sly towards medical pursuits, but more 
in writings than by practice. In 152G Melanchthon 
induced him to come to Nuremberg, there to give 
lectures on oratory and poetry in the newly- esta- 
blished Gymnasium, which he the more willingly 
accepted, that his friend Camerarius likewise got 
a situation there. In this city of learning, where, 
under the protection of wise laws, every respect- 
able citizen could live in peace and quietness, 
and the followers of Reform were left unmolested, 
Eobanus wrote a poem setting forth these inva- 
luable advantages, for which the Council ga 

in Nuremberg. 

During his 

Joh. Mylius, and Wenceslaus Link, the eloquent 
preacher and friend of Luther. His love for the 
arU brought him likewise in frequent contact with 
the immortal Albert Diirer ; and his bosom friend 
Camerarius rendered him great service, more es- 
pecially in his translation of Theocritus in Latin 
verses. This work would perhaps never have 
been completed had not his friend unceasingly 
stimulated him, as Eobanus could not keep long 
to the same study. He thus spent six happy years 

absence from Erfurt, 
which had been much felt, the University had 
gone down a good deal, and his friends, trusting in 
him to give it its former reputation again, strove 
hard to entice him back, which he, though re- 
luetantly, acceded to. But alas ! what a falling: 
off was there! Not only had the lustre of the 
University vanished, but the whole community 
was unhinged; a deadly religious and political 
strife broke out soon after his arrival, and he with 
his family, as well as many citizens, were obliged 
to flee. Thus baffled in Lis hopes and wishes, 
and wholly discouraged, Eobanus wrote many let- 
tors in which the bitterness of his soul gave vent. 
Erasmus answered him that what he complained 
of was perhaps not so much caused by the ill-will 
of those who governed as by the hand of a higher 
and All-mighty power, by way of punishment; 
that instead of lamentations he would do better, 
through bis writings, to stimulate in the students 
the former love of learning, and that the evil 

would vanish. 




Kobanus followed 

vice, and buckled to in good earnest. An excellent 

work of his appeared — the Translation of David's 


which he dedicated to the 


Philip of 1 lessen, and for which he received 
congratulatory letters from Luther, Melanchthon, 
Jonas, Spalatin, and others. These letters have 
been printed in the Leipsic edition of 1504. The 
Landgraf, equally pleased with the work, gave 
Kobauus a lucrative and agreeable situation in the 
University of Marburg, frequently invited him to 
his table, played chess with him, and derived 
much pleasure and instruction from his commu- 
nion with so learned a man. Eobanus thus lived 
happily in the midst of a numerous family, in easy 
circumstances, beloved and esteemed by all who 
knew him ; seconding, to the best of his ability, 
the strenuous and successful efforts of Philip of 
I lessen towards Reformation. In 1GJ57 he took 

part in the celebrated 

meeting of 


princes and theologians at Schmalkalden, the ar- 
ticles of which were written by Luther. He 
spent the remainder of his life peaceably, and 
would have been free from care had he not suf- 
him 78 gold gilders, a handsome sum in those j fered much from the gout, which carried him off 

" The Landgraf, who 

sons at Court, and recom- 



mission to the first houses, and he was in daily 
and most pleasing intercourse with Hieron. Paum- 
gartner. Bilibald Pirkhaimer. the learned lawyer 

on the oth October, 1540. 
loved him, took his 
mended the widow 

and her daughters to his 

spouse. Among the many writings of Eobanus 



[4* S. I. Jan. 4, !68. 

the best are his Translation of the Psalms, that of 
Theocritus, and Homer's Iliad. His Latin Ele- 
gies are worthy of the best Latin age. His Sylvas, 
his Bucolics, are highly esteemed ; also his Hessi 
et amicornm Epistolce, and the treatise mentioned 
by S. S. S., De tuendd bond Valetudine. In the 
Bibliotheque de David Clement are to be found 
copious extracts of many of Eobanus's works, some 
of which have become very scarce. 

'•Qui fuerit vati vultus, dum viveret, Hcsso, 
Expressit tabulis in^eniosa man us. 
Magnum opus ingenij magno celcbratur in orbe : 
Quo melius mentem pingere nemo potest." 

My wish to vindicate the memory and reputation 
of Eobanus Ilessus has made me more prolix than 
I at first thought for. P. A. L. 





S. xii. 307, 510.) 

Lord Wellington's silence regarding the word 

" telegram 

is not analogous to Pindar's me of 

\iytiv and ypatpfiv. 

Mr. Wilkins's quotation from Herodotus 
(v. 68) is too brief to show the absurd credulity 
of Herodotus regarding the art of writing, and 
the story there connected with it. We must take 
in, at a general view, what Herodotus^ says in 
v. 55-59. He says there that Aristogiton and 
Harmodius were by extraction Gepbyneans, and. 
that the Gephyricans were u of the number of 
those Phoenicians who came with Cadmus to the 

country now called Bceotia. 
historian observes : 


And the credulous 

" 1 myself have seen in the temple of Ismenian Apollo 
at Thebes, in Bceotia, Cadmean letters engraved on cer- 
tain tripods, fur the most part resembling the Ionian ( !). 
One of the tripods has this inscription: 4 Amphitryon 
dedicated me on his return from the Teleboans,' " 

Does Mr. Wilkins suppose that a Greek who 
flourished B.C. 443 could read the Phoenician 
characters introduced by Cadmus ? 

Mr. Wilkins adds,* that "Herodotus is not 
prophesying, but speaking of things within his 
own actual knowledge " ! 

Mr. Wilkins subsequently observes that he 
"prefers the words of a contemporary historian 
to the conjectures of the modern critic." It is 
simply impossible that Herodotus could have been 
the contemporary of " times antecedent to Pindar, 
or b.c. 490," since Mr. Wilkins admits that 
" Herodotus was born b.c 484." 

Mr. Wilkins concludes by saying, that " Homer 
certainly [?] (Iliad, i. 1(38) shows that in his time 
the Greeks wrote on folding wooden tablets." 
The line in question says only this : u while I, 
having one small and agreeable [prize] come to 
the ships, when I am wearied with fighting." 

This reference is evidently a mistake of some 
kind; but Mr. Wilkins's word u certainly" puta 
correction out of the question. 

If Mr. Wilkins had read Mr. Paley's Intro- 
duction, he would have seen (pp. xviii. and xix.) 
that there are more arguments against Pindar's 
knowledge of reading and writing than his use of 

\iy*or and ypa<ptiv. 

Mr. Wilkins's communication leads me to 
tell you that, since my last letter, it has been 
suggested to me by an old Homeric student — who 
is a learned, candid, and very intelligent man 
that the way to obtain any comprehensive and 
satisfactory information regarding the Homeric 
question, is by forming a Homeric Society, with 
a periodical publication, specially or chiefly de- 
voted to the promotion of its particular object; 
exactly similar to the late Shakespere Society, 
and to the Classical Societies in every university 
of Germany. 

If a Homeric Society told the students of Homer 
the new arguments and views on the subject each 

This is 

But it is 

) T ear, such a society would be of use. 
taking tho lowest view of the matter, 
self-evident that a Homeric Society, properly 
organised, could achieve a great deal more. 

Thos. L'Ebtrange. 

C, Chichester Street, Belfast. 

Dances mentioned in Selden's "Table-Talk" 

(3 rd S. xii. 477.) 
all the dances 

Mrs. Gatty has not italicised 
ntioued by Selden in the passage 
she has quoted. " First/' says he, "you had tho 
grave Measures." Measures were indeed " solemn" 
dances, in our usual acceptation of the word. 
They were more fit for lord chancellors, judges, 
and for solemn aspirants to those dignities, to 
" tread/' with stately dames, drawing long trains 
behind them, than for the u light heels and giddy 
pates" of Charles II.'s courtiers and favourites. 

The correct mode of inviting a partner was to 
" have the honour of treading" a Measure, not to 
" dance " one. It was the stately opening move- 
ment to a ball. An Elizabethan writer (Sir John 
Davies) says in his poem, Orchestra, of this 
dance : 

" Yet all the feet whereon these Measures go, 
Are only spondees— solemn, grave, and slow." 

Corants or Corantos were in country-dance time, 
but more for vertical than for horizontal skipping : 

" There they did dance 
As in France ; 
Not in the English lofty manner." 

Trenchmore, the Cushion Dance, and the Gallj- 
ard will be found described (so far as I could obtain 
materials) in Popular Music of the Olden Time, 
with their tunes. For the Galliard } the index of 
" Subjects" should be referred to, as well as the 
index of " Tunes." The " omnium gatherum, 

4 th S. I. Jax. 4, '68.] 



tolly polly, hoite come toite," are but Selden's 

ofcontemnt. Wm. CHAPPBLL. 



more will be found at page 82 ot Chappeil a Old 
English Mtisic. The Cushion Dance is described 
in Playford's Dancing Master ; and the account is 
extracted and given at paire 215 of Mr. John 

let king for Everybody, or a Gar- 


land for the Year, 


find the 

Songs (3 rd 



J. L. will 

xii. 461.) - 

about in Captain 
It is there called 


song ne enquires 
Marry at's novel Poor Jack. 
" Spanish Ladies/' and is supposed to be sung by 
a Greenwich pensioner. I am only quoting from 
memory, but 1 believe the lines run thus : 

" Farewell and adieu to you, Spanish ladies ! 
Farewell and adieu to you, ladies of Spain ! 
For we have received orders for to sail for Old England, 
But we hope that we shortly shall see you again. 

" Well rant and we'll roar across the salt ocean, 
We'll rant and we'll roar across the salt seas, 
I "nt il we strike soundings in the channel of Old England, 
From Ufehant to Scilly is thirteen degrees. 

Whether this is a genuine sea-song, or a clever 
imitation of one by Captain Marry at, I cannot say. 
He allowed no ranting and roaring on board his own 
ship, he being a very good and very strict officer. 
Mr. Midshipman Easy would have had very little 
scope for his pranks under the command of such 
a captain. Poor Jack is a capital novel, and 
the illustrations, by Clarkson Stanfield, are very 
beautiful. C. W. Barklet. 

J. L. will find the song for which he enquires 
in Captain Marry at'a novel of Poor Jack. Also, 
another version (slightly differing), and with the 
tune, in Popular Music of the Olden Time, ii. 737. 
I believe the first publication was in my early 
collection, entitled National English Airs (printed 
in 1&J8, 39, 40). Lord Vernon had then favoured 
me with a copy of the tune, and with the first 
verse, only, of the words. Three complete copies 
of the words were subsequently collected for me, 
from different sources, through the kind instru- 
mentality of my friends W. Durrant Cooper, Esq., 
F.S. A.; W. Sandys, Esq., F. S. A. ; and T. 
Oliphant, Esq. These versions differed as much 
as old songs, collected from tradition, usually 
differ. For instance, one commenced with the 
line — 

44 Now farewell to you, ye fine Spanish ladies,*' 

another with 

44 Farewell and adieu to you, Spanish ladies.'' 

Here alone was enough variation to baffle an 
index. From these three, and from Captain Mar- 
ryat's version, I chose the copy I have printed, 
sometimes guided in the selection by the accents 
of the tune. Wm. Chappell. 

"Ultima Ratio Regtjm" (3 rd S. xii. 43G.)— 
Louis XIV. perhaps took hie motto from Cal- 

deron, whose En esta Vida todo es Verdad y todo 
Mentira must have been familiar to a court in 
which Spanish literature held the first place. 
Corneille made this play the basis of his Htraclins, 
condensing the fustian into rhetoric, and eliminat- 
ing the poetry. The Emperor Phocas while on a 
visit to Cinthia, Queen of Trinacria, is required 
by an envoy to rive up the empire to Federico, 
Grand Duke of Calabria, who claims to be the 
lawful heir. Phocas cuts the envoy's speech short 

by an aorupt retusai, ana says 

44 1 Pues que' aguardas ? 
I Ta no llevas la respuesta ? 
44 Federico. Que sepas que en la campaua, 
Ultima razon de Keyes 
Son la prflvora y las balas." 

Jam. ii. t i. p. 51)4, ed. Keil. 

I cannot trace the thought farther back, but 
susnect that it was a proverbial phrase in Calde- 
ron s time. He cared little for such an anachronism 
as powder and ball under Phocas, but he would 
not deliberately have given them to the Duke of 
Calabria when the Queen of Trinacria's soldiers 
have only bows and arrows. On her ordering 
them to search for some fugitives, Ismenia says : 

44 Y todas procuraremos, 
Puea todas arcos v flechas 
Manejamos, en su busco 
Ser, Seuora las prixneras." 

Jorn. i. p. 570. 

H. B. C. 


U. U. Club. 

An Etching Query (3 rd S. xii 34< 

amateur wood-engraver and a professional en- 
graver on steel and copper, and consequently well 
versed in the nature of grounds upon wood and 
the two metals just mentioned, I think it doubtful 
whether F. M. S. will ever meet with an ink 
which will prove satisfactory in its results upon 
such a tender thing as an etching- ground upon 

copper or steel. If, however, F. M. S. will read a 
paper written by myself, and printed in No. 392 of 
All the Year Round, under the title of "Engraved 
on Steel," I thing F. M. S. will there see how, by 
a very simple process of tracing and burnishing, 
he may procure a beautiful transfer of the most 
delicate lines upon an etching-ground, and that 
without having recourse to the rolling press. 

Edwin Koffe. 

The Silent 



France you not unfrequently meet with signs over 
inn-doors representing a woman without^ a head, 
and with the inscription beneath, " A la bonne 
femme; because, having no head, it is supposed 
she can do no mischief. This, I fancy, is likewise 
the meaning of The Silent Woman at Chelmsford. 

P. A. L. 

Louis XIV. and Chevalier dIshington (3 rd 

S. ix. 409.) — I have to apologise for this late 
notice of J. M.'s query. The elder sons of the last 



[4 th S. I. Jan. 4, f 68. 

proprietor of Ardross, Fife, were supposed to have 
o-one to London in the train of James VI. of Scot- 
land when the family estates were sold. The 
chevalier may have been descended from one of 
them. A younger son had previously gone to 
Orkney, of which and Zetland he became sheriff 
and commissary under Earl Robert Stewart, and 
afterwards under his son Earl Patrick. The male 
line of this branch will die with my informant, 
Mr. Dishington. corn-merchant, Leith. 

Setii W 


Aggas's Map of London, 1500 (3 rd S. xii. 504.) 

I fear that I put my query respecting this map 
somewhat ambiguously. I am aware that there 
is a copy of the original map in the wonderfully 
fine London collection at the City Library, Guild- 
hall, but my query referred to the locality of the 
Sloane copy of it. It must be a map of the most 
extraordinary rarity, and I believe that Mr. E. 
W. Ashbee has resolved to produce a lithogra- 
phic facsimile of it. A more valuable contri- 
bution to London topography can hardly be 
imagined. I low well do I recall the pleasant 
conversations with my late dear friend, Mr. Fair- 
holt, on this and other London maps; and his 
continual expression of regret that there was so 
little encouragement for the production of a con- 
templated work on the subject. 

J. 0. Halliwell. 

There are two, if not three, original copies of 
this map in existence: one in the Guildhall 
Library ; one in the Pepysian Collection in Mag- 
dalen College, Cambridge ; and one stated to be 
in the Library, Lambeth Palace. The size is 
G ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. 4 in., on six sheets and two half- 
sheets. A facsimile was executed, in 1748, by 
Geo. Vertue on six sheets for the Society of 
Antiquaries. These copies are frequently to be 
met with. T. il. W. 

Execution of Louis XVI. (3 rd S. xi. 521.) 

The following anecdote may not be uninteresting 
to some readers. I had read on the morning of a 
day that I dined with Prince Talleyrand, an article 
in the Quarterly Review which was supposed to 
have been written by Mr. Croker. I forget what 
it was, but the subject was the French llevolu- 
tion ; and there were details of the execution on 
the Place, called, at different times, Louis Quinze, 
de la Involution, and de la Concorde. Prince 
Talleyrand lived in a house at the corner of this 
Place, out of the Hue St. Florentin, and the room 
in which he received his guests had a balcony 
looking over it. It was one of the long days of 
summer, and, with Mr. Croker's article in my 
head, I, after dinner, asked the prince in what 
part of the place the guillotine was placed, think- 
ing, as I believe most people do, that it was in the 
centre. The prince said " No," and, hobbling into 
the balcony, pointed out its situation, half way be- 

tween the present obelisk and the wide entrance 
to the garden of the Tuileries, which I understood 
him did not exist at that period. IIowden. 

Latten or Broxze (3 rd S. xii. 301.) — Musical 
hand-bells, as used by members of campano- 
logical bands, are made of a compound metal called 
fatten. It is a mixture of copper and tin, and 
therefore bronze. House-bells are likewise made 
of latten. The proportion of the constituents for 
the former bells is 10 parts by weight of copper, 
with 3} of tin: and for the latter, 10 of copper 
with 4 of tin. TnoMAS Walesby. 

Golden Square. 

Letters of Gottlieb Schick (3 rd S. xii. 495.) 

The punctuation of lines 14-20 of the second 
column perverts the sense. Please to read: — 
" Joseph Koch, the German painter, whose works/' 

says Friedrich von Schlegel, l in his best time, are 
the most remarkable in the entire cycle of modern 
German art, from the deep feeling concentrated in 
them, and the luxuriant richness of nature which 

the two Schlegels 


they represent' 

Tieck and his gifted brother Friedrich the sculp- 
tor;' &c. H. K. 

Spanish Dollars (3 rd S. ix. 3G8, 400.) 

II. W. D. rightly says — " Your correspondent has 
committed an error in this couplet, which spoils 
the sense"; but I would beg to add, that both 
have spoiled the sense of justice. Although poor 
George III. was long blind and insane, he was no 
fool ; no more was Charles III. of Spain an ass : and, 
to speak but of the latter, methinks the following 

will prove it : — 

He first of all reigned over Parma, which he 
inherited from his mother Elizabeth Farnese, in 
1731. His father Philip V. having ceded to him 
the Two Sicilies in 1734, he remained, after beat- 
ing, the Imperialists at Bitonto in 1735, undis- 
puted king under the name of Charles VI. ; and, 
for the space of twenty-eight j r ears, governed 
these states with mildness and wisdom. In 1759 
he succeeded his brother Ferdinand VI. on the 
throne of Spain. " In 17G1 took place the Pacte de 
famillc, between him and Louis XV., which 
guaranteed the rights of the House of Bourbon, 
lie wa3 not fortunate, certainly, in the first war 
waged by France and Spain against England in 
1702; but in the second (1778) he captured 
Mahon, and got Louisiana ceded to him. He 
knew well to choose his ministers, and always 
governed with judgment and justice. His con- 
stant efforts tended towards the amelioration of 
the state of Spain. To him is due the Canal of 
Tudela, good highroads, the Custom House and 
Post Office at Madrid, the Museum of National 
History, the Botanical Garden, the Academy of 
Painting, and the Hospital. He likewise abolished, 
for a time, bull-fights — was very much beloved, 
and his memory venerated. P. A. L. 

4* S. I. Jan. 4, '68.] 



The Champion Whip' (3 rd S. xii. 413.) 

from the Jockey Club 

following extract 
refers to it : — 



44 The whip may be challenged for on the Monday or 
Tuesday in the tirst spring, or on Monday and Tuesday 
in the second October meeting in each year; and the ac- 
ceptance must be signified, or the whip resigned before 
the end of the same meeting. If challenged for and 
accepted in the spring, to be run for on the Tuesday in 
the second October meeting following: and if in the 
October, on the Thursday in the first spring meeting fol- 
lowing. Beacon Course, to stake 200 sovs. each, play or 
pay ; weight, 10 st." 

To the best of my recollection Mr. Chaplin, 
owner of Hermit, the Derby winner, challenged 
in the spring, and now holds the whip with his 
horse Iiama, as the Marquis of Hastings, who 
held it with Lecturer, refused to run. 

J. Wilkixs, B.C.L. 

Medical Query (3 rd S. xii. 347.) — If Mr. 
Crawley were to go to the next horse-fair, and 
by the light of his own unassisted judgment buy 
a horse " tied up to the rail," from u a coper," he 
would most probably buy a " shotten piper," t. e. a 
broken-winded horse, whose infirmity was for a 
time concealed by a liberal dose of shot and tal- 
low. I believe the arsenic contained in the shot 
is the efficient cause. At any rate, arsenic is good 
for the wind of horses or dogs, and, possibly, in- 
digestion in man. I occasionally run greyhounds, 
and always finish off their training by giving 
them, during the last fortnight, a daily dose of 
ten drops of liq. potass, arsenltis, or " Fowler's 
solution," which contains \ grain of arsenic in the 
tiuid drachm. J. Wilkins, B.C.L. 

British Museum Duplicates (3 rd S. xii. 342.) 

This note reminds me of some of my old experi- 
ences at the British Museum Heading Itoom. I 
had occasion, nearly thirty years ago, to study 
pretty closely the Complutensian Polyglott : the 
copy which was brought me was already stamped 
i ' Duplicate," — lust I think, as I had seen books 
marked which have been sold from the library. 
In case of dishonesty, the book was already 
marked as if it had been disposed of. I wished 
to obtain a copy for myself of the Complutensian 
Polyglott; and seeing this stamp, I made inquiry 
if it were for sale. I was told that it was ordered 
to be retained, after it had been marked to be 

Soon after this, I obtained a good copy at a 
sale, which still holds a conspicuous place in my 
study ; so that I have had no occasion to inquire 
for the Museum duplicate, which I hope (in spite 
of the stamp on it) is still in its location. It was 
bound in old red morocco, with the royal arms on 
the sides ; such as they became from the union 
with Scotland in 1707, until that with Ireland in 
1801, — that is, with the first quarter party per 
pale England and Scotland. L.elifs. 

Most probably Sir T. Wesxington mistook T for 
F, and the book belonged to Francis Hargrave, the 
great lawyer, whose library of books mid MSS. 
was bought by the Museum. He was Lord 
Thurlow's li devil"; and upon seeing the pair in 
the Chancellor's coach, Jekyll the wit said: 
u There go the lion and his provider." 


Prophecy of Louis-Philippe (3 rd S. ix. 430.) 

Is Brightlixo very certain that 

" On tbat same day, in 1820, the Duke of Orleans went 
to congratulate the Duchess of Berri on the birth of a 
son, who might one day be King of France " ? 

I always understood that the Duke of Orleans, 
on the contrary, formally protested at the time, 
in the hands of Louis XVlIL, against the recog- 
nition of V Enfant <la Miracle. P. A. L. 

James Keir, F.R.S. (3 rd S. xii. 413.) — Some 

details of the life and works of this eminent man 
of science of the last centurv — the friend of 
Boulton, Watt, Murdock, Priestley, Darwin, and 
others, who made Birmingham so famous a cen- 
tury ago — are now being published in the " Local 
Notes and Queries" of the Birmingham Journal, 
copies of which shall be sent if your querist will 
send you his address. Este. 



Historical Memorials of Westminster Abbey. B\j Arthur 

Penrhyn Stanley, D.D., Dean of Westminster. 

Dr. Stanley signalised his occupation of the Deanery of 
( anterburv by a very pleasing and instructive history of 
the magniiicent cathedral of that city. Having happily 
been transferred to Westminster, he has done the same 
good service to the " Royal and National Sanctuary " 
entrusted to his charge : and as Westminster must hold 
far higher rank than Canterbury in historical importance, 
so will the work before us, in which the Dean has en- 
deavoured, and very successfully, to give us " The His- 
tory of England in'Westmiustcr Abbey," greatly exceed 
in interest and information the Canterbury volume. The 
Dean has shown considerable judgment in the manner 
in which he has contrived to treat harmoniously the 
various, and in some respects discordant, materials with 
which he has had to deal. From the foundation of the 
Abbey, its legendary traditions, and the motives and 
character of the Confessor, he proceeds to consider his 
death, from which sprang the coronation of William the 
Conqueror, which carries with it the coronations of all 
our sovereigns. The third chapter is devoted to the 
tombs of the kings; and their connection with the struc- 
ture of the church is so intimate, that the Dean here 
introduces such notices of the architectural changes as 
are compatible with the object of his book. From the 
burials of the kings, follow naturally the burials of their 
more or less illustrious subjects; and the work is wound 
up by a notice of the events and personages (chiefly 
ecclesiastical) that have figured within the Precincts 
before and since the Reformation. It would seem diffi- 



[4* S. I. Jan. 4, '68. 

cult to imagine anything which could add to the interest 
of a meditative stroll through the glories of St. Peter's, 
Westminster ; but a preliminary reading of Dean Stan- 
ley's Memorial* will undoubtedly tit us to turn to still 
more profitable account the thoughts and reflections which 
must arise in our minds as we tread these solemn aisles, 
and think of the mighty dead by whose monuments we 
are surrounded. 

Curiosities of London, exhibiting the most rare and re- 
markable Objects of Interest in the Metropolis, with 
nearly Sixty Years 1 Personal Recollections. By John 
Timbs, ¥.>.A. A new Edition, corrected and enlarged. 

The twelve years which have elapsed since Mr. Timbs 
first presented his Curiosities of London to the public 
have not effected greater changes in the metropolis itself 
than in the volume which our author has dedicated to its 
history. It was then a squat closely-printed duodecimo; 
it is now a goodly neatly-printed octavo of nearly nine 
hundred pages. Nor is the change confined to its size. 
It is enlarged as well as improved. And we think it 
would be hard to find a London building or locality of 
which the chief points of historical interest are not 
pleasantly related in Mr. Timbs' very useful volume. 

Sussex Archaeological Collections. Vols, XVIII. and 

XIX. (Bacon, I^ewes.) 

The publications of this Society continue to possess 
general as well as local interest. That it has adopted a 
paid editor is only in the ordinary course of events, when 
the older members, like Mr. Hlaauw, are obliged to 
withdraw from active participation in the volumes; but 
the two noticed above do credit to the members. They 
continue to give the results of more recent discoveries, 
as well as original documents extraeted from the ample 
resources placed at the disposal of literary men by the 
Master of the Rolls, and from other MS. collections. 
Jack Cade's rising; the route of Charles II. in 1G51; 
the notice of flint implements; the Royalist composi- 
tion papers, and the early notices of IJosham, are of 
importance beyond the county. The authentic notices of 
Jack Cade and his followers, for the first time printed, 
give direct contradiction to the popular opinion as to that 
rebellion. Cade was not deserted bv his followers, ob- 
taining their pardons without his knowledge; and the 
participation in the movement by the Abbot of Battle, 
the Prior of Lewes, and many of the principal families in 
East Sussex, shows that it was not a mere revolt of un- 
educated men. 

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of the Reign 
of Henry VIII, preserved in the Public Record Office, 
the British Museum, and elseichere in England, arranged 
and catalogued by J. S. Brewer, M.A. Vol. III., 
Parts I. ami II. (Longmans.) 

When we announce that this new volume of Mr. 
Brewer's Calendar contains in its two parts upwards of 
two thousand pages, that it comprises the papers relating 
to the years 1519-1523, and that Mr. Brewer's introduc- 
tory view of the history which they illustrate extends 
over upwards of four hundred pages, it will be seen that 
we can do no more than recommend the book to the 
attention of all students of the period of our history to 
which it relates. 

Books Received. 

The Journal of Sacred Literature, No. IV. Fifth Series. 
(Williams & Norgate.) 

We regret to find that this Journal, which has for 
twenty years, without regard to party, appealed to the 
patient, the learned, and the thoughtful, is about to 
cease ; and many of those who read the article on " The 

Talmud " in the number before us, an article adopting 
very different views from those of The Quarterly, will 
share our regret. 

Talking of The Quarterly reminds us to brin°* under 
the notice of our readers The Quarterly Review, Nos. 241, 
242, forming the General Index to Vols. CI. to CXX. 
inclusive. The value of a set of The Quarterly is greatly 
diminished when it wants the Indices ; and these, if not 
secured at once, are sometimes difficult to meet with. 

More about Junius. The Franciscan Theory unsound. 
Reprinted from " Frasers Magazine, 9 ' with Additions 

by A. Hayward, Q.C. (Longmans.) 

If a perusal of Mr. Parke's Life of Francis has left 
upon the minds of any of its readers an impression that 
Sir Philip was Junius, Mr. Hay ward's arguments will, we 
think, thoroughly remove it." This enlarged reprint of 
the article in Eraser's Magazine is a valuable addition to 
the long list of essays on Junius. 



Particular* of price, Ac, of the following B >ok to be sent direct to the 
gentlemen by whom it if required, whoae names and address are given 
for that purpose: — 

SriKiT or the Purlic J>urnal« for 1805. Vol. IX. London, 1806. 
A Lbitkr to thk Duke or Grafton, on tub pusabmt rou no* or 
Arr«iKs. Almon, I76H. 

The Wk,.; a Poem, by the Author of Junius. London, lg?S. 

Collection of all thk Remarkarle and Personal Paabaub* in Tea 
BmITON, Nohtii Hit I >, asd Auditor. 1766. 


thi Alm. (Privately priu ted). Dublin. IHI5. 
The Hibernian Mauasinr tor 1771, 1772, 1773. 


4 Vol*. Svo- 17HO. 1770. 

Wanted by William J. Thorns, Esq.. 40. St. George's Square, 


G ansa's Antiquities. Vol. VI. Large 8vo, published by Hooper. 

Wanted 6y Mr. II. T. Cooke <r Son, Bookseller, Warwick. 

Rev. E. Forstrr's Translation o? the Thousand and O.tb Nishts. 
("Arabian Nights' Entertainment*"). 

Wanted by Mr. O. W. if. Reynold*, 41, Woburn Square. 

fiaticti ta CarreipouttntW. 

Am/ntft other articles of interest which will appear in early number* 
of" N. la Q." are— Society of Bibliographers; Scottish Pronunciation 
of Latin; Samuel Patterson and hit Universal Catalogue; Lawrcus 
Beyerlinck: Die Handwriting of Junius, <t<*. 

Caleb. We hud hoped tfuit bu thin time it was generally known, that 
there is no charge J or inserting Queries. 

Family Queries. We have again to explain that all Queries respect- 
ing persons or families not of 'general interest, must be subscribed by the, 
name and witfitfie address of the Querist, so that the information sought 
fur mag be sent to him direct. 

To Our Correspondents generally we would suggest — 

1. That Contributors *knul I append their names ami addresses, 

1. That when writing anonymously they should give the same informa- 
tion to the Editor. 

3. That Quotations be certified by precise reference* to edition, chapter, 
or page ; and references to *' N. ft Q.** by series, volume, and page. 

i. Write clearly and distinctly, more p*irticularlu proper names, and 
on one side of the paper. We cannot umlertake, to puzzle out what a 
Correspondent does nut think worth Uie trouble of writing distinctly. 

i Iarpra. A Jane is a small coin of G*noa, or J anna ; supposed to be 
the same as the galley halfpence mentioned by i Stowe. See Nares*s 

J. Manuel. We fear that the subject of baptism in Scotland by a lay- 
man may lead to a long discussion. 

Errata 3rd S. xii. p. 501, col. i. line 24, for" De la Le" read u De 

laSe;" col. ii. lines 17 and 18. for" Keevesly " read •• Recresby." 

A Reading Caae for holding the weekly Nos. of M N. ft (J,." ia now 
ready, and maybe had of all Booksellers and Ne wsmen, price \s.Sd\\ 
or, free by post, direct from the publisher, for Is. Sd. 

••• Cases for binding the volumes of ** N. ft Q." may be had of the 
Publisher, and of all Booksellers and Newsmen. 

M NoTRi and Queries'* ts published at noon on Friday, and is also 
issuer/ in Monthly Parts. The Subscription for Stamped Copies /br 
six Months forwarded direct from the Publisher (including tlte Half- 
yearly Index) is lis. Ad., which may be paid by Post Office Orilers 
payable at the Strand Post Office. is\ favour of William O. Smith, 43, 
Wellington 8trket. Strand, W.C., where also all Communications 
por the Editor should be addressed. 

••Notes ft Queries" is registered for transmission abroad. 


4* S.I. Jak.11,'68.] 





NOTES : — Universal Catalogue, Ac, 23 — The Ancient Scot- 
tish Pronunciation of Latin, 24— 'The Brid'/e of Sighs, 
25 -Society of Bibliographer*, 26— Whitney family — 
Sir R. Tresilian — Sir John Maxwell, of Southbar, Poet — 
The Nile — Sewing Machines Sixty Years ago — Major 
Salwey — Derivation of England — At her ton : Archdea- 
conry of Totncs — Jannock, 26. 

QUERIES : — Vandyke's Portrait of Sir R. Ayton — Dice — 
Festus — "Sir Pon" — Potheringay Castle — Letter of 
Lord Galway — Ged's Stereotypes— German Architecture 

— I, Ego — Imperator — Jeremy — Abraham Kick — No 
Love Lost — Paniot — Quotations — Pershore, its Etymo- 
logy — Resristrura Sacrum Americanum — Royal and 
Noble Gamesters— Scottish Local Histories— Shakspeare : 
Shylock — Soldrup — ** Solvitur Ambulando M — Suborders 
in the English Church — Thomas Family — King Zohrab, 


Queries with Ahbwbrs: —Lines by Sir John Phil ipott 

— Setebos and Walleechu — Forrester's Litany — Anony- 
mous — Machanes,31. 

REPLIES : — 8ir Thomas Chaloner, 33 — Spanish Armada : 
" Zabras," Ac, 34 — Thud, lb. — Hour-Glasses in Pulpits 
35 — Junius: Sir Philip Francis, 36 — Sir Richard Phil- 
lips, 37 — Gibb Baronetcy— What becomes of Parish Re- 
gisters? — Cuddy — Beauty Unfortunate — Family of 
Napoleon — Use of the Word " Party " — Her — Longevity 
of Lawyers — Mathew Family — Dr. Wolcot — Tom Paine 

— Sir James Wood's Regiment — Marriage of Women .to 
Men — Homeric Traditions— "Comparisons are Odious " 

— Brush or Pencil — Religious Sects — St. Osbern — 
Heraldic Queries, Ac.— Venice in 184S.4J— Arms of Found- 
ling Hospital— William Bridge— Gibbon's HDuse at Lau- 
sanne — Bloody, Ac, 37. 

Notes on Books Ac. 




The announcement that there is shortly to ap- 
pear weekly, through the medium of " N. & Q. M 

the publication of a Universal Art Catalogue, 
must have afforded to a numerous body of readers 
great satisfaction. No doubt such an undertak- 
ing will be attended with much labour and great 
anxiety to all parties concerned. But then, with 
a cordial co-operation the attempt to eventually 
accomplish a Universal Catalogue may be 
crowned with success. 

Upon making a search among some of my old 
stores, I laid my hands upon a work entitled — 

" Bibliotheca Universalis Selects. A Catalogue of 
Books, Ancient and Modern, in various Languages and 
Faculties, aud upon almost even- branch of Science and 
Polite Literature; including an extensive collection of 
Classical, Critical, and Philological Learning; collected, 
for the most part, in Germany and the Netherlands : 
Methodically digested, with a view to render it useful to 
Students, Collectors, and Librarians : to which is added, 
An Index of Authors, Interpreters, and Editors. Which 
will be sold by auction by Sam. Paterson, at his great 
room in King Street, Covent Garden, London, on Mon- 
day, May 8, 1786, and the thirty-five following days. 

As the " preface " prefixed to this valuable col- 
lection is rather interesting, and appears to bear 
a good deal upon the value of what is now going 
to be adopted, I feel that such then sentiments 


are well worthy of being now more generally 
known and disseminated. This may be done by a 
reprint thereof in the columns of u N. & Q. : " 


"The arrangement of libraries is of no small import- 
ance to literature, more especially in an age when there 
are far more literary inquiry, just criticism, and general 
reading than were ever known in this country. 

" Strange that the great aera of dissipation should be 
the greatest of good letters ! 

'This was some time a paradox, but now the time gives 
it proof.* — Shakespeare. 

" A library undigested is a chaos, of little more use to 
the owner, or to the public, than so many divided parts 
of instruments ; for books, in each class or science, may 
be considered as component parts of the same instrument ; 
and to put them together properly is very essential to 
the observer and to the student. 

" I have laboured many years in this track, with little 
benefit to myself beyond the satisfaction arising from 
the consideration of its utility (myself having been 
always of the least consequence to myself); but if the 
diligent student has been served, and the curious inquirer 
gratified, the labourer is amply rewarded. 

'•The expediency and necessity of classing voluminous 
collections and public libraries is self-evident, as it is the 
only mean of pointing out the progress of science and 
knowledge of every kind, from the origin of printing, to 
which happy invention we owe the revival and diffusion 
of letters, to the present time, and of noting the desiderata 
in each : for to know what is wanting, and may be done, 
it is highly necessary to be acquainted with what has 
already been done. 

•* By such information, those who gather after others' 
harvests, may be led into the rich fields of Hoaz, where 
the weightiest gleanings are to be found : such as com- 
pose thro' idleness, or boast, inadvertently, known facts 
for novelties, or designedly utter old for new opinions 
and discoveries, may find that all they have to say has 
been better said already, and thereby spare themselves 
much pains and their readers much trouble; while such 
as fabricate for bread, contenting themselves with pillag- 
ing some two or three known authors (and, it may be, 
the very worst they could have chose) may learn, at 
least, the names of better tools, of which too many of our 
modern bookmakers appear to be entirely ignorant. 

"To render the present catalogue more useful to stu- 
dents, collectors, and librarians, is subjoined an index of 
authors, interpreters, and editors, which, tho* pretty ac- 
curate, is not altogether free from mistakes. 

•'Its general use is too obvious to be insisted upon, 
but in no one respect more so than in the discrimination 
of persons of the same, or nearly the same name, from 
the neglect of which many errors in biography have 
been committed; and, to the philosophical reader, con- 
sidered as a register of minds, will be as acceptable as an 

alphabet of arms. 

" S. P. 

" London, 3rd April, 178G." 

Samuel Paterson must have been a person of 
great talent, and possessed of much bibliographical 
knowledge. The preface prefixed to his Biblio- 
theca Croftstana, 178.% is highly curious and very 

interesting. He is reported to have been the 
"best cataloguer of his day." .Sketches of his 
life are in the Gent's Mag. and European Mag. 

for 1802. Thomas Geobge Stevenson. 




[4* S. I. Jan. 11, '68. 



It is the common belief that the broad pronun- 
ciation of the Latin vowels has always been the 
recognised use in Scotland, as on the Continent. 
Following as I do this mode, and prejudiced in 
favour of its antiquity, I am yet at a loss to re- 
concile with the received notion the evidence 
afforded by the writings of Scottish poets pre- 
ceding the Reformation. 

William Dunbar (1455-1520) has left a well- 
known piece, called a u Lament for the Death of the 
Makers/' in which he eulogises a number of poets, 
chiefly Scottish, who had flourished before his 
day, or whom he had outlived. (I quote from 
Mr. Laing'a edition, 1834.) There are twenty- 

* • 



five stanzas, each ending with the same line in 
Latin, as in these examples : 

3. " The stait of man dois chainge and vary, 
Now sound, now seik, now blvth, now sary, 
Now dansand mirry, now lyk to die ; 
Timor Mortis conturbat me. 

u Unto the Deid gois all estaitis, 
Princis, prelottis and potestaitis, 
Baith riche and puire of all degre ; 
Timor Mortis conturbat me. 

" Gud Maister Walter Kennedy. 
In poynt of dede lyis veraly ; 
Gret reuth it wer that so suld be : 
Timor Mortis conturbat me" 

In the other stanzas also, the Latin me is made 
to rhyme, and in several instances with words in 
the vernacular Scotch, so as clearly to exclude the 
broad sound of the vowel. Mr. Laing points out 
that the words forming the burden of the i( La- 
ment" are borrowed from a poem by Lydgate. 
This, however, cannot go far in the way of 

In Dunbar's poem, "Of Man's Mortalities we 
have — 

" Lyk as ane schaddow in ane glass, 
Syne glydis all thy tyme that heir is : 
Think, thocht thv bodve war of brass, 
Quod tu in cinercm reverteris." 

Li • * If 

" weir is, 

And so in the five following stanzas, all ending 
with the same Latin line. There are the rhymes 

" feiris," " terns," &c. Writers of such 
verses were by no means careful to adhere to the 
rules of prosody or accent. 

Again, in u The Testament of Mr. Andro Ken- 
nedy," Dunbar makes the supposed testator thus 
enigmatically refer to " Mr. Johney Clerk " : 

" Were I a doig and he a swyne, 
Multi mirantur super vie, 
Bot I sould gar that lurdane quhyne, 
Scribendo dentes sine de." (D) 

It being once apparent that such an author 
intends, as in the' instances quoted, that the words 
terminating Latin lines introduced into his verse 
shall be pronounced in a certain way, it must be 



held that the other Latin words are meant to 
receive a pronunciation consistent with that mode. 
I am thus constrained to read those occurring 
in Dunbar's poems in the u English " fashion. 

The Scottish poet quoted above is not the only 
north-country bard of his time that appears to 
have followed the Anglican use. With '• Walter 

" whom Dunbar laments as lying at 
death's door, he had previously carried on a rhym- 
ing warfare in language more expressive than 
polite. In " The Fly ting of Dunbar and Kennedy," 
we find the latter thus addressing his contem- 
porary : 

" Cum to the Cross on kneis and mak a cria; 
Confess thy cryme, hald Kennedy thy King, 
And with ane hawthorn scurge thyself and ding; 
Thus dre thy pennance with * Deliquisti quia, 9 M 

Here we have the Vulgate Psalter read with 
an English pronunciation. Further, there have 
been left us by John Clerk, whom Dunbar names 
in his li Lament," a few verses of " Advice to 
Luvaris/' where these lines occur (Sibbald's Col- 
lection, 1802) : 

" Sum say is his luve is * A per sej 
But sum, forsuth, ar so opprest 
With luve, war bettir lat it be. 

The phrase "A per se" was a favourite one 
with our old Scottish poets, and, so far as I have 
seen, was always rhymed as above. It is found 
more than once in the " Tales of the Thrie Priestis 
of Peblis ,, (Sibbald's Collection), belonging to the 
latter part of Jame3 V.'s reign. The same poem 
contains also this passage (with the meaning of 
which we are not at present concerned) : 

" And gif thair be nane abil thair that can, 
That office weil steir, quhar sal thay than 
liot to the thrid way to ga for thi 9 
Quhilk is callit Via scrutart." 

In the foregoing quotations, taken together, 
the Latin vowels a, e, and i were evidently in- 
tended by the writers to be pronounced as in 

It is not until after the date at which Scotland 
threw off the supremacy of Home that Scottish 
verse-makers give the broad sound to the scraps 
of Latin introduced by them. I have noted 
two instances. In a u Ballad in derision of the 
Popische Mes" (Sibbald), the word "meum" is 
rhymed with u slay him " ; and in the scurrilous 
"Legend of the Bischop of St. Androis' Lyfe, 
Mr. Patrick Adamson" (DalyeU's Scottish Poems 
of the Sixteenth Century, 1801), there is this 
couplet : 

" With eructavit cor meum. 
He hosted thair a hude-full/ra him." 

The earlier Scottish writers might with equal 
facility have followed the like mode of pronun- 
ciation. Their adoption of the Anglican use is 
remarkable, considering the close and long-con- 

4* S.I. Jan. 11/68.] 



tinued intercourse between Scotland and the Con- 
tinent, the contrary usage that was observed in 
the performance of the church services, and the 
study of the civil law abroad by Scotchmen, with 
its practical application at home, involving the 
daily oral use of the language in which its insti- 
tutes are written. Dunbar was an alumnus of 
St. Andrew's University, spent part of his early 
life on the Continent, and was in priest's orders. 
Walter Kennedy was educated at Glasgow. Their 
admiration of the works of Chaucer — " of Makers 
the Flower," as Dunbar styles him — will not ex- 
plain the matter. His poems show that he some- 
times gave the broad sound to the Latin vowels, 
and at other times followed the opposite mode. 
In "The Prioresse's Tale," for instance, where 
she tells of the cruel murder by the Jews of the 
Christian child who had filled them with wrath 
by his habit of singing a hymn to " Christ's dear 
Mother," and the power of vocal utterance mira- 
culously retained by the little martyr after his 
death, while the priests sprinkled "holy water" 
on hia body — these lines are found : 

" Yet spake the child, whan spreynde was the water, 
And sung 'O Alma Kedemptons Mater!' " 

Here the broad pronunciation is clearly indi- 
cated. To this use, indeed, Chaucer seems to 
lean — so far as can be gathered from his un- 
doubted poems. "The Lamentation of Mary 
Magdaline," attributed to him, but as to the au- 
thorship of which his editors are not agreed, 
although it certainly belongs to his period, fur- 
nishes several instances of an English pronuncia- 
tion: a difference of use which may possibly 
favour the opinion that the " Lamentation is not 
his composition. Perhaps there contemporane- 
ously existed in England the two modes or speak- 
ing Latin : the ecclesiastical use maintaining its 
ground with increasing difficulty against the 
secular or more scholastic fashion followed by 
native Englishmen. Coming down two centuries 
or thereby, to John Skelton, the clerical satirist 
and rhyming buiFoon (yet highly praised by Eras- 
mus for his learning), I cannot suppose that any 
fondness for his verses, where the Latin vowels 
invariably receive the English sound, led Dunbar 
and the other Scottish poets to imitate in this 
respect the practice of an author whose delight 
was to abuse and calumniate in the most offensive 
way their native country, their king James IV., 
and all Scotchmen. 

The passages cited in the present note, from 
the Scottish poetical literature of the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries, are by themselves too 
scanty as materials of evidence to warrant me in 
doing more than concluding with a query or two 
which they, however, suggest, viz. : bid the pro- 
nunciation of Latin followed by Dunbar and other 
Scottish poets, before the Reformation in North 

Britain (1560), represent the scholastic use there 
during their time ? If not, why did they, in 
writing for their own countrymen, deliberately 
throw aside the ordinary and 'familiar pronuncia- 
tion, and prefer the mode used only by their 
" auld enemies of England " ? Norval Clyne. 



The bridge to which this sparkling jeu £ esprit 
referred was au unsightly wooden structure, near 
the Midland Railway Station at Nottingham, and 
leading across the line from Station Street to the 

M One more erection, 
Worthy of note, 
In the direction 
Of Wilfurd boat,* 

Where the line Lincolnwards 

Quitteth the Station. 
Gaze and admire at its 

Proud elevation ! . 

44 Winterly, summerly, 
Months, it hath stood ; 

Fashioned so monstrously, m 

Iron and wood. 

u Look at its soaring, so 
High in the air — 
While humanity ponde 
Astonished, and wonders 
How it came there ! 

44 Who was the builder ? 

Who the designer ? 
Was it A. Pugin ? 

Or Patt'son and Hine,f or, 
Who did the ironwork ? 

Who was the j'iner ? 

" What was it built for ? 
What's the excuse 
Of its skilful projectors, 
The Railway Directors? 
Is it for ornament ? 
Is it for use ? 

M Is it a shorter cut 
Into the town ? 
Forty steps to the top, 
Forty steps down ! 

" Alas ! for the taste display v d 
In this one bridge they've made ; 

Surely but one ! 
Oh ! it is sorrowful, 
Near a whole borough-ful 

Friend it hath none. 

u Make no deep scruti- 
Ny into its beauty, 

Lightness and grace; 
For it hath none of them, 
Not even one of them — 

Summit nor base. 

" Take it down instantly, 

Clear it away ; 
Useless and lumbering, 
The ground onlv cumbering, 

Don't let it stay ! " 

* A ferry-boat across the Trent. 

f Names of a local builder and architect. 



[4* S.I. Jan. 11, 'G8. 

The bridge was demolished a few weeks after 
the appearance of these lines. 

The above, written in 1847 by Mr. F. R. Good- 
yer, and appearing in a local newspaper, merits, I 
think, preservation in the " amber" of " ^ * n > ? 

24, Charles Street, St. James's. 

N. & Q. 

Henry Moody. 


In England we have many learned societies 
pursuing a course of steady usefulness, recording 
year by year new facts in science, throwing new 
lights on history, exposing old errors, and accumu- 
lating material for the future philosopher— for the 
future historian. 

t Every one who has had to do with historical 
literature must have reaped benefit from the 
labours of the Society of Antiquaries, the Numis- 
matic Society, and those others which are de- 
voted to the promotion of historical knowledge ; 
and every man of science must owe similar obli- 
gations to the Royal Society, the Chemical So- 
ciety, &c. &c. The number of learned societies 
is now somewhat large, and eacli of them, in 
its own peculiar field of usefulness, has been of 
much service; and, with their example shining 
so clearly, it lias often excited my surprise that 
there is not among them a Society of Bibliogra- 

Some knowledge of bibliography is necessary to 
every man who is engaged in any literary or 
scientific pursuit : an acquaintance with it may 
save him years of useless toil. The bibliographer 
aids the student in every department of human 

the theologian, the 
tiquary, the savant, nil need his aid. He records 
their labours, and is constantly noting the new 
discoveries in the map of human learning. There 
is no occasion here to insist upon the importance 
of bibliography. Why, then, is there no society 
for its advancement? Let bibliographers con- 
sider this question. Lowndes, we are told bv 
Mr. Bohn, complained that the bibliographer had 
no standing in England. A somewhat higher 
value is put upon these studies now, but the es- 
tablishment of such a society as is here suggested 
would undoubtedly aid in giving the bibliogra- 
phers still more of that position to which they are 
entitled in the republic of letters. When such 
an association is organised, there is plenty of work 
which it might usefully do. A General Literary 
Index would then be something of a possibility 
the vexed question of cataloguing would probably 
find a solution, much light would be thrown upon 
literary history, special bibliographies of particu- 
lar subjects might be brought out under its pro- 
tection, and it would be able to accomplish for 

thought and observation 


relations between different literary institutions and 

Much more might be said of the advantages 
which would result from the founding of such a 
society, but it is hoped that sufficient has already 
been said to prove its desirability. The smwes- 
tion having now been made, it rests with those 
interested to say whether it is worth carrvin^ 
ou il W. E. A/A 



I believe it is still an uh- 

longed to Cheshire or Herefordshire. 

settled point whether Whitney, the author, be- 

In the 

latter county is situated the little village of Wit- 
ney, but no trace now remains of the castle which 
for many generations was occupied by a knightly 
family of the name. Sir Robert Whitney was a 
devoted Royalist, and sacrificed his fortune in the 
cause of the Stuarts. Some fragments of a tower 
were still standing when Blount wrote his Collec- 
tions for Herefordshire, but he makes no allusion 
to the family which once tenanted it. As might 
be expected, branches from the main stem were 
planted in various parts of the county, and of 
those the earliest and perhaps the strongest off- 
shoot took root at Norton Canon, near Weobley. 

The first member of this branch of whom I 
have any account describes herself in her will 
(dated Oct. 20, 1568,) as "Margaret Whytneye, 
late wife of James Whytneye, Esquire, deceased." 
She desires to be buried in her parish church of 
Norton, and mentions her son Thomas and other 
relatives. She adds: — 

"Twill that John Gibbons mv cosen. shall have the 
coffer wherein my evidences w'» j have in mv custodve 
concerning my former husband's landes to be sorted out, 
and that he, with one of my executors, shall keep the 
same evidences after mv decease." 

The registers of the parish commence at too 
late a date to admit of the construction of a regu- 
lar pedigree from that source; but some of your 
readers may be interested in learning that the 
family continued to reside in Norton Canon until 
very recently, and that in any search for the 
parentage of the author this quarter should not be 
neglected. C< J# R 


aces for Agaric, in the way of p ,o mo tb g M^fy I of D^^C » "= TXXT&ZZ 

Lord Campbell, in his ac- 
count of this judge, who was executed in 1388 
enys that he left one only child, a daughter, who 
married into the respectable family of Ilowley, 
from which was descended the late Archbishop of 
Canterbury of that name. But according to Foss 
he left also a son, John, who afterwards prosecuted 
his brother-in-law, being supported by his mother 
and her second husband Sir John Coleshull. The 
descent of Archbishop Howley is a pure fiction. 
Sir R. Tresilian's daughter married John Ilflwlev 

4* S. I. Jan. 11, '68.] 



Worthies of 


daughter and heiress, Elizabeth, married John 
Coplestone, of Coplestone, Esq. 

Frederic T. Colby 

Exeter College, Oxford. 

a x WELL 




noticed in the Paisley Magazine of 1828 ; and the 
editor mentions his possessing a small MS. of 
thirty-six leaves: the first date March 17, 1584; 
and the last date July 3, 1589. A few specimens 
are given ; the editor surmising some of the poetic 
effusions may be Maxwell's own, but chiefly a 
mere register of certain popular rhymes which 
were current at the time : — 

" He that spends fast and winnes nocht, 
And awis meikill and hes nocht, 
And luikis his purss and fiudis nocht, 
His hart may be sair and say nocht." 

The thing that lyis in thy lyfe, 
Tell it newer to thy wvfe ; 
For sche will keip it als cloiss 
As water in ane rewine boiss." 

The editor is of opinion the following stanzas 
contain political allusions : 

u H. Si Ego et Angus holde ws togidder 

Na man will wrang ws, si ego et Angus 
It were almous to hang us and we dissewer 
Si Ego et Angus holde ws togidder. 

" B. Domi manemus duplici cam pilio, 
A curia canemus domi manemus 
Id quod habemus manebit cum filio 
Domi manemus duplici cum pilio. 

" S. Fugiens pestem, the blok and maide 
Respiciens restem, fugiens pestem 
I twik ane testem, de Stirling Raid 
Fugiens pestem, the blok and maide." 

If deemed worthy of notice in "N. & Q.," per- 

haps space may be found for them. 

Seth Wait. 

The Nile. — Mercator's curious map of Africa, 
published about 1593, makes the Nile spring from 
two large lakes (the Victoria and Albert Nyanza ?), 
which, as well as the Abyssinian affluents, fill 
very nearly their true relative position on his 
map. The lakes, however, as well as the districts 
on the eastern coast which are in the same parallel, 
are placed by Mercator too far to the south. 

S. P. V. 

Sewing Machines Sixty Years ago. — I quote 

the following from the Athcnamm. February, 
1807: — 

u French Invention for making Cloaths by a Machine. 

M. J. Stone, Rue de la Pepiniere, Paris, obtained a brevet 
d'invention, or patent, in February, 1805, for 'a machine 
for joining the sides of segments of all flexible matters/ 
which he asserts will be particularly serviceable in pre- 
paring cloathing for the army or navv. It is supposed 
one man may do as much work with this machine as one 

hundred persons with the needle. If it is used to any 
extent, it will more properly deserve the name of the 
Devil among the Taylors, than the game that is at present 
so called." 
Johnstone. D. MACPHAIL. 

Major Salwey. — Among some papers brought 

II. Masters, 
T. Booth. 

under 'my notice relating to the Salwey family, 
I find a summons issued by the justices of the 
county of Hereford against Major Salwey, who 
served in Cromwell's army, in these terms : — 

" We whose names are hereunto appended, Justices of 
the Peace for this County, thinking it requisite for his 
Maj if 7 service, and the preservation of the peace of this 
kingdom, to have you appear before us, do hereby desire 
and require vou to be in person with us at the Swan and 
Falcon, in Hereford, upon Thursday, the 18 th Inst, by 
ten of the clock in the forenoon, wherein not doubting 

your performance, 

" We remain, Sir, your servants, 
" John Nourse, John Barneby, 

C. W. Lambeth, Herbert Westfalling, 

Marshall Brydges, 
Tho § Delahave, 
Herbert Croft, 
44 Hereford, 15 June, 1G85." 

Major Salwey was detained in custody until 
July 14 in that year, and dismissed on promise to 
return on summons. 

This Richard Salwey was a major in Crom- 
well's army. He represented Worcestershire in 
1053, Westmoreland 1069, and went ambe 
dor from Cromwell to Constantinople; was a 
Commissioner for Ireland, and Ranger of Wych- 
wood Forest. He died soon after this transaction 
in the same year. 

Is there a record of any other noted members 
of Cromwell's party who had survived until that 
date, and who were detained or placed under 
surveillance at the commencement of James II. 's 
reign at the time of the Monmouth rebellion ? 

Thomas E. Winnington. 

Derivation of England. — While travelling 
in Denmark I met with a word which seems to 
me to afford a derivation for our name of England, 
as probable at least as the ordinary one of Angle- 
land. The word I mean is Eng % an old Danish 
name applied even yet to the level, marshy pas- 
ture-lands adjoining the rivers. 

I believe the Saxons and Angles, from the time 
of whose invasion the name is supposed to date, 
first landed at and owned the Isle of Thanet, which 
in parts, especially those about Minster and the 
River Stour, would answer very well to the above- 
given description of the Daninh eng-lands. It is from 
this word I think the name may have sprung, 
instead of from the Angles, whom we have no 
reason for supposing to have been so superior to 
the Saxons as to leave the remembrance of their 
name to the entire exclusion of that of the latter. 

Henry Rowan. 

Atherton: Archdeaconry of Totnes. 


find the following on the opening page of the first 



[4*S.L Jan. 11, '6* 

volume of Calendars for the Archdeaconry of 
Totnes, deposited in the District Registry of the 
Court of Probate at Exeter : — 

[Copied in the exact lines of the original.] 

" Tabula continen 
Nomina testatoru, 
defunct, infra archuat. 

fact. 4 marcij 1582 " 
From 1513 to 1580, or 1582, you will 
fynd Registered in the old ancient Booke 
of this office Totton : 
The rest I found Rotten and confused 
for want of good keeping before mv tvme. 

Phi: "A&erton Reg r - n 

" This book goes home to lf>47, being in 
the tvme of the greate Rebellion ag l 
King Charles the first ; w ch R: began 

in 1642. 

In >v ch Warre I was a Captain of foote 

for the King, my Eldest bro: Edw: Atherton 

Captain of horse, slaineat Maston moo re fight 

and mv youngest brother Ensigne, who came 

with the Duke of Albv Munke from Scotland 

to London." 

Jonx A. C. Vincent. 

Jannock. — After Mr. Gladstone's speech at the 
opening of the Mechanics' Institute at Oldham the 
other day, the motion for a vote of thanks was 
seconded" by a Mr. Scholes, who observed that 
Mr. Gladstone was a gentleman of whom they 
were all proud, and that as a Lancashire man he 
was "jannock" to the backbone. This word 
would be unintelligible to thousands of readers of 
the newspaper report, but was, without doubt, 
well understood by all assembled on the occasion. 
It is in quite common use in Lancashire and the 
North, (1) as a substantive, meaning oaten bread, 
oat-cake. (Cf. Skinner, Etyin. Line/. Angl. fol. 
1071, Bailey 172<), Johnson 1755, Halliwell, &c.) 
(2.) As an adjective, with the sense of tit, proper, 
good, fair and honourable, thorough-going. (Cf. 
Halliwell, Diet, of Arch, and Pro v. Words, where 
the word is, however, inaccurately sipeltjannak). 
These words, I presume, have one and the same 
etymology, but what is it ? Johnson says of 
jannock, substantive, probably a corruption of ban- 
nock, but does not assist us further. Skinner 
suggests : u nescio an a Belg. Ghc-nood pro nood 
necessitas, q. d. Brood van ghe-nood Panis neces- 
sitatis quo proe inopia meliorum granorum vulgus 
vescitur." Mr. Scholes, at all events, and others 
too, on other grounds, will object to this solution. 
If it is a Teutonic word at all, the German genvg, 
enough, would be nearer the mark. Oat-cake is 

sense of the adjective. A correspondent of the 
Pall Mall Gazette connects it with the Northamp- 
tonshire "jonnock," or "jonnick," quoting Miss 
Baker's Northamptonshire Words and Phrases, who 

gives — "Jonnick, liberal, kind, hospitable: 'I 
went to see him and he was quite jonnick. 1 The 
circulation of this word is very limited." • Even 
supposing that these forms are of common origin 
with jannock, the latter is not used in any of these 
senses in Lancashire, nor is the circulation of the 
word by any means limited throughout the north 
of England. E. F. M. M. 



Vandyke's Portrait of Sir R. Ayton. — la 

reply to a query about a portrait of the poet Sir 
Robert Ayton (ob. Feb. 21, 1C.T8) Mr. Rogers 

replied in your columns that, while preparing his 
work', The unpublished Poems of Sir B. Aytoun y 
he had made inquiry as to the existence of a 

Portrait, but could not ascertain if there was one, 
observe in the Historical Memoirs of West- 
minster Able)/, bv Dean Stanley, that Sir R. 
Ayton's bust in the Abbey is from a portrait by 
Vandyck. Can any of your readers say what has 
become of that portrait; Is it not in any of the 
royal collections ? Scottjs. 

Dice. — I have been assured that the Romans 

played with dice, whereon, in lieu of the ordinary 
circles to distinguish the numbers, the six parts 
were marked with letters from one to six. I shall 
be obliged if any of your correspondents will state 
whether such a custom existed, and refer me to 
any authority on the subject, or inform me where 
a die so lettered may be found. 

Windsor Villas, Enfield. 

Walter R ayton. 

Festts. — In the History of the Vallais by the 
late learned and respected Canon Boccard, Curate 
of St. Maurice (Geneva, 1844), the author quotes 
Festus as an authority. His words are — 

44 Festus ne nous domic que les noms de quatre a ut res 
peuplades, (\vs Tvlnngiens, des Chabilcons, des Daliter- 
niens, et des TVmuniens; on nc saurait designer les lo- 
calite's qifils habiterent." — Histoire du Vallais, pp. 8, 9. 

Who was Festus? I have made a search in 
the public libraries at Florence, in which I was 
aided by the learned Monsignor Liverani. I can 
find only one Festus, who in the first century 
wrote a small treatise on grammar, and of which 
there is an Elzevir edition. I cannot discover 


that his work has anything to do with Helvetic 
archaeology; lie is evidently not the authority 
quoted by Boccard. Did any learned ecclesiastical 
historian or chronicler bear the name ? Perhaps 
F. C. H. can clear up the mystery, and li if found " 
give the Latin of the quotation in Boccard. I 
was intimately acquainted with Boccard, but I al- 
ways abstained from asking about Festus. I 
was afraid that he might suppose I questioned 

4*8.1. Jan. 11, '68.] 



the statement. M. Boccard died suddenly in 


He was buried close to the high altar in 

the parish church of St. Sigismond, St. Maurice. 

J. H. Dixon. 

"SirFon." — In the interesting work of Lady 
Llano ver, The Life and Correspondence of Mrs. 
Delany, reference is made to "Sir Fon " as a 
genealogical authority in respect to a family from 
North Wales. 1 am unable to discover the work 
so referred to. Can any of your readers inform 
me what is its full title, or the name under 
which it may be found? G. II. 

Fotheringay Castle. — Can any one inform 
me if there are in existence any views, etchings, 
engravings, woodcuts, &c. of Fotheringay Castle 
as it stood before James VI. caused it to be de- 
molished in consequence of Queen Mary, his 
mother, being beheaded there ? W. U. P. 

Letter of Lord Galway.— To the volume of 

Rachel, Lady Russell's Letter*, edited by Miss 
Berry, from the originals in possession of the 
Duke of Devonshire, there is appended a set of 
eleven letters from the Countess of Sunderland, 
which are annotated by Miss Berrv. It appears 
from one of her annotations that she had access 
to an unpublished letter to Lady Russell from the 
Earl of Galway. The note (3rd ed. p. 334) is 

44 It would seem that William Earl of Bedford was 
remarkable for a good appetite. Ruvigny (Lord <>alway), 
in a letter to Lady Kussell, says, complaining of his health 
in Spain, J*ai perdu entitlement rappvtit que Lord Bed- 
ford appeloit son meilleur ami" 

Where is Lord Galway's letter to be found ? 
and is it one of a set ? 

David C. A. Agxew. 

Wigtown, N.B. 

Gbd's Stereotypes. 

When was stereotype 
printing invented, and under what direction? I 
ask this question because the late Dr. Adam Clarke, 
as long ago as 1808, showed me the following title 
of a Sallust, which led me to think that it was no 
recent invention : — 

« C. Crispi Sallustii Belli Catilinarii et Jugurthini 
ilistoriaV. Kdinburgi Gulielmus Ged aurifaber Edinensia 
non Typis mobilibu*, ut vulgo fieri solet, sed tabellis seu 
laminisfusis excudebat, mdccxxxix." 

II. E. 
German Architecture. — Can any of your 

correspondents inform me whether any good ac- 
count of the architecture of the German towns 
and churches has been published in England ? 

J. G. T. 


I, Ego.— If / come from ich, and ich remotely 
from iyti, it occurs to me to ask if the gamma in 
the Greek word ever had a guttural sound. It is 
generally pronounced in a sharp concise way 
f7 — *>: but was it ever ryA-ctP I am obliged to 
insert a Roman h to convey the sound I mean. 

In the older Oriental tongues with which Greek 
is cognate there i3 a twofold g — ga, gha ; and I 
fancy, from the German derivative of iyd, that 
there may be a kindred double g in Greek. 

Is it so? The mere mooting of the question 

pected light on the subjects of 

might throw unex 
prosody and etymology. 



—Among the manuscripts ascribed 
to Dr. Dee in Athena; Cantabrigienses is, a De im- 
peratoris nomine, authoritate et potentia, 1579." 
MS. dedicated to Queen Elizabeth. 

" In that Colledge (Trinity, Cambridge) by my advice 
and by my endeavors, divers waies used with all the other 
Col ledges, was their Christmas Magistrate first named 
and confirmed an Emperor." — The Compendious Re- 
hear sal \ by Dr. Dee. 

How long did this imperial authority last ? 

What was it? A. B. C. 

Jeremy. — I am anxious to learn some particu- 
lars as to a mediaeval writer of the name of 
Jeremy, the author of a Latin treatise on the 
Mass, which was done into English rhime. lie 
is thus spoken of by his translator 

44 Dan Jeremy was his name, 

A devoute m on <fc a religyus." 
(Lines 18-19 of a MS. which is about to be printed by 

the Early English Text Society.) 

When did said Jeremy live ? to what order did 
he belong ? and where can I meet with his work ? 

T. F. S. 

Abraham Kick. — Who was "the eminent Mr. 
Kick' 9 who, in Feb. 1069, wrote from the Hague 
a letter to Queen Mary in behalf of the colonists 
of New England, then seeking a renewal of their 
charter ? The letter is published in A Brief Rela- 
tion of the State of New England, printed for 
Richard Bald wine of London, 1G89, pp. 18. 


Boston, U. S. A. 

No Love Lost. — By the words " No love was 
lost between these two," I think that most per- 
sons would be led to suppose that the two were 
not on friendly terms. But in the ballad of "The 
Babes in the Wood,'' given in Percy's Reliqucs, 
the following lines appear, which convey the con- 
trary idea : 

11 No love between these two was lost, 

Each was to other kind : 
In love they lived, in love they dyed, 

And left two babes behind." 

Can any explanation of this anomaly be given ? 

II. A. L. 


Paniot.— What is a naniot? 

The following 

Eassage occurs in the " Household Expences of 
lishop Swinfield" (Camd. Soc.)„vol. i. p. 182:— 


In j paniot' de duubj pec* [empt* Lond'J 

vij a j d ." 


K. P. D. E. 



[4* S.I. Jan. 11/68. 


Who was the subject of the following eulogy, 
and by whom was the piece written from whicli 
it is extracted ? 

" Ne'er since the deep-toned Theban sung, 

Unto the listening nine, 
Have classic hill or valley rung 

With melody like thine. 
Ah ! "who shali wake thy widowed lvre ? " 

A. II. of B. 

" Be the da}' weary, be the day long, 
At last it ringeth to evensong." 

A. F. 

Will one of your numerous collaborateitrs oblige 
me by mentioning the author of a poem beginning 

44 In days of old. when spirit life 
Pervaded stream and tree, 
They say the willow loved the brook 
That flowed so merrily." 

And where I may meet with the poem in its 
entire form ? Hermann Kindt. 

Preshore, its Etymology. — Can any of your 
readere help me to a rational etymology of the 
name of this town ? It is a place of some anti- 
quity ; a religious house, which afterwards grew 
into an important Benedictine abbey, having 
been founded here in the seventh century. The 
only account I have met with of the name is 
either Pear-shore, from the pear-trees growing on 
the shore or bank of the river ; or Pear-sore, 
meaning fertile in pears. These seem to require 
no refutation. The name appears variously as 
Perscore, Parshore, and, in its Latinised form, 
Persicora. It. E. Bartlett. 

Registrum Sacrum Americanum. 

May I 


trouble you with one or two queries on 

1. Is there any biography of the estimable but 
somewhat eccentric Bishop Polk, who died (?) in 
18u4, after holding a commission during the late 
civil war? 

2. Who were the consecrators of Bishop 

McCroskv, who became Bishop of Michigan July 
7th, 1830 ? 

3. I have access to the lives of Seabury, White, 
Claggett, Ilobart, (iriswold, Dehon, R. C. Moore, 
Bowen, Chase, Ravenscroft, Ilenshawe, Doane, 
and Wainwright : are there any other lives of de- 
ceased prelates besides the notices in The Church 

Review ? What is the best life of White ? 

4. For what reason was II. U. Onderdonk, of 
Pennsylvania, suspended ? He was restored in 

185G, and died in 185 



Royal and Noble Gamesters. — In a notice of 

M. Benzanet, lately deceased, who was proprie- 
tor of the gaming establishments at Baden Baden, 
the writer says : 

" His father was the fermier des jeux of Frascati, the 
celebrated tapis vert on the Boulevard, witness of such 
wondrous scenes during the occupation of Paris by the 
Allies, where the Duke of Wellington, Blucher, and Ros- 
topschin, while gambling incognito at one end of the table r 
were one night suddenly recognised by the Emperor 
Alexander and Souvaroff, who were gambling incognito at 
the other. When the two parties joined prolits and losses 
together, they managed to clear a good round sum, and 
leave the hall amid the hisses of the company, not one indi- 
vidual having guessed their identity, from the simple 
conviction of the utter impossibility of such lightness of 
conduct on the part of such grave personages as the con- 
querors of Paris ; and the preconceived impressions that 
this band of gallant heroes must of necessity be engaged at 
that moment in drawing up the terms of the treaty of 
Paris, and the ultimatum to be offered to the vanquished 
partv." — u Gossip from Paris," Birmingham Journal, Dec. 

21, 1867. 

This is remarkable if true. Has any reader of 
" N. & Q." seen it before ? If so, where ? 


Garrick Club. 

Scottish Local Histories. — Will some of the 

readers of "N. & Q." kindly give the names of 
works (with their authors, publishers, and dates 
of publication) on the counties of Aberdeen, 
Banff, Moray, and Nairn, having reference to the 
histories of families and estates in those districts, 
and of any other local works likely to contain 
allusions to these subjects? The list might be 
added to from time to time. Such information 
would doubtless be interesting to some of your 
readers generally, for reference, besides being of 
special service to me. Benjamin Leslie. 


by the 

SnYLOCK. — In the Cyclopaedia 
Society for the Diffusion of 

(in which edition we observe, 
the word "verso" does not 

article), vol. xiii. p. 122, I 


Jseful Knowledge 
by the way, that 
stand heading an 
react — 

44 Finally, in the reign of Edward I., about a.d. 1290, 

all the Jews were banished from the kingdom 

It was not till after the Restoration, A.r>. 16(50, that the 
Jews again settled in England." 

Somewhere between a.d. 1290 and a.d. 1G00, 

I ask from what 

L. K. W. 

"Shakspeare drew Shylock." 


Soldrup. — As a relaxation from sterner labour, 
1 lately amused myself with tracing back to their 
Celtic," Anglo-Saxon, and Norman origin, the 
names of the villages situated in the northern half 
of the county of Bedford. One of these, Soldrup, 
has given me some trouble. At first sight it 
would appear to be a compound of the Danish 
words Sol and drup, and would mean Sun-thorpe, 
and the probability of its having been a Danish 
settlement is increased by the fact of there being 
a village in Denmark called Soderup. But there 
is also a small towTi on the old coach- road between 
Strasburs: and Paris bearing the name of Saulx- 

4* S.I. Jan. 11, '68.] 



drupt (apparently a corruption of Salix dirupta), 
and hence my difficulty. It is well known that 
when William the Bastard invaded England, his 
army was not composed of Normans exclusively ; 
its ranks were tilled by adventurers of all sorts, 
who were lured to his standard by hopes of booty, 
and anions these may possibly have been a Jean 
or Pierre from the Saubcdrupt above mentioned. 
If sucli were the case, nothing is more natural 
than that the lucky adventurer should give the 
name of Saulxdrupt to his new home. Would 
one of the learned correspondents of " N. & Q. ,f 
have the courtesy to inform me whether the 
Dom Buk — irreverently termed Doomsday Book — 
says anything there anent, sub voce, Soldrup, Solr 
drope, or Saulxdrupt ? Outis. 

Rbeb'. Beds. 

"Solyitur Ambulaxdo." — What is the origin, 
and what the exact meaning of this Latin phrase ? 

J. B. 1). 

Suborders in tue English Church. — Can 

any of your readers kindly refer mo to a collected 
account of the late church movement in favour of 
authorized lay ministrations, and to records of 
any results of that movement ? 

T. W. Belcher, M.D. 

Coll. of Physicians, Dublin. 

Thomas Family. — Can any of your correspon- 
dents give me information in regard to the English 
descent of the Maryland family of Thomas? I 
am about compiling a history of the family, and 
would be obliged to anyone who should furnish me 
with particulars in regard to them. The first of 
the family who settled in America was a certain 
Evan Thomas, who came over in the early part 
of the eighteenth century. His immediate de- 
scendants settled in Maryland, and, occupying posi- 
tions of note, are easily traced; but I am unable 
to discover his descent. The family bears two 
coats of arms : one similar to that of Thomas of 
Gellywemen, and the other having for crest a 
crow, sable, perched on a green bough, and bear- 
ing on the shield three similar birds. As a help 
to an answer, I may remark that the unvarying 
family tradition represents them as of Welsh de- 
scent; and that Evan and Lewin are common 
Christian names of the family. My address is 

L. Buckley Thomas, care of James Cheston & Co., 

Baltimore, Maryland, U. S. A. 

King Zoiirab. — Archbishop Whately, in one 
of his letters, has this remark: "King Zohrab's 
snakes to him were a part of himself.'' I have 
searched in vain for KingZohrab. Can you direct 
me where to find any mention of him, or inform 
me who he was, or what he was ? A. H. of B. 

Qutrtatf tmtfo Snifter*. 

Lines by John Philipott (3 rd S. xii. 390, 

48G.) — The first two stanzas are given by Ellis, in 
his Specimens of the Early English Poets, vol. iii. 

p. 359, ed. 1803, and ascribed to Simon Wastell. 
Ellis states : 

'•He translated from Shaw's Bibliorum Summula, A 
True Christians Daily Delight, being a metrical epitome 

of the Bible, 1623, 12mo, which was enlarged and reprinted, 
1629, 12mo, under the title of Microbiblion. From the 
latter edition the following stanzas are extracted, which 
have sometimes been inserted among the poems of 

II. P. D. 

The verses quoted by Dr. liix (St. Neots) 
as " Lines by John Philipott/' under the title 
of "A Fragment written about the Time of 
James lst, M were no more written by Philipott 
than by Dr. Rix himself. They may bo found 
at the end of Simon Wastell s Microbiblion, or the 
Bible Epitome, London, printed for Robert Myl- 
bourne, &c, 1020, 24mo. — a little work of rather 

rare occurrence and curious, each verse beginning 
with a letter of the alphabet in order. At the 
end of the volume are four separate leaves, fre- 
quently wanting; on one of which are the lines 
in question, but they are altogether so different, 
and so much superior to the rest of the work, 
that they are evidently not the composition of 
Wastell ; but their author must be sought for 
elsewhere. They are much above the average of 
such Kke verses, and ought scarcely to be termed 
"a fragment." 

Wastell was a Westmoreland man, and of 
Queen's College, Oxford. A copy of his little 
work was priced in the BibL Angl. Poet., 878, at 
4/. 4*. Thomas Philipott, M.A., of Clare Hall, in 
Cambridge, published a volume of Poems, London, 
1G40, 8vo. But who was John Philipott ? 


[These verses are attributed to John Philipott, not by 
Dk. Rix, but on the authority of the liar). MS. 3917, fol. 
88 b. (see last vol., p. 390.) The biographers of John Phili- 
pott speak of him, not only as a herald and an antiquary, 
but as a poet. The first verse is to be found on the tomb 
of Alderman Humble in St. Saviour's, Southwark, erected 
in 1C1G, at the time when John Philipott was Rouge 
Dragon. This verse appears to have formed the model 
of nine other verses, each of twelve lines, printed by the 
Rev. J. Hannah in his edition of Bishop Henry King's 
Poems and Psalms, ed. 1843, pp. cxviii.-cxxii. and attri- 
buted to five different authors. Thomas Philipott, his son, 
formerly of Clare Hall, Cambridge, published in 1G59 his 
father's collections, under the title of Villare Cantiarum, 
or Kent Surveyed and lllustratid, reprinted in 1778. J 

SetedosaxdWalleeciiu are two Indian deities. 
Of the first, mention is made by Shakespeare in his 
play of The Tempest ; but who is the second, and 



[4* S. I. Jan. 11, '68. 

by what particular nation is lie worshipped ? An 
answer or a reference will oblige R. S. T. 

[Setebos was the name of the deity invoked by the 
inhabitants of the Straits discovered by and named after 
Magalhaens. Mention is made of that ferocious god in 
all the old Voyages to Magdlanica. " Walieechu " is the 
deity of the Indians inhabiting that narrow and sterile 
strip of territory confined by the rivers Negro and 
Colorado, in l$uenos Ay res. It is a doubtful point whe- 
ther Walieechu be a spirit or a tree. The last-mentioned, 
however, serves for his altar on the Sierra de la Ventana, 
overlooking the valley of the \\\o Negro. Mr. Darwin, 
in his Journal (see vol. iii. pp. 79, 80 of Fitzroy and 

King's Voyages of the Adventure and Beagle, 8vo, Lond. 

1839) thus describes it : " Shortly after passing the first 
spring we came**in sight of a famous tree, which the In- 
dians reverence as the altar of Walieechu. It is situated 
on a high part of tjie plain, and hence is a landmark 
visible at a great distance. As soon as a tribe of Indians 
come in sight of it, they offer their adorations by loud 
shouts. The tree itself is low, much branched, and thorny. 
Just above the root it has a diameter of about three feet. 
It stands by itself without any neighbour, and was indeed 
the first tree we saw ; afterwards we met with a few 
others of the same kind, but they were far from common. 
Being winter the tree had no leaves, but in their place 
numberless threads, by which the various offerings, such 
as cigars, bread, meat, pieces of cloth, &c. had been sus- 
pended. Poof people, not having anything better, only 
pulled a thread out of their ponchos, and fastened it to 
the tree. The Indians, moreover, were accustomed to pour 

spirits and mate into a certain hole, and likewise to smoke 
upwards, thinking thus to afTord all possible gratification 
to Walieechu. To complete the scene, the tree was sur- 
rounded bv the bleached bones of the horses which had 
been slaughtered as sacrifices. All Indians, of every age 
and sex, made their offerings; they then thought that 
their horses would not tire, and that they themselves 
should be prosperous. The Gaucho [or peasant] who 
told me this, said that in the time of peace he had wit- 
nessed this scene, and that he and others used to wait till 
the Indians had passed by for the sake of stealing their 
offerings from Walieechu. The Gauehos think that the 
Indians consider the tree as the god itself; but it seems 
far more probable that they regard it as the altar. The 
onlv cause which I can imagine for this choice is its 
being a landmark in a dangerous passage."] 

14 From all who swear themselves meisworn. ,, 

" From Row that spurgold pulpit sporter." 

" From covenanting Tamilists, 
Amsterdamian Separatists, 
Antinomians and Brownists, 
Jesuitizing Calvinists, 

Murrayinizing Buchannanists 

All monster Misobasilists. 

These are the mates of Catharus, 
From whom good Lord deliver us." 

Who were the Misobasilists and Tamilists, 
who Catharus and the Etnauhs, and what is the 
meaning of the words meisworn and spurgold ? 

J. Manuel. 

[The Etnauhs are Etnas. Meisworn, t. e. Missworn. 
Misobasilists, i. e. King-haters. Catherus, t. e. Catherans, 
with a Latin termination, Highland robbers. Spurgold 
is base gilt metal. The " covenanting Tamilists " must 
remain a query,] 


Who is the author of 77ie Rise 

and Fall of the Heresy of Iconoclasts : or, Image- 
Breakers Collected by R. M. London : 

Printed for Tho. Meighan .... 1731, From the 
advertisement to the reader we learn that it was 
written by u the late author of England's Cmversion 
and lie format ion compared." During the progress 

of that work " he sometimes found it requisite, 
after long application, to allow himself some ease 
of mind, and a relaxation of attention. " This 
relaxation consisted in reading the history of the 
iconoclasts ; and " the benefit ... he had received 
from this entertainment " induced him to write 
the book in question, " that what he had found 
so diverting to himself might probably prove no 
less instructive to others." 

William E. A. Axon. 


[The two works noticed by our correspondent are by 
Kobert Manning, who was educated at Douay College, 
where he was sometime Professor of Humanity and Phi- 
losophy. He died in Essex on March 4, 1730, Old Style. 
Vide i)odd\s Church History, iii. 488, and "N. <fc Q." 1* 
S. xi. 28.] 

Machines. — Amongst the collections under 
Briefs in Castor, Northamptonshire, is this entry, 
dated Aug. 11, 1700: 

" For v° Captives at Machanes 

01 02 10. 


Forrester's Litany. — In the appendix to entry, dated June, 1700 : 

And at Elton, in Huntingdonshire, is a similar 

Wade's History of Melrose Abbey (1861), notice 
is taken of the Itev. Thomas Forrester's Saytre 
relating to Public Affairs (1038-39), and several 
stanzas are quoted to show its style and character. 
For my purpose, I extract as follows: 

" From Henderson, who doth out-top 
The Etnauhs, for he is Pope — 
Yet Leekie makes bold to oppose 
His Holiness, e'en to his nose — 
Leekie, a covenanting brother, 
Go to, let one Deil ding another." 


" For \° Redemption of v c Slaves at Machanes . 15 6." 

Where can I find an account of the captivity 
here spoken of? W. D. S. 


[Machanes we take to be Mequinez, a large city of 
Marocco, and one of the residences of the emperor. The 
brief for the collections issued by William and Mary is 
printed in the Introduction (pp.xx.-xxiii.) to "Barbarian 
Cruelty : being a true History of the distressed condition 
of the Christian Captives under the tyranny of Mully 

4* S. I. Jan. 11, '68.] 



Ishmael, Emperor of Marocco, and King of Fez and Mac- 
queness in Barbary. By Francis Brooks. Lond. 1793, 
18mo." Consult also Windus's " Journey to Mequinez f 
the residence of the present Emperor of Fez and Marocco, 
on the occasion of Commodore Stewart's Embassy thither 
for the redemption of the British Captives in the year 
1721. Lond. 1725, 8vo."J 


(3 rd S. x. 28.) 

Looking through back numbers of u N. & Q.," 
I see the Latin epigrammatic " inscription copied 
from a portrait of Sir Thomas Chaloner the elder 
(belonging to Mrs. M. G. Edgar, and numbered 297 
in the Exhibition of National Portraits of South 
Kensington)," and, adds J. E. S., " probably 
written by Sir Thomas himself, who, besides his 
reputation as a statesman and soldier, is also ac- 
credited with having been one of the best Latin 
writers in the reign of Elizabeth." 

I cannot but feel dissatisfied with one part of 
the " conjectural restoration 
J. E. S. 


u suggested " by 


The part I refer to is in the third line. 
v . . vxt is, undoubtedly, vivvnt; the upper 
part of the i is there, indeed, already. We have 
the following line : 



the word qwi: referring to mortally ctxcta, 
words at the end of the first line. As to iroi, 
these four letters are preceded by a blank space, 
which indicates the disappearance of one or more 
before them, while the termination is not Latin. 
The question is — How are we to fill up the lacuna 
between perevxt and vivvnt? 

J. E. S. suggests tkepido, appending (?). 

Now, no good writer would put in a position 
where so much stress is laid on the word filling 

It would be 


up such a mere epithet of fvmo. 
putting a weak word in a strong post. It 
tome that the place was occupied 1>\ a substantive, 
and that this substantive in combination with the 
verb perevnt answered to the substantive fvmo 
in combination with the verb vivvnt. I would 
suggest flori, or frondi, or folio. 
^ It would be well if we could get the inscrip- 
tion copied again, and, withal, carefully. 

Since writing so far, I have been to Oxford, 
and to the Bodleian Library. I have found Sir 
Thomas Chaloner's De \llu4rium, §c. in a volume 
bearing the following on the initial title-page : 

" De rep. Anglorum instauranda libri decern, Authore 
Thoma Chalonero Equite, Anglo. 

" Hue accessit in laudem Henriei Octavi Regis quon- 
dam Angliae prestantiss. carmen Panegyricum. Item, 
L)e illustrium quorundam encomiis miscellanea, cura 

epigrammatis, ac epitaphiis nonnullis, codem autliore. 

u Londini, excudebat Thomas Yautrollerius, Typo- 
graphus, 1579." 

The volume also contains epicedial Latin verses 
in honour of Sir Thomas Chaloner, after the fashion 
of those times. 

The epigram inscribed on Sir Thomas's portrait 
is neither among Sir Thomas's compositions in 
" longs and shorts" (all of which are comprised 
in the De illustrium, #c), nor among the epicedial 
eulogies of his admirers. 

The collection headed De illustrium, 8fc. has a 
title-page of its own; but the pages are not dis- 
tinctively numbered. The following specimen of 
its contents is in pp. 200-209 of the volume : 

*' Deploratio acerbv nee Is Heroidls pretstantissimev, D. 
Janet Grayee Henriei Duet's Suffolvhuejilia, qutv securi 
percussa, animo eonstantissimo mortem oppet'tit, 

"Janaluit patriam profuso sanguine culpam, 
Vivere Phoenicis digna puella dies. 
Ilia suis Phoenix merito dicenda manebat ; 
Ore placens Veneris, Palladis arte placens. 

Culta fuit, formesa fuit : divina movebat 
Sa'pe viros facies, siepe loquela viros. 

Vidisset faciem ? poterat procus improbus uri : 

Audisset cultrc verba ? modestus erat. 

Ipsa scd, nt facies erat insidiosa videnti, 

Lumina dejecto plena pudore tulit. 
Ingenium (6 Superi) tenero sub corpore, quantum 

Nacta fuit ? naetum qu&m bene et excoluit ? 
Vix ea ter scnos obiens exegerat annos, 

Docta, cathedralcs quod stupuere sopbi. 
Et tain en ipsa humilis, mitis, sensusque modest i, 

Nil unquam datum dicere visa fuit. 
At qua' viva omnes mansueto pectore vicit, 

El a to gessit pectore se moriens. 
Constantesque animos supremo tempore servans, 

N<<eio Socratieis ccsserit anne rogis. 
Quod si me vatum quisquam de more locutum 

Arguat haec Metis amplificare modis : 
Juro tibi Veneris, per et omnia sacra Minerva*, 

Perque Aganippeas, Xumina nostra, Deas, 
Quod nihil insinuo : non laudatoris egentem 

Qu6rsum opus ampullis tollere mirificis ? 
Novimus, et nostris ha»c nuper vixerat oris : 

Objeeta implacidac blanda columba lea\ 
Quam quia beserunt alii, quas debuit iras 

Vertere in authore?, fudit in innocuam. 
Judicet haec Justus judex qui pectora cernit : 

Non qua? jura jubent, semper ut nequa licent. 
Nee fuit, ut (si culpa fuit, quando inscia peccat)' 

Altera tarn srcvis surge ret ulta modis. 
Juppiter a*<| minimis erudeles odit ab alto : 

Hine puto et ultriei iila minora dedit. 
Ean^urntique a»gros longinn sub corpore senilis : 

Conscia quo stimuli's eederet acta suis. 
Puniit et lenta primos Khamnu^ia tabe 

Aut«>r«'s t diri con^ilii osa nefas. 
Hunc hydrops, alium confeeit calculus: isti 

Stilla gravis capitis, illi alia ini^ruerant. 
Discite mortalcs : Sortem reverenter habete : 

Calcata ultorem sa*po hahet ilia h.'iim. 
Nee quia non semper manifesto Xumen in iram, 

Idque statim surjjit, Numen iuerme putes. 
Einquo sed hucc aliis, quorum pia peetora fontes 

iEterni laticis, Biblia sa<ra rigant. 
Me decet Abniis tantum indulg<*re eorymbis, 

Quantum Helicon vati, Pieridcsque ferunt, 




[4*S. L Jan. 11, '68. 

Concinere atque isti miserae lachrymabile carmen, 

Quae periit sac vis virgula tacta ^sotis. 
O J ana, 6 facies, 6 pectus amabile duro 

Cyclopi, aut si quid durius orbis habet : 
Tenc ita non animos saltern potuisse propinquas 

Flectere ? nee demum flectere foemineos ? 
Nou fgnara mali, non hacc miserata jacentem est, 

Quam pia dicta aliis, tain fera facta suis ? 
Non potuit quondam cullam tarn culta movere ? 

Non rarae dotes, donaque magna Deiim ? 
Qualia vix uni tot contribuere puelhe ? 

Nee nisi perpaucis contribuere viris? 
Mitto ego, quid fidibus scivit, numerisque sonoris : 

Quid praestabat acu. pingeretaut calamo, 
Quis putct ? haec Arabum Chaldaica verba loquela) 

Junxerat, Hebranim scite idioma tenens. 
Nam Graio, sive Ausonio memorasse loquentem, 

Parvum erit : has alia; per loca culta sonant. 
Gall us item ct Thuscus sermo numerum auxerat 

Anglas : 

Si numeres linguas: bis quater una tulit. 
Invideat Stridon, se Pentaglotte ferendo 

Sancte sen ex, vicit nostra puella tribus. 
Quod si form oso veniens e corpore virtus 

Gratior est, nihil est nobile stemma comes ? 
A proavis pater huic titulos dedit online longo, 

Kegales mater, laeva per a^tra, dedit. 
His periit, nee spontc tumens, nee sponte tiaris 

Addita, sed Procerum noxa peregit opus. 
Hi se forte suis rationibus ut tueantur, 

Quid meruit pro tot sola puella luens? 
Ignovit victrix aliis, sine vulnere sceptrum 

Ablatum Janie, qua' Maria obtinuit. 
Huic non ignovit, tenerrc nee dura pepercit, 

Non consanguineie (tarn pia) nee gravidae. 
Janam aetas, genus, et sexus, Procerumque reatus, 

Quicquid erat, culpa solvere debuerant. 
Nee tamen baec Maria? potucrunt omnia sensus 

Flectere : cervices quo minus ilia daret 
(Proh dolor) albentes gladio generosa secandas, 

Intrepide indignam passa virago necem. 
Qualis Achilleo mactata Polvxena busto, 

Dedecus immanis juge Neoptolemi. 
Aut nimis ultricem qua* placatura Dianam, 

Proxima jam cultris Iphigenia stetit. 
Turba dedit lachrymas .spectatum eftusa : decori 

Ilia memor, moriens lumina sicca tulit. 
Oraque tranquillo vultu suavissima pandens, 

Verba dedit duras apta monere feras. 

Me miserum : nequeo ulterius, nam caetera fletus 
Occupat. lieu! tragicis Jana canenda modis. 

Ah ! Maria immitis, tluvioque pianda noveno, 
Par erat hoc saltern sanguine pura fores." 

These verses will probably, from their subject, 
be found quite sufficiently interesting to justify 
their being reprinted in " N. & Q." 

John IIoskyxs-Abrahall, Jux. 

Combe, near Woodstock. 


(3 rd S. xii. 331.) • 

ZambraSy in the MS. cited by your correspon- 
dent, is evidently a mistake for the Spanish term 
zabras — in Italian also zabras, in Portuguese zav- 
ras — vessels repeatedly mentioned by old writers 


and sometimes as fishing boats, and for the car- 
riage of merchandise ; but concerning whose dis- 
tinctive characteristics, the information that has 
come down. to us appears to be but scanty and 

According to one account, there were in 
the " Invincible Armada" thirteen armed zabras: 
the largest, the u Santiago/' being of the burthen 
of GOO Italian tons (botti), and carrying 60 soldiers, 
40 sailors, and 19 guns; and the two smallest 
being of \ (id botti, and carrying respectively 55 
and 50 soldiers, 72 and 57 sailors, and 14 and 13 
guns. (See Relat. vera deW Armata, tradotta di 
Spagnolo in Italiano, Roma, 1588.) On the other 
hand, in the " MS. Relacion de las naos, galeras, 
etc., que se aya de hazer la Jornada de Ingala- 
terra" (1588), equally relating to the Armada, 
zabras are enumerated among the small vessels 
that would be required for the transport of pro- 
visions, ammunition, horses, mules, &c. : 

44 De navios pequenos, saetias, corchapines, caravelas, 
zabras, pataches y mixerigueras, se baze cuenta que seran 
men ester, para llevar en el las bastimentos y municiones, 
cavallos, acemilas y otras diversas cosas, 320." — Jal, 

Glossaire nautique, 1815. 

A Spanish friend has suggested to me that the 
word zabra may be of Arabic origin, but at pre- 
sent I see no sufficient reason for supposing so. 
Father Larramendi, by birth a Basque, and whose 
hobby it was to trace words to his native lan- 
guage, does so in the present instance ; and, con- 
sidering the maritime pursuits of his countrymen, 
with some show of probability. JIe defines the zabra 
as a small frayata, and gives as its Latin equiva- 
lent myoparo (Larramendi, Diccionario trilingue } 
1745). Now, Jal states that the frayata was the 
smallest of the galley family ; and Ducange (ed. 
1845) describes the myoparo as a long and narrow 
craft, patronised by pirates. Perhaps we shall 
not be wrong in supposing the zabra to have been 
of a similar sbape. 

With regard to the other word vcrcas, quoted 
by your correspondent, I can only conjecture that 
it may be a slip of the pen for varcas, or possibly 
varcos ; which, as every student who has paid 
attention to Spanish spelling knows, are the same 
words as barcas and barcos. The former term 
would probably mean boats like the " long-boats'' 
attached to ships; and the latter, small vessels of 
the dimensions usual in coasting craft. 

John W. Bone. 


(3 rd S. xii. 460.) 

This is no new word. If it is not given in some 
dictionaries, that is their fault. It is probably a 
word of great antiquity, expressing a peculiar sound 
in a very marked manner. It is an unpleasant and 
dissonant word, because it is used to express an 

in those languages, sometimes as armed for war, unpleasant sound, the sound of a blow on a soft 


4* S. 1. Jan. 11, '68.] 



substance. So also shriek, stridulous, &c, are 
harsh words ; and the word obstreperous in Beattie's 
Minstrel has been objected to as hurting the ear 
which it is, of course, intended to do. I suspect 
thud to be closely connected with the root of the 
Latin tundo ; at any rate, Mr. Wedgwood's Dic- 
tionary does give the word, with the following 
quotation from Gawain Douglas's Virgil : 

" Lyk the blak thud of awful thunderis blast." 

Compare the words din, O. E. dun (to make a 
loud heavy noise), drone, thunder, &c. I cannot 
but think that any one, who will read over Mr. 
Wedgwood's Preface to his Etymological Die- 
tionary, will acquire a respect for some of these 
ugly words, as explaining much that cannot be 
explained otherwise. I am astonished to find 
that so valuable a book seems so little known and 
so little consulted. It is a common thing for 
writers to draw attention to the peculiar power of 
certain combinations of letters to represent certain 
pectdiar sounds, as if such an idea was quite novel, 
and had never been thoroughly worked out (as 
in his volumes) with discrimination and success. 
But Mr. Wedgwood's is by no means the only 
dictionary that gives it It will be found in 
Ogilvie's Imperial Dictionary, and in Jainieson's 
Scottish Dictionary (with five or more quotations). 
Jamieson compares with it the Icelandic thytr; 
and it is certainly found in Anglo-Saxon, in the 
form of thoden, in the sense of a loud din, espe- 
cially that made by a tempest or whirlwind. The 
references for its use in Anglo-Saxon are chap. ix. 
of Somner's edition of yElfric's Grammar, and 
jElfred's translation of Gregory's Pastoral. If 
anyone is to be blamed for using the word, the 
blame ought rather to fall on our good King 
Alfred than on a modern novelist. 


Walteu W. Skeat. 

This is by no means a new word, having been in 
use to my certain knowledge for upwards of forty 
years. It has also found its way irtto Haiti well's 
Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words, where 
it is thus described : — 

"Thud. A heavy blow, or the sound which it emits. 
The stroke of a sledge-hammer against the wall of a 
house is of that kind.— North." 

Having heard many thuds in my time, I think 
the word a very expressive one, and should feel 
at a loss for any other word to convey the same 
meaning. I have not been able to meet with any 
probable derivation. The word thunge is used 
when the sound of the blow becomes louder. 

T. T. \V. 

It is a mistake to say that the word thud " has 

Dr. ji 

amieson s Dictionary of 

any dictionary." In 

it is given, first, as a substantive noun ; second, as 
a neuter verb; and, third, as an active verb. 
There are several definitions mentioned, which 
may be epitomised thus : that as a substantive, it 
is " a stroke causing a blunt and hollow sound " ; 
and that consequently, as an active verb, it means 
u to strike with impetuosity " ; while, as a neuter 
verb, it means " to move with velocity." I allow 
to your correspondent that it is not an elegant 
word, though " ugly " is rather severe ; and, at 
any rate, it is expressive as indicating sense by 
sound. G. 


Mr. Gaspet is totally wrong in stating that the 
word thud has not yet found its way into any 
dictionary. I could give him a list of at least 
half a dozen in which it appears. For its inventor 
he must go back as far as the writings of Gavin 
Douglas, Bishop of Dunkeld. So far from being 
an ugly word, it is one of the most expressive in 
our language, and one which I challenge him to 
render correctly by any amount of circumlocution. 
It describes a sound, and its use is well exemplified 
in an account of the late lire in the Hay market, 
where among other noises is enumerated the thud 

thud of the engines. 

George Vere Irving. 


(3 rd S. xii. 610.) 

Mr. J. Manuel quotes a passage which de- 
clares that the Queen has had a sand-glass fixed 
to the pulpit in the Chapel 1 loyal of the Savoy, 
as a hint to the officiating clergyman for the 
regulation of the length of his sermon. This 
announcement recalls to my memory a visit I paid 
to the church of Sacombe, a few miles from the 
county town of Hertford, February 3, 18(34. Be- 
fore the church was restored, there was an old 
hour-glass frame fixed to the side of the pulpit, 
which had come down from the times of the 
Commonwealth or thereabout. Surely this was an 
interesting relic of antiquity; but, as another in- 
stance of the care with which relics of antiquity 
are preserved, and replaced by those who restore 
churches, instead of being fixed to the new oak 
pulpit, where it ought to have been, as it would 
have been in nobody's way — and where it would 
have been, by stewards more faithful to their 
trust — it was thrust into a closet in the vestry, 
where I saw it. I made a sketch of the object, 
which is now before me. I may describe this 
object as a piece of iron rod^ about an inch in 
diameter near the bottom. Some four inches of 

the lower end is hammered fiat, and is pierced 
with three holes for screws to fix it. For three 



[4* S.I. Jan. 11/68. 

feet up it is octagonal in section and diminishing 
in size, then a knob, and the last foot or so is 
twisted. About eight inches below the knob, the 
stem is clipped by a moveable square link, fixed, 
by a pin through its ends and through the stem. 
This apparently was the upper fastening. From 
the top of the rod spring, outwards or horizon- 
tally, four branches of iron about as thick as a 
large quill, to the distance of a finger's length ; 
whicli then turn straight upwards by a right 
angle some five inches more, and their ends are 
riveted or welded to an iron ring. Thus it will 
be understood, if I have made my description 
clear, that a sort of open basin or cage is formed, 
in which the sand-glass could be dropped. I 
believe that these objects are very rarely to be 
met with in the present day, and their very rare- 
ness ought to claim some respect for this one. I 
have several times intended to draw the attention 
of the public to this act of neglect through the 
medium of u N. & Q.," but I now make an effort 
to do it without further delay. It ought to be 
replaced. F. Hutchinson. 




S. xii. GOG, 507.) 

Your revival of the Francisco-Junius question; 
in connection with the recently-published Me- 
moirs of Sir Philip Francis, tempts me to say a 
few words on the subject. After closely examin- 
ing the two elaborate volumes which bear the 
names of Mr. Joseph Parkes and Mr. Herman 
Merivale, I find that though they contain much 
that is new and interesting in support of the 
Franciscan theory, they fail to afford the positive 
identification which the late Mr. Parkes liad for 
some years past led me and other friends to ex- 
pect. I cannot help thinking, therefore, that 
some of his materials must have been overlooked ; 
at any rate I know that he intended to avail 
himself of the communication I made to the 
public in my preface to the fifth part of the Bib- 
liographer's Manual, dated January, 18G0, and 
which occasioned a smart and useful controversy 
in The Athenccum of Feb. 25 and March 3, 10, 17, 
and 24 of the same year. Mr. Parkes was very 
much struck with the discovery of such a nest of 
political papers relating to the Junius period as is 
therein recorded, especially the tenth letter of Lu- 
cius ; and he frequently inquired as to the probabi- 
lity of their coming into my possession, seeing how 
large a sum I had offered for them. Notwith- 
standing the editor's silence on the subject, my 
conviction remains unchanged that the secret wiil 
be found in those, papers, and that the Earl of 
Iloldernesse was one of the principal channels by 
which Francis obtained such sudden information 
from the court. 

Another item which I think deserved a passing 
mention in these volumes is, the minute and 
laborious Anah/sis of Junius, drawn up by the 
late Sir Harris Nicolas, and which I parted with 
to Mr. Parkes after giving a full specimen of it 
in my edition of Junius, published in 1850. Al- 
though the analysis leads to no definite result, it 
is very useful to inquirers. And I may add, that 
there are many observations and notes in Mr. 
Wade's essay prefixed to the second volume of my 
Junius which might have been usefully quoted, as 
everything known at the time connecting Francis 
with Junius is there adduced. 

It is a curious fact in the history of the Junius 
controversy that Mr. Parkes was for many years 
a decided anti-Franciscan. I first met him in 
1825 at Ilatton Vicarage, where I was engaged 
on the papers and books of the late Dr. Parr, 
and there one day at dinner, in company with 
Mr. E. II. Barker (who compiled a volume against 
the Franciscan theory in 1827) and others, we 
had some animated discussion respecting the au- 
thorship of Junius, which happened to arise just 
then in consequence of a recent publication by 
Mr. Coventry advocating the claims of Viscount 
Sackville. Mr. Barker believed in Lloyd, which 
was Dr. Parr's recorded opinion ; I advocated 
Francis, being strongly impressed with the evi- 
dence which had some years previously been ad- 
duced by Mr. John Taylor; but Mr. Parkes, 
while setting up no hero of his own, was distinctly 
opposed to Francis. In later years, after Mr. 
Parke's removal from Birmingham to London, 
we had frequent conversations on the subject, and 
he for some time occasionally hinted that he had 
made an important discover)' in another direction, 
which be was working out ; but within the last 
fifteen years he gradually became a convert to the 
Franciscan theory, and besides obtaining the use 
of the Francis MSS. for evidence and his memoir 
of Sir Philip, he accumulated everything he could 
collect illustrative of his object, including much 
material, printed and manuscript, with which I 
had from time to time furnished him. 

Henry G. Boiin. 

As an old Pauline will you permit me to avail 
myself of your entertaining columns to point out 
an inaccuracy in Messrs. Parkes and Merivale's 
book, which Mr. Merivale may feel desirous to 
correct in future editions. In p. 5 the writer 
says : 

" In this narrative of Francis's obligations to tlie course 
of instruction in St. Paul's School, it is not irrelevant to 
add, that he acquired there a singularly line, legible, and 
facile handwriting, an accomplishment of a well-edu- 
cated gentleman, of the highest value to a youth. 

" It was not, therefore, to be wondered, that a century 
ago, the scholars, especially of St. Paul's and Christ's 
Hospital, were noted for their capital and uniform hand- 

4*S.I. Jan. 11/68.] 



Now I was entered on the Foundation of St. 1864. I have long cherished the intention of 
Paul's School at the beginning of the present cen- enlarging these facts and data to form a portion 

- - "■ ' of my Collections and Recollections, unon which I 

have* been some time engaged. By tne kindness 
of the representative of the family of Sir lxichard 
Phillips, I possess some of his papers, as well as 

In his 

tury, Dr. Roberts being the principal master, and 
I remained seven or eight years. During^ this 
period, and long after, there was no writing- 
school attached to the school. 

The hours of instruction were from seven in the 
morning, winter as well as summer. It com- 
menced with prayers, and ended at eleven also 
with prayers. In the afternoon we reassembled 
at one o'clock, and ended at four also with 


Whatever education in writing or arithmetic 
was afforded, was paid for by our several families. 
I went from eleven to twelve to Priest Court, 
Foster Lane, where I had the advantage of the 
instruction of that rare and beautiful calligraphist 
Mr. Tomkins, whose urbane and amiable manners 
endeared him to all who knew him. 


41, St. John's Wood Park. 

Richard Bentley. 


(3* S. xii. 394, 505.) 

Several inquiries which have appeared of late 
in "N. & Q. respecting my master and friend, 
Sir Richard Phillips, strengthen me in my per- 
suasion that a biography of this remarkable author 
and publisher would be interesting. I acted as 
his amanuensis for some few years ; and the respect 
he had for me, coupled with his estimate of my 
services, led to my becoming "a working author. ' 
Most men, when in their teens, and on the 
threshold of the world, have their attention at- 
tracted to the career of some one man whose 
conversation or pursuits influence their own future 
course ; and although the detractors of Sir Richard 
Phillips may say that I might have chosen a more 
methodical model, I do not hesitate to say that 
for such humble success as I have attained during 
the last fifty years, I owe more to my connection 
with Sir Richard Phillips than to any other man. 
I first met him at the dinner-table of my then 
master, an intelligent printer, at Dorking, in Sur- 
rey ; and, although I sat mute, as became an 
apprentice, I was an attentive listener to the con- 
versation of Sir Richard, who, by the way, was 
an excellent raconteur, and, moreover, was ad- 
mirable in the art of dictation. He would walk 
about his room by the hour, pouring out for my 
pen many a well -sustained narrative, which re- 
quired scarcely any correction in proof. 

Upon the death of Sir Richard at Brighton, 
April 2, 1840, I wrote iu the Literary World 
vol. iii. ) several recollections of rav master and 
riend (pp. 57, >(>, 102, 117, 130) ; and these re- 
collections I extended to a chapter in my Walks 
an!) Talks about London, published in December, 

notes of his long and eventful career, 
retirement, at Brighton, he commenced writing 
his Autobiography, in which he made consider- 
able progress ; but, from circumstances which 
need not be here explained, this MS. has been 
destroyed — at least, such is my belief. Although 
I am not vain enough to expect that what I shall 
write will meet the expectations of your corre- 
spondents, it shall be truthful ; and I am not 
unmindful that, of men's actions in this world 

" The good is oft interred with their bones." 

I may perhaps be allowed to mention that, in 
the enlarged edition of my Curiosities of London 
just published, frequent reference is made to the 
career of Sir Richard Phillips : for he was a 
Londoner, and served a* one of its most intelli- 
gent sheriffs (1807-1808), and wrote a volume 
upon the duties of the oilice. He also formed the 
Sheriffs' Fund ; although, in ail that appeared 
lately in the journals, his name was not once 
mentioned as the originator of this benevolent 
fund, now of several thousands; and, in the lead- 
ing journal, he was named as Sir Robert Phillips 
in a notice of Lady Morgan's early life. 

As u more last words/' I would add, that the 
Recollections, to which 1 have presumed to refer, 
will include my intercourse with authors and 
publishers, and proprietors of public journals; 
mv lomr services: and incidental details of the 
production of one hundred and twenty volumes 
for that very multitudinous master — the public: 
whose good opinion I have ever striven to deserve 
by regard for il all that's good, and all that's fair." 

John Timbs. 

Gibb Baronetcy (3*S. xii. 274, 3G2, 421, 5:36.) 

Although a newspaper is hardly the proper place 

to discuss a question of private right, I cannot, as 
agent for Sir Duncan fiibb, leave wholly unnoticed 
the communication signed Anglo-Scotus, in your 
issue of 28th inst, the tone of which, I must say, 
is somewhat inconsistent with the professions of 
his being actuated solely by public motives. 

Axolo-Scotus is mistaken in claiming for the 
Sheriff Court of Chancery in Edinburgh exclusive 
jurisdiction in regard to titles of honour. Since 
its creation about twenty years ago, only one 
Scotch baronet has resorted to it for confirmation 

of his title under very special circumstances, and 
such a proceedure is never dreamt of by English 

In the course he has followed, and the steps he 
has taken to assume the title, Sir Duncan Gibb 



[4* S.I. Jan. 11, '68. 

has acted under the very highest legal advice ; and 
as Anglo-Scotus is necessarily unaware of the 
evidence, filling several volumes, on which Sir 
Duncan relies, both in reference to the terms of 
Sir Henry Gibb's patent and his own propinquity, 
he cannot be in a position to form an opinion 
entitled to any weight. 

It is of course impossible to give the details of 
this evidence in your columns, and I can only say 
that it fully establishes Sir Duncan's right to 
Sir Henry Gibb's baronetcy, and that the only 

{mrties who can doubt this are those who have 
lad no opportunity of forming a proper judgment. 

Andrew Stein, 
W. S. and Parliamentary Agent. 

[We prefer, fur obvious reasons, to close this corre- 
spondence with this letter, and give Mr. Stein the 
benefit of the last word.— Ed. " N. & Q."] 

What becomes of Parish Registers ? (3 rd S. 

xii. 500.) — What indeed ? I cau answer the 
question. Some are burnt through carelessness, 
because they are kept at the vicarage instead of 
in the iron safe in the vestry; some are allowed 
to rot from damp and mildew, because the vicar 
of the parish has forgotten the importance of the 
trust which he undertook when he was inducted ; 
some are destroyed as waste paper or parchment ; 
and some, as E. II. A. points out, are cut up by 
the curate's wife to make kettle-holders of. I 
made some strong' remarks on these subjects nine 
years ago (2 nd S. vi. 402), to which I solicit a 
reference ; and I solicit a reference to p. 507 et seq., 
where Mr. T. P. Lanumead, Mr. \V. II. Hart, 
and the Rev. II. T. Ellacombe have some for- 
cible observations and a digest of the law. Now 
that new and extensive Kecord Offices are avail- 
able, and so much is done for the preservation of 
the archives of the realm, it does seem strange 
that those important documents, the parish regis- 
ters, are not taken more under the care of the 
government. Nine vicars out of every ten, in spite 
of their self-sufficiency, and nineteen church- 
wardens out of every twenty, by their ignorance 
and pig-headedness, are not tit to have the keep- 
ing of such books, as all experience has proved 
over and over again. These facts give strength 
to my argument when I declare that the old 
registers ought to be in better hands, and I wish 
some one connected with the government would 
take the matter up. P. Hutchinson. 

Your correspondent asks a very important ques- 
tion. That many of the old registers are disap- 
pearing, is unquestionable. I have myself copies 
of seven registers, the originals of which are not 
now to be found, nor are there transcripts of them 

up with his books and papers, and so lost. Many 
are lying in a damp and tattered state in the 
vestry, and seldom referred to. 

Is it not a reproach, that all the registers of 
the Dissenters, the Quakers, the foreign Pro- 
testant refugees, &c. &c, have been carefully bound 
and deposited by the government with the Regis- 
trar General at Somerset House, while the valu- 
able parochial registers of the kingdom are left to 
annual decay and loss. "Who will see to this? 
For many years Echo has answered, ""Who?" 

John S. Burn. 


Cuddy (3* S. vii. 53 ; viii. 507.)— In connec- 
tion with this word, I may say that "cuddy-bat," 
for the slight blow or tap by which one boy chal- 
lenges another to fight, is known over a great part 
of Yorkshire. u Cuddy-cloth," too, for the napkin 
covering a baby's face when taken to christen, is 
familiar to me. "Cuddy" is the word for a 
bird, if it is only a little one, or small of its 
kind, and not of the hedge-sparrow particularly, 
if your correspondent Cuthbert Bede will pardon 
a correction. The smallest finger on the hand 
is called "cuddv-finger." A mother will say. 
on taking baby's u suck-thumb M out of its mouth, 
" Let its little cuddy-thumb alone." I can just 
remember making one in a party of juveniles bent 
on trespassing on the grounds of a certain old 
Quaker, for the purpose of seeing a foal, whose 
attention we invited by calling out, in a coaxing 
way, " Cuddy, cuddy, cuddy ! " " Neddy," for 
an ass, I take to be in general use, since it is as 
well known in these northern as in the midland 
and southern counties. 

(i Cuddv " is also a name associated with a 
scraping save-all disposition. "Ah likes to gan 
as near hand t' weav as ah can, but ah's nane a 
cuddy body ; " so a North Yorkshire person would 
sav. C. C. II. 

Beauty Unfortunate (3 rd S. xi. 517.) — There 
is no necessity for the inference that Goethe took 
the idea from Calderon. It is at least as old as 
Juvenal, x. 293 : 

" Sed vctat optari faciem Lucretia qualein 
psa habuit, cupcret Rutihe Virginia gibb 

Accipere, atque suam Rutilai dare." 



Family of Napoleon (3 rd S. xi. 507.) — I saw, 

some years ago, a statement that the family of 
Napoleon had come originally into Italy from the 
Balearic Isles. When V was Envoy in Spain I 
was anxious to discover on what this supposition 
rested, as it was said that there were arms, borne 
by the Buonapartes, on an old palace at Palma. 
It is well known that there was considerable 
in the bishop's registry. Many old registers are j communication between the Balearic Isles and 

kept at the parsonage house ; and on the death of 
the incumbent are, too frequently I fear, mixed 

Italy, especially Pisa, in the fourteenth and fif- 
teenth centuries: witness the earthenware, of Srffra- 

4* S. I. Jan. 11, '68.] 



cenic origin, imported into and improved in Italy, 
and called to this day Majolica. I was, however, 
never able to find anything confirming the state- 
ment to which I allude. Howden. 

Use of the Word "Party" (3 rd S. iii. 427, 

4G0; xii. 365, 424.) — The earliest use of this 
word in the sense of person with which I am ac- 
quainted occurs in the works of Sir Thomas More, 
about 1520. It occurs six times in the Book of 
Common Prayer (1559); in the Injunctions of 
Elizabeth (1559); in the Tempest, iii. 2; in the 
Primary Charge of the present Archbishop of 
Canterbury; and, I have little doubt, in many 
other places where "slang" would be out of the 
question. J. M. Cowper. 

Her (3 rd S. xii. 401.)— The inquiry of C. as to 
the use of her in lieu of the genitive, is likely to 
revive the vexed question of the origin of the f 8 
in the case of female names. Were Danish as 
thoroughly studied in England as Anglo-Saxon 
is, the debate could scarcely have arisen. Nine 
hundred years ago an inhabitant of the North of 
England would have written — had he known the 
art of writing — Knud hans kaard, and Dagmar 
hennes kors, and when speaking, would have ab- 
breviated the two phrases thus: KnucTs kaard 
and Dagmar* s kors, meaning Canute's sword and 
Dagmar* 8 cross. The genitive 's of modern Eng- 
lish is simply an abbreviation of the Danish hans 

3 rd S. xii. p. 23— "A Lady's Wardrobe in 1622." 
" Note of Lady Elizabeth Morgan, late sister to 
Sir Nathaniel Rich, her wearing apparell," &c. 

W. E. Buckley. 

C. asks for examples, in old writers, of the use 
of her in lieu of a genitive feminine. Here is 
one, from the u History of the Curious-imperti- 
nent," in Shelton's Don Quixote, 1675 : — 

<; She also demanded of him his advice, touching the 
excuse they mi^lit make to Anselmo concerning her 

Mistress her wound." 



gevity of Lawyers 

r read before the Stai 


(see their Journal, xxii. 337), Dr. Guy (now 
F.ll.S.) gives the following comparative state- 



Ave raze 


Trade and Commerce 
Officers of the Royal Navy 
Lawyers . 

English Literature and Science 
Members of the Medical Profession 
Officers of the Army . 
The Fine Arts . 

Number of 



If these figures are to be relied upon, the legal 

profession is less favourable to life than the 

(his) after masculine, and of hennes (her) after I clerical, and more so than the medical professions. 



■eatly, and it is much to be regretted that our 
nglish philologists have hitherto directed their 
attention almost exclusively to the former. 

The patois still spoken by the common people 
between the Humber and the foot of the Gram- 
pians is full of Danicisms ; so much so, that when 
once driven by a shower into a public house in a 
village near Leeds, where a party of clothiers 
were in noisy confab, it required an effort to con- 
vince myself that I was not in the midst of a 
knot of peasants in a krog in South Jutland. 


The title of a work by Sir John Conway, which 
is noticed in Brydgea' Censura Litcraria, vi. 280 
(first ed.), supplies an instance of this usage of the 
word her 

But as the source from which they are drawn is 
the obituaries of the Annual Register, they are of 
very slight authority. It will be seen that the 
number of cases of lawyers and medical men 
averaged is very small as compared with that of 
the clergy. 

In another calculation, Dr. Guy took only "the 
more eminent members " of the three learned pro- 
fessions, which reversed the order of longevity : — 
174 eminent medical men died at an average age 
of G7; 137 eminent lawyers, at 66 £ ; and 902 
eminent clergymen, at 06$ ; leading to the in- 
ference (which, it does not follow, is a sound one) 

[>** • 

" Meditations and Praiers, gathered out of the sacred 
letters and vertuous writers : disposed in fourme of the 
Alphabet of the Queene, her most excellent Majcstie's 
name." London : H. Wykes. N. d. 8vo. 

In the reprint by V. Sims, 1611, 12mo, in which 
the compliment is transferred from the deceased 
queen to a living princess, the Lady Elizabeth, 
eldest daughter to King James, the form is altered, 
being " the Lady Elizabeth's name." 

Another instance will ha found in " N * O " 

that high professional distinction is accompanied 
by some curtailment of life. 

I believe that lawyers live at least as long as 
men of any other profession. Among other causes, 
I think their annual observance of the long vaca- 
tion is eminently conducive to long life. 

Job J. B. Workard. 


Matiiew Family (3 rd S. xii. 433.) — I do not 
find any liicfiard Matthew in the list of generals 
of the arrpy given in Haydn's Book of Dignities. 
Edward Matthew appears as created general Jan. 
20, 1797. He died m 1805, and consequently was 
not murdered by Tippoo Saib. Is this the person 
meant ? P. W. Trepolpen. 



[4* S.I. Jan. 11, '68. 

Dr. Wolcot (3' d S. xii. 39,94, 151, 235, &c.) 

In the Appendix to his Traditions and Recollections 
(182G), the Rev. Richard Folwhele says — 

"I will lure add (what I was not sure of before) that 
Dr. VV. was ordained botli deacon and priest by the 
Bishop of London. The letters of ordination are now in 
the hands of his relation Mrs. Giddy, of Penzance, relict 
of that worthy man Mr. Thomas Giddy, of whom a me- 
moir has lately appeared in the Gentleman s Magazine." 

P. W. TltErOLPEN. 

Boulanger died 

Tom Paine (3 rd S. xii. 503.) 

in 1759. The preface to Le Christianismc Devoilt 
is dated "Paris, le4 Mai, 1758. " It was written by 
the Baron d' Holbach, who, being rich enough to 
have his books printed abroad, and prudent enough 
not to bring himself under the law by avowing 
them, used Boulanger's name for this, and Mira- 
baud's for his Sysieme de la Nature. Le Chris- 
tianisine Devoile is a loose, declamatory, atheistic 
book, well written, and of no great power, but 
not " a miserable performance/ ' I do not think 
it contains anything which could be called a 
u witticism." Certainly it is free from ribaldry : 
Holbach was a gentleman. Paine's " witticisms " 
are his weakest part : they are poor, vulgar, and 
often pointless, but I believe original. Had ho 
possessed a disposition to steal, and taste to select, 
lie might have found abundance of wit in writers 
of views similar to his own. Two non-religious 

authors writing 

on the 


same subject 
thirty years of each other, are almost sure to have 
resemblances, but I see no " suspicious v likeness 
between Holbach and Paine. See Biographie 
Gincrale, arts. "Holbach " and " Boulanger," and 
Brunet, Manuel du Librairc, t. i. p. 1171, and 
t. iii. pp. 251 and 1730. 

A translation of Le Christ ianisme Dcvoild, by 
W. M. Johnson, was published by R. Carlile in 
1819. I send a scrap from the " Editor's Pre- 
face : "— 

"This publication bears a conspicuous rank among 
those works whose free and independent sentiments have 
introduced a happy change in the public mind, and con- 
curred with the writings of Mably, Rousseau, Raynal, 
and Voltaire in bringing forward the French Revolution ; 
a revolution which will probably prove the harbinger of 
the complete triumph of reason. Persecutions and wars 
will then cease for ever through the civilized world." 

The prediction does not seem likely to be ful- 
filled in our time. When it is, I hope some future 
correspondent will " make a note of it" for our 
successors. FiTznorxiNS. 

Gar rick Club. 

Sir James Wood's Regiment (3 rd S. xi. 

314.) — It may, perhaps, be too late for G.'s pur- 
pose, but I find that Sir James Wood (who had 
previously been in the Dutch service) commanded 
the Scotch Fusiliers, now the 21st Royal North 
British Fusiliers, from March 9, 17:?^, to May 18, 
1738, when he died, and was succeeded on Nov. 1, 
1738, by Colonel J. Campbell. D. II. 

Marriage op Women to Men (3 rd S. xii. 501.) 

I am inclined to think that the announcements 
which offend the sense of propriety of L. K. imply 
nothing more than that the bridegroom thought 
he was performing an act of courtesy to the other 
party to the contract by causing her name to be 
placed first in the announcements of it. 

Jon J. B. Workard. 

Homeric Traditions (3 rd S. xii. 372, 533.)— I 

am not at all u uneasy " because Sophocles ascribes 
to Ajax the preservation of the Greek fleet by fire, 
while our Iliad ascribes it to Patroclus. This is 
mere misrepresentation. Instead of being " un- 
easy/' I am perfectly satisfied that Sophocles, 
Ovid, and Lucilius are higher authorities regard- 
ing Homeric traditions than Antimachus of Colo- 
phon. Thos. L'Estrange. 

li Comparisons are Odious " (3 rd S. xii. 278, 

470.) — See Bojardo, Orlando Innamorato, c. vi. 4, 
rifatto da Berni, Milano, 180(3, " ma le compara- 
zion son tutte odiose. 1 ' In the real Bojardo, 
edited by Panizzi, 1833, the first four stanzas of 
canto vi. do not occur. Juxta Turrim. 

Brush or Pencil (3 rd S. xii. 110, 300, 418.) 
The following quotation from W. Rossetti's Fine 
Art, recently published, p. 112, appears to be 
apropos of this subject : 

•'Actual resemblance in method there is none what- 
ever. The Frenchman (C. Courbet) is the roughest of 
the rough; the Englishmen (the Prneraphaelites) the 
most exquisite of the elaborate. The first paints with a 
scrubbing^ brush clotted with coarse paint and chalk-grits ; 
the second with a Jine camels hair dipped in the choicest 
and purest tints of the palette." 

George Vere Irving. 

Religious Sects (3 rd S. xii. 343.) — This curious 
list has already, I think, appeared in some papers. 
It may need some explanation, that the designa- 
tions are often not names, but descriptions under 
which a particular congregation is registered. 
This is certainly the case with regard to the longest 
in the list, in which, too, the omission of the little 
word u its " alters much or most of the meaning. 
" Protestants adhering to Articles of Church of 
England, 1 to 18 inclusive, but rejecting Order 
and Ritual/' should be u rejecting its order and 
ritual " ; that is, the order and ritual of the Church 
of England, and not all order or order in general. 
It sets forth in fact the common ground taken by 
the old Nonconformists of 1G89, who adhered to 
the doctrinal articles of the Church of England, 
but not to its order and ritual ; for unless these 
were rejected, they could not have been Noncon- 
formists at all. 

This description in registration was, I know, 
| used as to Duke Street Chapel, Westminster, 
which up to that time had been an Episcopal 
Proprietary Chapel ; and when it ceased so to be, 
this was shown in the registration. When the 

4* S. 1. Jan. It, '68.] 



• • 

site of this chapel was wanted for public offices, 
and notice of its demolition was given, the con- 
gregation used the same description in connection 
with their new location in Queen's Road, Bays- 

I think that in some other cases the registration 

has, in the list, been copied loosely or incorrectly. 


St. Osbkrn (3* S. xii. 462.)— I do not think 
there is any British saint of the name of Osbern ; 
but I speak with much diffidence, as our lists do 
not seem to be by any means complete. The 
derivation suggested for the name Closeburn may 
still be true. Osbern was formerly a common name, 

Asbiorn [Osbern], the jarl, was slain in battle a.d. 
871.— Sax. Chron. ed. Thorpe, 138-139. 

Asbiorn [Osbern], the jarl, came a.d. 1079, along with 

the three sons of King Svein, to plunder Yorkshire.— Ibid. 

Karl Si ward had a son named Osbern. In 1054 this 
Earl, with a large army and a force of ships, invaded 
Scotland and routed Macbeth. He carried oft'great booty, 
but his son Osbern, his sister's son Siward, and others, 
were killed, ' on pone dtvg Sept em Dormientium, t. e. 
July 27.— Ibid. 322. 

Osbert, or Osbern, a Norman, became Bishop of Exeter 
in 1074. He died 1 I03.-Godwin, Cat. of Bishops, ed. 1G01, 
p. 322. 

Among the Pleas on the Octave of St. John Baptist 
[July 1 J in the first year of John [1199 J, was one be- 
tween Philip, the son of Osbern, and the prior of Her- 
mondsey, concerning fourteen acres of land in Kedhirheia, 
co. Surrey. — But. Cur. Begis, i. 424. 

Edward Peacock. 
Heraldic Queries: Acciaiuoli, Giustiniani 

(3 rd S. xii. 401.)— A. D ### will find the armorial 

insignia of these two families depicted on the first 
pa^e of the genealogy of each, as given by Pompeo 
Litta in his well-known work containing the his- 
tory of several among the great Italian families. 


Venice in 1848-49 (3* S. xii. 414.)— The fol- 
lowing list of writings on the defence of Venice, 
in Italian, English, French, and German, will 
answer K. B.'s Query : 

1. Delia difesa di Venezia. F. Carrano. Genova, 1800. 

2. Montanelli, Memurie. 

3. Beminiscenze di A. Giustiniam. 

4. Captain Maffei's description. 

6. Count Comello's do. 

G. (Jerlin (Manin's Secretary), written from day to day. 

7. Daniel Manin's manuscript notes. 
Daniel e Manin, by II. Castille. 

19. Manin itVItalie, bvC.L.Chassin (afaithful narrative.) 
Daniel Manin, par Henri Martin. 
Souvenir de Manin, par Ernest Le Gouv<5. 

12. Etude stir Manin, par Felix Mornand. 

13. Journal de M. Le Consul Vasseur. 




I/istoire des Revolutions et des Guerres d^Italie, par le 
(ie'neral IVpe'. 

Guerre de V 1 ndpendance Italienne, par le Ge'ne'ral 
1G. Histoire de la Bepublique de Venise sous Manin, par 

A. de la Forge. 




Bicordi di Degli Antoni, 

Venice, the City of the Sea, by Edmund Flagg (very 

Correspondence respecting the Affairs of Italy, by Sir 

R. Abercrombv. 
Articles by a German Eye-witness ( 4< Gazette d'AugS- 


r. a. l. 

Arms of Foundling Hospital (3 rd S. xii. 
228.) — I find that these arms are parodied from 
those of the city of Rome, which are, Azuro and 
vert with a wolf (the nurse of the twins) occupying' 
the centre of the shield, where Hogarth has placed 
the child! Thus Hogarth's design lacks origi- 
nality. The colours of the shield and the wolf (of 
his note) are all suggested by the arms of the 
Eternal City ! S. J. 

William Bridge (3 rJ S. xii. 318.) — As my 

friend's house is closed for the winter, and he is 
" off and away," I cannot give the arms wanted 
by C. J. P. I have, however, no doubt that they 
are those of Cole the printer, and not those of 
Bridge. If Mr. B. was an Independent, why is 
his portrait preserved at the Unitarian Chapel in 

Yarmouth ? S. Jackson. 

Gibbon's House at Lausanne (3 rd S. x. 485.) 

The old proverb of " many a slip between the cup 
and the lip " has been verified. The house will 
not be pulled down, the theatre will not be built, 
as stated in my former note. The proprietors of 
an adjacent property (a literary club) refuse to 
sell, and " Gibbon's House " will remain as it is ! 
The Calvinistic Free Church has had influence 
enough to prevent a new theatre being erected ; 
and to that " unco guid " body and their active 
canvassing of the club we owe the preservation of 
the house of the free-thinking historian ! (tnira- 
bile diet ft .') I hear that the house has been let 
for a pension. J. II. Dixon. 

Bloody (3 rd S. xii. 4G0.) — I think the origin 
of this vulgar and very revolting epithet may be 
very satisfactorily traced. It has unhappily too 
close a connexion with what is most sacred ; 
though not one in a thousand of those who use it 
is at all aware of this. Every one unhappily 
knows how prone our ancestors were to use the 
most horrible oaths, which I cannot bring myself 
to write. One of these, and perhaps the most 
common, was "By the Blood and Wounds" of 
our Blessed Redeemer. The latter word was 
made into an adjective wound;/ f and I remember 
its frequent occurrence as such in old songs, as 


She sung so woundy sweet." 

"We need not then wonder if the word blood was 
with like profanity turned into the adjective 
blood;/, the use of which is now so prevalent with 
the lower classes, while the other has long gone 

into disuse. I think there can be no doubt that 



[4* S.I. Jan. 11, '68. 

bloody is the remnant of an oath, like zounds and 
some other profane expressions. F. C. H. 

The Dutch word bloedig is used in much the 
same way as the English, as signifying excessive 
or difficult, as an adjective ; but never, I think, 
as an adverb qualifying an adjective. I have 
always understood that the English adverb bloody, 
which has simply an intensive power, has no con- 
nection with the word blood, but means very or 
greatly. I am unable to verify this just now, but 
perhaps the suggestion will provoke some further 
information from other correspondents. M. 

I am very glad so able a correspondent has 
stigmatised the disgusting use of this word. It 
seems to have succeeded woundy, a phrase still 
sometimes heard among the rustic classes — 
u woundy hard," a woundy hot," " woundy wet." 
The " blood and wounds " alluded to are those of 
the most sacred character, and the words were in 
olden times rather matters of solemn asseveration 


The old-fashioned 

I am glad to see that 

A. A. 

reckless blasphemy. 
" zounds " was one form of corruption of wounds 
one need not allude to. 
it is fast going out of use. 

Poetic Hyperboles (3 rd S. ix. 471.) — Spen- 
ser's — 

" Rome only might to Rome compared bee," 

reminds one of Virgil's — 

" Rerum pulcherrima Roma," 

which Thorvaldsen used to translate in writing, 
Roma, backwards Amor, as being, he said, syno- 
nymous. 1\ A. L. 

Scottish Legal Ballad (3 rd S. xii. 484.) — 

The author was James Boswell, the biographer 
of Johnson. The ballad will be found in full in 
Chambers's Traditions of Edinburgh, and is called 
4t The Court of Session Garland." It is also 
printed in a later publication containing other 
productions of the same general character, and 
bearing the same name as applicable to the whole. 
This is to be found in both of the Law Libraries 
in Edinburgh ; but to save your correspondent 
trouble I shall, so soon as this reply appears in 
your periodical, send addressed to "A. K., Post 
Office, Deer, Aberdeenshire," an envelope contain- 
ing the name and residence of a gentleman in 
Aberdeen, who I know has a copy of this later 
book, which I suppose he will readily show to 
any applicant. 

I cannot agree with A. R. in his apparent esti- 
mate of the merits of the ballad. It seems to me 
to be no better than a kind of refined doggrel, 
with a few, very few, humorous touches. 

Lord Pitfour was not only a Lord of Justiciary, 
but was also a Lord of Session ; and your corre- 
spondent should have known that he must have 
held the latter judgeship to entitle him to the 
former, though the reverse is not the case. 

Lord Pitfour left two sons, viz. James, who 
entered the Faculty of Advocates, but never prac- 
tised, and who long represented Aberdeenshire in 
Parliament ; and the other, usually called " the 
Governor," was at one time Governor of one of the 

West India Islands. The father and sons, when in 
Edinburgh, occupied a very humble dwelling up 
two flights of a stair, in a tenement which fronts 
St. Giles's Cathedral. It still exists, and is known 
as " Pitfour's Land." The Governor died there. 

James, who never opened his mouth in Parlia- 
ment, was a great admirer and staunch supporter 
of Mr. Pitt. It is told (I think by Earl Stan- 
hope) that on one occasion, Mr. Pitt having risen to 
speak in the House of Commons, and a splendid 
oration from him being expected, a member, 
finding Mr. Ferguson at dinner in the kitchen of 
the House, told him to make haste, as Mr. Pitt 
had begun. "Not a bit," said Ferguson ; "Mr. 
Pitt would not leave his dinner to hear ?ne" This 
being told Mr. Pitt, he said : " Well, I rather 
think I would." G. 

Govett Family (3 rd S. xii. 207, 274.) — The 
branch of the Govett family I knew, resided at 
Staines, Middlesex. Mr. Govett was vicar the 
many years, where most of his children were 
born. He married the eldest daughter of the 
Rev. Dr. Romaine of Reading. He had another 
daughter married, but I believe had no children. 
Dr. Romaine left a large fortune, which the 
Govetts inherited. The eldest son took the name 
of Romaine after his grandfather, and perhaps the 
Ven. Archdeacon Govett is one of this family. 
Most likely they were related to the Tiverton 
branch. A Mr. Govett has been doing the duty 
in our parish some time back. 

Julia R. Bockett. 

Bradney, near Heading. 

Bisnop Andrewes' Bequests (3 rd S. xii. 393.) 

In MaskelTs History of Allhalloivs Barking, \>. 1G7, 
there is an extract from Bishop Andrewes' will, 
giving 20/. to each of the parishes of Allhallows 
Barking, where he was born, and St. Saviour, 
South wark, where he lies buried; also 10/. to 
other city parishes. All the bishop's bequests are 
now administered by trustees under the Charity 
Commissioners. In the scheme of the commis- 
sioners the spirit rather than the express terms of 
the will is adhered to, and in the administration 
of these bequests the trustees are under no obli- 
gation to obey the testament to the letter, espe- 
cially in regard to the parishes in the city of Lon- 
don. I may mention, in passing, that the Andrewes 
family were eminent benefactors to Barking parish, 
bequests from the bishop's father Thomas, his 
mother Joan, and brother John being found in the 
list of " Benefactions and Charities " suspended in 
the lobby of the church, and duly recorded in the 
volume already referred to. Juxta Turrim. 

4* S.I. Jan. 11, '68.] 




I have before 

me an engraving by Wille, after L. Tocqu^ (not 
Le Tocque) representing Charles Edward as Prince 
of Wales, in armour, with a white necktie, the 
ribbon of the Order of the Garter round his neck, 
the star of the order on his ermined cloak, but 
without the hand or helmet. Beneath are the 
words a Carolus, Walliae Princeps," &c. And in 
the middle of the inscription are the badge of the 
Prince of Wales, the three ostrich feathers, and 
li Ich dien ; v underneath the arms of Great 

given to the world ; indeed it was chiefly owing to 
Lord Byron's recommendation that Coleridge at 
length did publish it. The irregular structure of 
the Lay of tlie Last Minstrel (published 1805) 
was suggested to Sir Walter by Christabel, the 
music of which seems to have had a great charm 
for the mighty minstrel's ear. 

Jonathan BorcHiER. 
Mr. W. J. Bernhard Smith is perhaps too 

hasty in giving up his theory if the publication of 
the Bridal of Triermain preceded that of Christa- 

Britain, and above the regal crown, a helmet M If C hri*tabel was not published till 1816, it 
with the prince s coronet surmounted by a lion was in ex5stence in MS and known by Coleridge's 

rampant. At the bottom of the print, wh ich is friends and / among them) Sir Walter Scott long 
French, is written— " Peint par L. Toequ<5, 1/48 ' - - v - & - • J - - ~- -- D 

et grav6 par J. G. Wille en la meme ann^e." 

P. A. L. 

P.S. There is a fine full-length portrait of 
Queen Marie Leczinska, by L. Tocqu£, in the 

before that date. 


Historical Museum, Chateau de Versailles. 
Matthew Bacon (3 rd S. xii. p. 460.) 

answer to a query in " N. & Q." of December 7 
inst, I can furnish the following particulars as to 
Matthew Bacon, the author of Bacon's Abridge- 
ment, who was the uncle of my grandmother 
ex parte paternd. Matthew Bacon was the second 
son of Edward Bacon of Rathkenny, in thecounty 
of Tipperary, and was born, according to a pedi- 
♦gree in my possession, in 1702. Matthew was 
the grandson of Edward Bacon, an officer in 
Crom well's army, who settled in Tipperary, and 
obtained the lands of Rathkenny, portion of 
which are now in my possession, derived from 
my grandmother, Elizabeth Hemphill, otherwise 
Bacon. Matthew appears to have settled in Lon- 
don verv early in life, became a member of the 
Middle T 

pie, and died sine prole. I have always 
understood that the late Mr. Hargrave got posses- 
sion of manv of Matthew Bacon's MSS. and tracts. 
Mr. Basil Montagu was one of Mr. Hargrave's 
executors, and probably through this channel 
further information may be obtained. I should 
be glad if your correspondent, in return for this, 
would communicate any further particulars as to 
Matthew Bacon which may come to his knowledge. 
Matthew Bacon's name is mentioned in a deed of 
family settlement relating to the lands of Rath- 
kenny, dated April 21, 1731, the original of which 
I have among my title-deeds. 

Charles Hare Hemphill. 

23, Merrion Square, Dublin. 

Coleridge's " Christabel" (3 rd S. xii. 430.) 

Will you pardon my reminding you that although 
Coleridge did not publish his beautiful poem of 
Christabel until 1816, he had, nevertheless, written 
it many years before this period. The first part 
ho wrote* in 1797, the second in 1800. Sir Walter 
Scott and Lord Byron were both well acquainted 
with this truly imaginative work long ere it was 

I have heard Coleridge more 
than once refer to the versification of the L,ay of 
the Lad Minstrel having been suggested to Sir 
Walter bv his (Coleridge's) 

Christabel. I may 
notice that the horrible fascination impressed upon 
Christabel by the lofty lady is supposed or sug- 
gested to be the effect of the latter disclosing the 
pap under the arm with which witches are fur- 
nished, and at which a small devil is supposed to 
be usually sucking. J. H. C. 

Degrees op Consanguinity (3 rd S. xii. 501.) 

The parties were probably first cousins : for these 
are in the fourth degree of consanguinity to each 
other, according to the computation of the civi- 
lians which prevails in Scotland. 

Job J. B. Workard. 



History of the French Revolution, by Hcinrich Von 
Sybel, Professor of History in the University of Bonn. 

Tran* l/ited from the Third Edition of the Original Ger- 
man Work by Walter C. Perry, Esq. (In Four Volumes.) 
Vols. I. and II. (Murray.) 

A calm, dispassionate, well-considered History of the 
French Revolution, free alike from extravagant eulogy 
or unmitigated censure, cannot fail to be welcomed by 
all who desire to study the great historical drama which 
is still developing before our eves, and of which the 
world has not yet seen the catastrophe. Professor Sybel 
had peculiar facilities for the preparation of such a work ; 
for not only has he had the one great advantage of 
studying the subject from the German point of view 
almost all the German archives, more particularly those 
of Coburg and Prussia, having been placed at his free 
disposal— but the records of our own Foreign Office ; and, 
lastly, through the favour of the Emperor of the French, 
he was enabled with grateful satisfaction to supplement 
from French documents the knowledge obtained through 
German sources. The result is a book which has ob- 
tained so distinguished a reputation in Germany as to 
render it unnecessary for Mr. Perry to offer any apology 
for presenting it to the English public. When we add 
that the translation has been made at Bonn under the 
eye of the author, who has enlarged and improved some 
portions of it in accordance with fresh information, we 
feel we have done enough to commend these important 
historical volumes to English readers. 



[4* S. I. Jan. 11, '68. 


The Iliad of Homer rendered into English Blank Verse. 
To which are appended Translations of Poems y Ancient 
and Modern. By Edward, Karl of Derby. In Two 
Volumes, Sixth Edition. (Murray.) 

A new translation of Homer, and reaching a sixth 
edition in three years! What is the secret of such suc- 
cess ? Twofold, we think. " Why it is literal ! " said a 
youthful critic fresh from a public school on taking up 
and reading a page or two from the copy before us. That 
is the first. The second is, that Lord Derby has so suc- 
cessfully preserved " the majestic simplicity of the grand 
old poet," and his heroic blank verse flows so naturally, 
that the poem reads not like a translation, but with the 
freshness of an original work. 

A Descriptive Catalogue of Friend*' Boohs, or Books 
written by Members of the Society of Friends, commonly 
called Quakers, from their first Rise to the present 
Time; interspersed with Critical Remarks and occasional 
Biographical Notices, and including all Writings by 
Authors before joining, and by those after having left the 
Society, whether adverse or not, as far as known. By 
Joseph Smith. In two volumes. (Mnith, 2, Oxford 

Street, Whitechapel.) 

Twentv vears since it occurred to the author, the well- 
known Quaker bookseller, that it would be a good thing 
to compile a Catalogue of Friends' Books, on the principle 
of that published by John Whiting in 1708, and which has 
lone: been verv scarce. For twentv vears has he busied 
himself this way, using for his purpose not only his own 
constantly varying stock, the Libraries of the British 
Museum and Sion College, but also the two Libraries 
especially rich in such books, namely, the two belonging 
to the Society under the care of the Meeting for Suffer- 
ings in London. Various literary members of his own 
religious body have also rendered him great [assistance, 
and it is therefore perhaps not much to be wondered at 
that he should have produced a work apparently so 
complete and exhaustive as we believe the present will 
be found. The Catalogue occupies two thousand pages, 
and as the books are very carefully described, and the 
author has added in innumerable instances biographical 
notices of their writers, the book may fairly be pro- 
nounced one alike creditable to the compiler aud useful to 
the bibliographer. 

English Heraldry. By Charles Boutell, M.A. With Four 
Hundred and Fifty Illustrations, drawn and engraved 

on Wood by Mr. R. B. Utting. (Cassell.) 

To judge from the number of heraldic books published 
of late years, the study of heraldry must be spreadin 
among us. Mr. Boutell has already published one very 
useful book upon the subject. The present, which is 
admirably illustrated, well arranged, and fully indexed, 
forms a capital handbook of the science. 

The Lambkth Library continues to be the subject 
of correspondence in The Times— the writers agreeing 
only on one point, namely, in utterly disregarding the 
intentions of the pious and learned founders. By them 
the library was left to Lambeth for " the service of God 
and his Church, and of the Kings and Commonwealth of 
this Realm"; and we may rest assured that the right 
feeling of the Primate and the Ecclesiastical Commis- 
sioners will devise some satisfactory solution of the 
present difficulty, with the assistance of Parliament, if 
any amendment of the recent Act should be found 

While on the subject of Libraries, we arc glad to an- 
nounce the progress making in two of the most interesting 
special libraries in the metropolis. That of the Society 
of Antiquaries, which is peculiarly rich in topographical 

and archaeological books, has increased so largely within 


the last few years, that it has been determined to issue a 
new Hand Catalogue of them; while the Library of the 
Institute of Architects has been so largely increased by 
the voluntary subscription of the Members — the Pre- 
sident, Mr. Tite, heading the list with the munificent 
donation of 5007.— that it now contains the finest collec- 
tion of architectural works hi England. 



Particulars of price, Ac, of the following Books to be sent direct to the 
geutlemen by whom it is required* whose names and address are given 
for that purpose: — 

A Collection of Letters on Govhrkmint, Liberty, and thi Con- 
stitution. 3 or 4 Vols. 1774. Almon. 

A Collection of most intsrbstino Political Lettfhs, pi blishbd in 
1763. 4 vols. Almon. 

A Collection of iitiimio Political Tracts, 1761, 176% and 1766. 

3 or 4 Vols. Almon, 1766. 
Vox Sin ATI's. 1771. 
Wilkes* Spincnr*. 3 Vols. 

The Expostulation: a Poem. Bingley, 1768. 

Junius discovered by P. T. '7»9. 

Reasons for rbjfctino thk Evidence of Mr. Almon. 1807. 

Narrativb of tub Lieb or a Obntlbman resident in India. 

The Irknarch; or, Justice of tbi Peace's Manual. 1774. 
Pearson's Political Dictionary. 8vo, 1792. 

Memoirs of J. T. Serres, Marinb Painter to His Majesty. 8V0. 

Tin Hoyal Riois?kr. 9 Vols. 12mo, 1780. 

Wanted by William J. Thorn* % h*a. % 40, St. George's Square, 


At juiKr's IIistory oe Wiltshire. 

Clottkrbuck*s History or Hertfordshire. 3 Vols. 

Notes and Queries. A complete set. 

Shai'Wei.l's Plays. 4 Vols. 

La Belle Assembles. A complete set. 


Kkskine on the Fhfbness OF TUB (fOSFEL. 

Goethe's Faust, translated by Lord Ellesmere. 

Uncle Tom's Cabin and Wyandotte; Bentley's Novels original edi- 

Markham on Arcrerib. 12mo, 1604. 

Wanted by Mr. Thomas Beet, Bookseller. 15, Conduit Street. 

Bond Street. London, W. 

Milton's Paradisb Lost. John Sharpc, Piccalilly, 1816-23. 

Wanted by Mr. E. Watford, 27, Bouverie Street. 

Lifb and Deatu of William tub CoRQUKROR. By Samuel Clark. 

4tO, 1671. 

Churchill's Collection of Voyaoes. Vol. III. Folio. 
Patrick Hume's Commentary on Milton. Folio. 

Wanted by Mr. John Wilson, 93, Great Russell Street, W.C. 

Morris's (Caxt.) Lyra Urbanica; or, Social Effusions. 2 Vols, oost 

Montaigne's Essays, translated. 

K.moht's Quarterly Maoasinb. 3 Vols. 8 YO, 1823-4. 

Wanted by Mr. Henry Sugg, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden. 

Hatitti ta €avvtipatilstixti. 

The Index to our last Volumb will be issued with our next week's 

Lambeth Liiihary and its Librarians. The conclusion of this ar» 
tide is unavoidably postponed until next week. 

Edith. Thirteen at meals un lucky. This s upert t it io n do ubtless refers 
to the Last Supper. 

R. W. Mackbneib. The lines on a " Woman's Will" have been dis- 
cussed in M N. & Q." 3rd 8. v. 300. Sir Samuel Juke, Mart., was a colonel 
in the army of Charles [., and* died at Somerset House in January, 
1673. There is a Life of him in Dodd's Church History. 

An Antiquary will find the origin o,f the Dakeyn motto in * N.Jt Q." 
1st S. x. 327,328. 

Erratum — 4th S. i. p. 3, col.ii. line 21 from bottom, for ** their appre- 
ciaiion," read " its appreciation." 

A Reading Case for holding the weekly Nos. of "N. * Q." is now 
ready, and maybe had of all Booksellers and Newsmen, price ls.tki,; 
or, free by post, direct from the publisher, for Is. Sd. 

••• Cases for binding the volumes of •* N. 8t Q." may be had of the 
Publisher, and of all Booksellers and Newsmen. 

•'Notes and Queries'* is published at noon on Friday, and is aho 
issued in Monthly Parts. The Subscription for Stamped Copies for 
six Months forwarded direct from the Publisher (including the Half- 
yearly Index) is lis. id., which may be paid by Post Office Orders 
payable at the Strand Post Office, in favour of William O. Smith, 43, 

Wellington Street, Strand, W.C, where also all Communications 
for the Editor should be addressed. 

" Notes & Queries " if registered for transmission abroad. 

4* S.I. Jan. 18, '68.] 







judging, that, notwithstanding the many childish 
things it contains, the Acta Sanctorum is one of 

NOTES : — Laurence Beyerlinck, 45 — The Alliterative Ro- 
mances of Alexander, 47 — John Davidson of Hal tree, lb. 
Lambeth Library and its Librarians, 48 — Candle Super- 
stition— Ari>totle and Gulliver — Once — Land beyond 
the Sea— Newton and Pascal Controversy — Analysis of 
Brasses, Bronze, &c. — How an Edinburgh Riot was 
quelled in 1555, 40. 

QUERIES : — Craven of Spcrsholt Baronetcy, 52 — Joseph 
Addison— Baldwin's Plans of a Roman Temple — The 
Briekdust Man — Alexander Brodie — " Castruin Rotho- 
maui " — Christmas Carol — The Introduction of Culinary 
Vegetables into Enpland— Infantry : "II Penseroso" — 
Lots — Manuscript Treatise on Chronology — The Nati- 
vity and Massacre of the Innocents in Waxwork — Old 
Harry and Old Nick — MS. Pedigrees — St. Peter's 
Chair— Philosophy of Notation — James Smith — Height 
of our Chief Towns above Sea-level — " Weep not for the 
Dead," 53. 

Queries witii Answers : — Gillray's " French Invasion " 

— Gravelot — Portrait for Identification — Cuddy Hanks 

— The " Arfrenis," £e. of Barclay — Cohorts in Britain — 
Bull and Mouth — Latin Quotation, 56. 

RE PLIES : — Dorchester, co. Oxford, 57 — The Skyrack Oak, 
58 — Charles I. at Oxford, 59 — Cinque Port Seals, 76.— 
Air-ras's Map of London — Duke of Roxburghe — Slant: 
Phrases : Feeder : Tick — Latin Roots — David Garriek — 
Greyhound — Cincindelae — A Philosophic Brute — Corsic, 
Corscy— French King's Badge and Motto — Gab— Ma- 
sonry — Espec — Grandy Needles — German -English Dic- 
tionary—Lunar Influence — Bishop Geddes, &c, t'.o. 

Notes on Books Ac. 

the most valuable historical collections in the 
world, yet how many of us know who wore its 
editors P To those few who can call the names of 

Bollandus, Jlenschenius, and the rest of them, to 
mind, it is to be feared the sounds connote names 
only, not men who lived, and whose hard- working 
lives are worth remembering. The Centuriatore* 
Magdeburgenses have fared even worse than the 
men of the Acta. The Romrn Catholic compilers 
are sometimes quoted by their names, and we are 
thereby compelled to remember that their books 
were not the result of machinery- ; but the Pro- 
testant historians have been buried beneath a 
noun of multitude, and are almost entirely for- 
gotten even by the few who consult their books. 
Biographical dictionaries are not quite fair tests 
of literary fame, because they have mostly been 
compiled by men who had 
letters, and then they 



The contempt with which many people think 
it becomes them to speak of those laborious per- 
sons who have compiled books of reference is at 
once amusing and painful. It is very funny to 
hear a man who would consider he had done a 
hard day's work if he had made a good index to 
a single number of Nate* and Queries, sneer at 
" mere compilers'' like Uodsworth or Dufresne, 
but it is sorrowful to remember that this vulgar 
prejudice has damped the ardour of many who 
otherwise might have done good service. Even 

in these days of archaeological fervour it requires 
some amount of courage for a man to devote him- 
self to any kind of historical investigation that is 
incapable of picturesque treatment, or that cannot 
be bent so as to seem to bear upon some of the 
political or religious controversies that till our 
newspapers. How often has one heard it said of 
some laborious student, u Yes, his work is all 
very well, but why in the world does a man of 
his abilities waste his time on such trivial mat- 
ters ? Why does he not write something that will 

A very 
good answer might be given to such silly talk, but 
courtesy rather requires silence, 
as these naturally come into our heads when we 
use the really great works of men whose names 
are almost unknown except to literary antiquaries. 
It will be admitted by every one who is capable of 

tell upon the cge in which he lives f 

Such thoughts 

nine sympathy with 
have also had Anthony 
A' Wood, Davie (in English too) and Nichols to 
>teal from ; but 

en taking such books as a test, 
in how many of them shall wo find notices of some 

You may gene- 

of our most devoted workmen ? 
rally look in vain for Thomas Taylor, 
Dodsworth, Thomas Madox, or Thomas Hearne. 
In their places you have Cagliostro the Sicilian 
adventurer, Mesmer the German quack, perhaps 
even O'Brien the Irish giant, Daniel Lambert, and 
the living skeleton. Doubtless the frauds and fol- 
lies of the world should not pass without record. 
The man who lived without any flesh at all, and 
the man who weighed fifty stone, if they did 
exist as reported, were certainly interesting an- 
thropological studies ; but we would rather forget 
them than the men who have done so much to 
preserve or to make known our history. 

There are some of these industrious compilers 
that many of us who are well skilled in things 
antiquarian have never even heard of. A few 
years ago a mere accident threw in the writer's 
way a copy of a book called 

"Magnum Theatrum vita? humana? ; hoc est Kerum 
Divinarum Humanaruinque Syntagma Catholicum, Phi- 
losophicum, Historicum, Dogmaticum, Alphubetica [seric 
l'olvanthea* Vniversalis instar, in tomos octo digestum, 
A net ore Laurent io Beyerlinck, 1078." 

I had never heard of the book before. It was 
big — in eight large folios — and had a capital 
index : so, without knowing anything whatever 
about it or its author further than what the title- 
page told me, I purchased, and began diligently 
to examine it. This was not a pleasant matter at 
first, for the volumes had slept for upwards of fifty 
years in a German garret, and were, on their out- 
sides, as filthy as may be. They were, however, 
bound in oak boards, clad in good stamped pig- 
skin, so that I could wash them as easily and 
safely as a groom does a dirty saddle. 



[4«> S. 1. Jan. 18, *C8. 

None of the bibliographical books I had within 
reach gave me any information about Laurence 

_ f 7 .... stumble 

except Isla's History of Friar Gerund de Cam- 
pazas* even mentioned him. On examination I 
found the book to be really a vast cyclopa)dia of 
universal knowledge, or what passed for such in 
the seventeenth century. The subjects are ar- Emperor Maximilian I. 

gust 3, 1533. His mother was a sister of the 
noted printer Jean Oporin ; her first husband was 

Leonard Z winger, u pelletier ou corroyeur," origin- 
ally of Bischof-Zell in the Turgow. Although a 
trader, he came of a good old family. Several of 
his ancestors had held important trusts, and his 

father had received letters of nobility from the 
----- jj e was tk e author of 

ranged alphabetically, and there is an index filling many other works, as well as of this great com- 

the whole of the eighth volume. There is scarcely 

any thin 

._ divine, known two hundred 

years ago, concerning which one may not find 
some curious information in its pages. If in some 
matters we go away without adding to our store 
of facts, we may, if we like, still have a good 
laugh over master Laurence's " abject " super- 
stitions — for he believed, as most decent, God- 
fearing men in those days did, in witches and 
warlocks, omens, presentiments, strangely featured 
devil*, and miraculously contorted births, and 
thoughts some people have done since that 

" The sounds on the earth, the si^ns in the sky, 
The tempest below, and the whirlwind on high/ 1 

were portents of future judgments. 

The book is seldom met with in England. 
I have never seen it out of my own house but 
three times. There are copies of it in the British 
Museum and Bodleian libraries, and I once saw 
one in the shop of a bookseller who deals largely 
in old continental theology. 

The following particulars will therefore interest 
some of your readers. Although the later edi- 
tions of this compilation have Bey erlinck's name 

only on the title-page, he 
indeed the first author. 

not the sole, or 

Conrad AVoltVhart, or Lycosthenes, as he chose 
to translate himself, who was the son of Theobald 
Wolffhart by his wife Elizabeth, the sister of 
Conrad Kiirschner, or Pellican, as he persuaded 
people to call him, was born March 8, 1516, at 
Ituttach in Alsace, lie died at St. Leonard on 
March 25, 1507, and is buried in the church there. 
He was a well-known literary man in the six- 
teenth century, author, amongst other things, of 
that wonderful collection of strange stories called 
Prodlgiorum et Ostentorum Chronicon, published 
at Basel in 1557. This person laid the foundation 
of the Magnum Thcatrum by collecting the mate- 
rials from which his wife's son by her first mar- 
riage compiled the first edition.t This son-in-law 
was Theodore Zwinger, the physician, born Au- 

* Historia del farnoso predicador Fray Gerundio de 
Campazas .... Madrid. 1804. 8vo. Lib. II. c viii. 
sec.xii. p. 321. English Translation, 2 vols. 8vo. Dublin, 
1772, vol. i. p. 267. The English version reflects the ori- 
ginal in a very mutilated form. There is an article on 
this work in the Retrospective Rev., vol. vi. p. 239. 

f Biog, Universelle, last ed., sub. now. " Lycosthenes " ; 
Niceron*s Memoires, 1735, vol. xxxi. p. 339, where his 
epitaph is given. 

pilation. The first edition of the Theatrum ap- 
peared in 1505, the second in 1571 ; other 

took place in 158G, 1590, and 1004. 

Laurence Beyerlinck was the son of Adrian 
Beyerlinck, an apothecary, and his wife Catherina 
van Eyck. The family were of Berg-op-Zoom, 
but Laurence was born at Antwerp in 1578. In 
earlv life he studied under the Jesuits at Louvain. 
lie afterwards became professor of. poetry and 
rhetoric in the College of Vaulx.* (Collegium 
Vaulxianum, vulgo Gandense). We are informed 
by Franc. Swertins, who was his friend, u mihi 
familiarissimus/' that he died June 22, 1027.t 
His epitaph, as given in the edition of the Mag- 
num Ilteatrum, published on 1078, says that his 
death took place on June 21. The version of 
which I here send a transcript, gives June 7 as 

the true date. 

He was buried beside his parents in the chapel 
of St. Thomas in Antwerp Cathedral. If the 
monument still exists, perhaps some reader^ of 
"N. & Q." will point out if there be any mistake 
in the followiug inscription. It differs in some 
other particulars, as well as the date, from the 
one in the Theatrum : — 

" Laukkntius Bkykrmxck, 

Antverp. natus, litterisque excultus, 
Lovanii Philosophiam & Theol. hausit. 
Ad Seminarii curam hue evocatus, 

Pnefuit & fecit bene. 

llujus JEdis Canonical, & Librorum 

Censor, Districtus primiim, 

Dein Urbis Archipresbyter, 

Necnon S. K. E. Prothonotarius, 

Tot muniis praeclare obitis, 

Concionibus, scriptis sacris <fc prophanis, 

Yitac innocentia atque in Deum pietate, 

Apud cives <fc exteros clarus, 

Obiit 7 Junii, m.d.c.xxvii. 

iEtatis xux.J 

I lis motto was, Currite, ut comprehendatis.§ 
The following list of Beyerlinck's writings is as 
complete as I can make it. It has been compiled 
after an examination of the books quoted above, 
the life in the first volume of the Tlieatrum y edit. 
1078, and the catalogues of the library of the 

* Nouvelle Biog. Generate and Biog. Univ. sub. nom. 

t Athena Belgian, 1G28, p. 510. 

X Joh. Franc. Foppens, Bibliotheca Belgica. Bruxelles, 

2 vols. 4to, vol. ii. p. 804. 

§ Pauli Freheri Theatrum virorum Eruditione clario- 

ruin, fol. 1688, vol. i. p. 437. 

4*S.l. Jan. 18, '68. J 



British Museum. The starred volumes (*) I have 
been unable to discover in the national library : 

" Apophthegmata Christianorum. 1608. 8vo. 
*Opus Chronologicum, ab anno 1570 usque ad ar. 

1612, quod Chronici Opmeriani Auctarium est. 1612. 


Promptuariura Morale super Evangelia Festorum anni 
totius. Item Commune Sanctorum Colonise, torn. iii. 

1613, 1615. 1618, et 1625. 8vo. 

Tractatus Svnodicus, ad Synodum Dordracenam. 1619. 


Examen Consilii Profectionis Marci Ant. de Dominis 

Archiepisc. Spalatensis. 1617. 8vo. 

♦Parentalia in Funere Joannis Miriei Episcopi Ant- 

verpiensis. 1611. 8vo. 
Oratio in Funere Mattheae Hovii Mechl. Archiepiscopi. 

1620. 4to. 

Orationes II. in Exequii* Philippi III. Regis Catholiei 
et Alberti Pii Belgarum Principle, Antverp. habit. 1621. 

*Biblia Sacra variarum translationum. 1618. Fol. 

Tom. iii. 

•Magnum Theatrum Vita Humana? .... 1C31. Fol. 

Tom. vii. 

Edit. Lugdun. 1678. Fid. Tom. viii. 

Edit. Venetiis, Venet. 1707. Fol. Tom. viii. 

•Responsa Catholic a ad quiesita obvia prretensw Re- 

ligionis reformats. 1609,1617. 16mo. [Idiomate ver- 


*Lives of the three Apostles of Antwerp.— St. Eligius, 
St. Willibrord, and St. Norbert. 4to. In Flemish. 

•Condones selectie. 1627. 

Martyrulogium Sanctarnm virginum quie in hocsa*culo 
ob sanctam fidem .... Martyres obierunt .... versibus 
breuiter illustratum." [Antwerp. 1615.] fol. 

In this last there are twenty-four engravings by 


Thomas de Leu, with two Latin lines under each 
plate by Laurence Beyerlinck. K. I\ D. E. 



A book entitled The Alliterative Romance of 
Alexander was published by the Roxburghe Club, 
1849, edited by Mr. Stevenson. Perhaps the title 
should rather nave used the plural term Romances. 
The facts are these. There are four fragments of 
alliterative verse extant in MS. upon the subject 
of Alexander, whicli may be distinguished thus. 
A. A fragment about Alexander's infancy, MS. 
Greaves GO. This is almost certainly the oldest, 
and as to the truth of Sir F. Madden's conjecture, 
that it was written by the author of William and 
the Werwolf, there can be no doubt. It is now 
beirig edited by myself for the Early English 
Text Society as an appendix to the Wencolf y in 
order that one glossary may serve for both poems, 
as it easily may. 

B. A fragment about Alexander's visit to the 
Gyninosophists, in MS. Bodley 2464, now num- 
bered 264. It is inserted in the splendid French 
MS. of Alexander, one of the greatest trea- 
sures of the Bodleian Library. The handwrit- 
ing of this poem (which is beautifully illustrated 
by illuminations) can hardly be later than a.d. 

1400 or 1390; and it may be earlier. The 
language of this poem bears some resemblance 
to that of fragment A, but there is hardly suffi- 
cient resemblance to show that they are by the 
same author. Supposing, for a moment, that they 
are so, the poem of which they are fragments 
would seem to have been of enormous length, the 
missing central portion being very considerable. 
This MS. is printed at length in Mr. Stevenson's 


C. A fragment about Alexander's infancy 
and warlike exploits, preserved in MS. Ashmole 
44 ; and D. a portion of the same poem, in MS. 
Dublin D. 4. 1§, beginning at a later place, and 
ending at an earlier one. The date of the Ash- 
mole MS. can hardly be earlier than a.d. 1450, 
and Mr. Stevenson thinks (which seems probable 
enough) that the date of the composition of the 
poem is at about the same period. This last frag- 
ment bears traces of a northern dialect ; the former 
two of a western. It is printed at length in Mr. 
Stevenson's edition, from the Ashmole MS. 

What is the conclusion ? It would seem to be 
that we have here three distinct romances by 
three hands. C is certainly different from A and 
B, and later than both of them. A and B are 
possibly about the same date, and have some re- 
semblance ; but the more they are compared, the 
more unlike they appear — a result curiously at 
variance with that obtained by comparing frag- 
ment A with the Werwolf. Considering the 
popularity of the subject, tlie result is not sur- 
mising. 'There are other copies in old English, 
t >ides these in alliterative verse. See The Buik 
of the most noble and vailzeandConquerourAlexandt r 
the Great \ printed at Edinburgh, 1580 ; reprinted 
by the Bannatyne Club at the same place in 1831 ; 
a fragment about Alexander's death in Ancient 
Metrical Romances, printed from the Auchinleck 
MS. by the Abbotsford Club, 1836 ; and see also 
" Kvng Alisaunder ,T in vol. i. of Weber's Metri- 
cal Romances, and the account of the subject in 
his preface. The three last-mentioned are all in 
the same rhythm, viz. in rimed lines of eight syl- 
lables. Walter W. Skeat. 



James Davidson, of Hal tree, bookseller in 
Edinburgh, married Elizabeth Brown, a sister of 
William Brown, minister, Edinburgh, who was 
served heiress-portioner to him March 31, 1738. 

Of this marriage, John Davidson was the eldest, 
perhaps I should say only son. Having been 
educated for the legal profession in Scotland, he 
passed Writer to the Signet, and was agent for 
many of the principal noblemen and landed pro- 
prietors of Scotland. For many years he was 
Crown Agent, in which office he was succeeded 
bv Hew Warrender, Esq. of Bruntsfield, whose 



[4« h S. I. Jan. 18, '08. 

curious old family seat at the top of Edinburgh 
Links is carefully preserved and occasionally in- 
habited by the Warrender family. 

With the crown agency Warrender succeeded 
to, or purchased, a large house adjoining Edin- 
burgh Castle, originally the residence of David- 
son, which then had a fine garden, and perhaps, 
from its elevated situation, the best view in the 
metropolis, extending on the north over the Frith 
of Forth to the kingdom, as traditionally called, 
of Fife ; on the east, Salisbury Craigs and Ar- 
thur's Seat ; on the south, Blackford and Braid 
celebrated in Scott's glorious Marmion; on the 
west, the Pentland Hills, the Castle, and part of 
Linlithgow. The Braid property and romantic 
hill now belong to Gordon of Cluny. Both pre- 
viously had been possessed by a family of the 
name of Broun. Charles Broun, of Braid, was 
served heir to his cousin Andrew Broun, of Braid, 
November 11, 1728. The house has now been 
removed, and its site converted into a reservoir 
for the Edinburgh Water-works. 

Davidson was one of that set of literary men 
who reflected credit on the Scotish metropolis 
towards the end of the last century. He was 
associated with Lord Hailed, William Tytler, 
George Baton, Plummer of Middlestead, David 
Herd (the meritorious editor of a Collection of 
Scotish Songs and Ballads, in two volumes), and 
Callander of Craigforth, who wrote an Ode to Har- 
mony, much admired, and who edited the li King's 

Quhair" by James I., &c. 

Mr. Davidson privately printed and distributed 
among his friends a few copies of the following 
tractates, which may be worth 

"N. &Q.": — 

1. " Accounts of the Chamberlain of Scotland in the 
years 1320, L330, and 1331, from the Originals in the 
Exchequer ; with some other curious Papers. Edinburgh, 
1771." Pp. 31. Title and short preface. 

The appendices are two. They contain, among 
other very valuable papers, " The Charter of Erec- 
tion of the Lordship of Hamilton by James II., 
anno 1445" — from the original in the archives of 
the Dukes of Hamilton; and the u Indenture of 
John Lord of the Isles, and John of Lorn, 1354." 

The third appendix is usually wanting. It 
contains : " Letters of Caption, issuing in name 
of Henrie and Mary King and Queen of Scottis," 
dated at " Holyrudhous, the xviij day of ffebruair, 
and of our reignes the first and xxiiij zeirs." 

These letters are subscribed "Marie R" 
" Henry R" Mr. Davidson remarks, that " the 
king's name is put to this writing by a stamp," 
as Buchanan asserted it was — a fact denied by 
Goodal (vol. i. p. 238 of his Vindication of Mary). 
A seal with the royal arms is attached. 

2. " Charta Willelmi Regis Scotorura Canonicis de 
Jedburgh concessa circa Annum m.c.lxv, ex autograph 



in archivis Ducis de Buccleugh." Engraved bv A. Bell, 

3. " Observations on the Regium Majestatem." 8vo, 
pp. 15. [A very convincing argument, showing "that 
the Regium Majestatem is a book copied from Glan- 


4. " Remarks on some of the Editions of the Acts of 
the Parliaments of Scotland." 8vo, pp. 16. June 1, 1792. 

5. " Copies of various Tapers, &c, relating to the 
Peerages of Brandon and Dover." 4to, pp. 30. [These 
referred to the successful attempt to obtain an alteration 
of a judgment of a Committee of Privileges, by which 
a Scotch peer was prevented from sitting in the House 
of Peers by reason of an English peerage. Besides settling 
this question, it established that no decision of a Com- 
mittee of Privileges is final.] 

My set of Davidson's papers belonged to An- 
drew Lumisden, Esq., the author of the Topo- 
graphy of Rome and the agent of the exiled 
Stuarts. Many interesting particulars of this gen- 
tleman will be found in the late Mr. Dennistoun's 
Memoirs of Sir Robert Strange. It bears this attes- 
tation : 

" London, June the l 8t , 1792. 
" These curious papers and tracts were published from 
time to time, by John Davidson, Esq., of Haltree. They 
were never sold. He made presents of them to his 
friends ; amongst whom he justly reckoned 

" Andrew Lu 

Davidson, although married, had no family. 
His wife died at Edinburgh on March 5, 1796. 
By his last settlement, his estate of Haltree 
left to a younger son of Sir William Miller, Bart., 
a judge of the Court of Session and a much 
esteemed friend of Mr. Davidson. J. M. 


Having thus traced the origin of the library, 
the reader is now invited to glance at the list of 
scholars to whose loving care the book-treasures 
at Lambeth have been from time to time com- 

First and foremost stands the honoured name 
of Henry Wharton, " the favourite pupil of the 
great Newton " — "the favourite chaplain of San- 
croft, whose early death was deplored by all 
parties as an irreparable loss to letters," as his 
memorial tablet states, and as Dean Stanley adds, 
" the youthful pride of Cambridge, as Atterbury 
was of Oxford." The learned author of the Anglia 
Sacra, and a host of works whose titles are too 
numerous to record here, died at the early age of 
thirty-one. His funeral in Westminster Abbey 
was attended by Archbishop Tenison. Bishop 
Lloyd, and a large body of the clergy. Dean 
Sprat read the service. The Westminster scholars 
were caused to attend — li an uncommon respect " 
at that time ; the fees were remitted ; and Pur- 
cell's Anthem was sung over his grave. 

* Continued from p. 10. 

4* S. I. Jan. 18, '68.] 



Paul Colomiez, or Colomesius, a learned 

French Protestant who came to this country at 
the invitation of Isaac Vossius, then Canon of 
Windsor, was, at the recommendation of the 
latter, appointed by Sancroft librarian at Lam- 
beth, and collated to the rectory of Eynesford, in 
Kent, Nov. 18, 1687. He retained the office until 
the deprivation of Sancroft. His Gallia Orientalis, 
containing an account of such French writers as 
were skilled in the Oriental languages, printed at 
the Hague in 1GG5, and reprinted at Hamburg in 
1709 under the care of the learned Fabricius ; his 
Italia et Hispania Orientalis; Catalogus Manuscript 
torum Codicum Isaaci Fossil, and a number of 
similar works, have preserved his name among 

Edmund Gibson, afterwards Bishop of London, 
to which he was translated from Lincoln in 
1723, was, on the recommendation of his uncle 
Dr. Gibson, appointed librarian at Lambeth by 
Archbishop Tenison in 1700. The catalogue of 
printed books in the library, formed on the plan 
of the Bodleian catalogue, was first drawn up by 
Dr. Gibson. A fair copy was made by Dr. Wil- 
kins in 1718, in three volumes folio, which has 
been continued by his successors. The bishop's 
translation of the Saxon Chronicle, his edition of 
Camden, and, above all, his well-known Codex 
Juris Ecclesiastici Anglicani (two volumes folio), 
of which a second edition was published in 1761, 
attest his learning ; while his Preservative against 
Popery (three volumes folio), and many smaller 
wcrks, show him to have been a faithful son of 
the Church of England. 

of the Rev. 

Dr. Benjamin Ibbot, the son 

Swaftham, who was 
Tenison in 

Thomas Ibbot, Vicar of 
appointed librarian 


chiefly known by his Boyle Lectures. 

1703, is 
lie was 

made Prebendary of Westminster Nov. 16, 1724 ; 
and dying at Camberwell in April following, was 
buried in the Abbey. A selection from his Ser- 
mons was published for the benefit of his widow 
by Dr. Samuel Clarke in 1720. 

Dr. David Wilkins, the next librarian, held 
the office from about 1715 to 1718, in which year played with reference to the Lambeth catalogues. 

who exhibited much kindness to Archbishop 
Wake when in Switzerland in his earlier years. 
This kindness the archbishop repaid by making 
his son librarian at Lambeth : an office which he 
continued to hold until the death of the Arch- 
bishop in 1737. 

John Jones, of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
was appointed librarian by Archbishop Potter on 
his going to reside at Lambeth in 1737. He was 
related to the archbishop's wife. He quitted 
Lambeth when he was collated to the vicarage of 
Portling, in Kent, in 1741. 

Henry Hall, Fellow of King's College, Cam- 
bridge, was his successor ; and not only continued 
librarian till the death of his patron Archbishop 
Potter, in 1747, but was retained in the office by 
Archbishop Herring, who also appointed him one 
of his chaplains. On the death of Archbishop 
Herring, in 1757, he resigned the librarianship of 
Lambeth, and resided chiefly at Harbledown, to 
which he had been collated in 1750, where he 
died Nov. 1763. 

Andrew Coltee Ducarel, LL.D., a native of 

Normandy, who, having been admitted a Gentle- 
man Commoner of St. John's College, Oxford, 
proceeded LL.D. June 1, 1738, was appointed 
librarian by Archbishop Hutton, May 3, 1757, 
and was successively continued in that office by 
Archbishops Seeker, Cornwallis, and Moore. Du- 
carel had been previously known to Archbishop 
Herring, to whom he had made some proposals 
for indexing the papers and registers at Lambeth ; 
his biographer John Nichols is therefore fully 
justified in saying as he does, in the Literary 
Anecdotes (vi. 408), that he enjoyed the esteem of 
five successive prelates. 

Dr. Ducarel was a most industrious and volu- 
minous antin uarian writer ; and, although not in 
holy orders, from the time of his appointment to 
be keeper of the library at Lambeth, he devoted 
himself almost entirely to ecclesiastical antiqui- 
ties, and more particularly to those of the pro- 
vince of Canterbury. But he is here chiefly to be 
remembered for the diligence and abilities he dis- 

he completed the catalogues of manuscripts and 
printed books. But, great as was this service, he 
did far greater by the publication of his Coptic 
New Testament in 171G ; the Coptic Pentateuch in 
1731 ; his edition of Selden's Works, three volumes 
folio, 1726; his fine edition of the Anglo-Saxon 
Latvs, folio, 1721; and, above all, by his most 
valuable work u Concilia Magna Britannice et Hi- 
bernice a Synodo Verolamiensij a.d. 440 ad Lon- 
dinensem a.d. 1717," which he published in 1737 
in four volumes folio. Dr. Wilkins died in 1745, 
but had ceased to act as librarian for some years 

His successor was Dr. John Henry Ott, a 
learned Swiss, the son of a gentleman at Zurich 

The catalogue begun by Bishop Gibson, and con- 
tinued by Dr. Wilkins with the greatest minute- 
ness, was completed by Dr. Ducarel to the time 
of Archbishop Cornwallis. He made a distinct 
catalogue of the books of Archbishop Seeker, and 
another, in three volumes folio, of the pamphlets 
and tracts bound up by Archbishop Cornwallis ; 
and extended the catalogue of MSS. from No. 720, 
to which it had been brought by Wilkins, to 
No. 1147. He made also an index of all the 
Lambeth registers; and, in addition, a general 
index for his own use, in forty-eight volumes, 
containing an account of every instrument relating 
to the see, province, and diocese of Canterbuiy, in 
the registers of all the archbishops, from Peck- 



[4*8. I. Jan. 18, VS. 

ham to Herring. Dr. Ducarel died May the 29th, 

Henry John Todd, the biographer of Cranmer 

and of the deans of Canterbury, was, I believe, 
the next to fill the office of librarian at Lambeth, 
and distinguished his tenure of that office by 
printing in 1812 a folio Catalogue of the Archi- 
episcopal Manuscripts in the Library at Lambeth 
Palace, with an Account of the Archiejriscopal Re- 
gisters and other Records there preserved. It is 
unnecessary to detail the various other bibliogra- 
phical and biographical works of the learned 
Archdeacon of Cleveland, who died in 1845. 

Hugii James Hose, it has been said, held this 
office. But this I think very doubtful. He was 
domestic chaplain to Archbishop Howley, and 
may have given some attention to the library, 
but the claims upon his time as Principal of King's 
College could not have admitted of his bestowing 
much time and care upon it. 

Not so wa* it with the Rev. Samuel Roffey 

Maitland, who became librarian at the sugges- 
tion of his friend Hugh James Rose, and at the 
request of Archbishop Howley about 1838. The 
learned author of The Dark Ages ; Facts and Do- 
cuments connected icith the Albigenses and Wal- 
domes; Essays on the Reformation, §c, contributed 
in no small degree to make the value of the library 
committed to his charge known to the outer world 
by printing — first, A List of Some of the Early 
Printed Books in the Archiejnscopal Library at Lam- 
beth, 8vo, 1843 ; and, secondly, An Index of such 
English Books printed before the Year Ml) C. as are 
now in the Archiepiscopal Library at La?nbeth,8\o, 
1845. Both works are models of bibliographical 
learning, and their prefaces, &c. replete with in- 
formation. Nor was Dr. Maitland's encouragement 
to scholars to turn the Lambeth library to good 
account confined to the printing of these volumes. 
All who frequented the library while it was under 
his charge (and probably at no period since it was 
established was it so much used as during his 
librarian ship) will, I am sure, be anxious to bear 
testimony to his anxiety at all times to assist them 
in their researches, not only by placing the whole 
resources of the library at their disposal, but also 
from his own vast stores of information. 

An anecdote of Dr. Maitland at this time, which 
I have heard on very good authority, deserves re- 
cording. A very eminent Roman Catholic clergy- 
man called on him one day to inquire what steps 
he must take to obtain permission to use the 
library. " J ust send a letter to the archbishop 
saying what you wish, and I have no doubt he 
will instantly give the necessary directions." 
" Send a letter to the archbishop ! " was the reply. 
" How am I to send it ? I don't keep a man ser- 
vant ;" adding, with a little hit at the Establish- 
ment, "I am not stall-fed." Neither am I, Dr. 
Maitland might have answered ; but, with the 

quiet humour which was one of his characteristics, 
he asked, "Don't you think it would be safe if 
you sent it by the post ? " Dr. Maitland was not 
stall-fed. "When invited to take the office of 
librarian at Lambeth, he was living in his own 
freehold house at Gloucester. He gave up that, 
took a house in town at 200/. a year, removed his 
valuable books to London, paid a clerk to assist 
him two guineas a week, and received in return 
the enormous salarv of forty pounds a year! 
Not one bit of Church preferment was ever offered 
to him. Dr. Maitland held the librarianship till 
the death of his friend Archbishop Howley, or 
rather till the accession of Archbishop Sumner, 
when he retired to Gloucester, where he died, 
honoured and revered by all who knew him, on 
January 19, I860. Will not the writer of these 
notes be readily pardoned for boasting that this 
distinguished scholar and excellent man honoured 
him with his friendship ? 

The Rev. John Thomas was the next to hold 

the office. He was the son-in-law of Archbishop 
Sumner, by whom he was appointed librarian, 
and I believe vacated the office on the death of 
Dr. Sumner. 

The Rev. William Stubbs — who, to the regret 
of all who know his peculiar fitness for the post, has 
recently vacated the librarianship — distinguished 
his too short tenure of office by a work of great 
value to students of our Church history. His 
Registrum Sacrum Anglicanum — An Attempt to 
exhibit the Course of Episcopal Succession in Eng- 
land from the Records and Chronicles of the Church, 
is a most important contribution to ecclesiastical 
history in the departments of biography and exact 
chronology, and makes us almost regret that Mr. 
Stubbs should have been called away from the 
custody of the historical and literary treasures of 
Lambeth to the distinguished position which he 
now occupies. 

If these imperfect sketches of Lambeth library 
and its librarians have the effect of calling the 

are responsible for the 
remarkable and valuable 

attention of those who 

due preservation of this 

library to the important character of their trust, 

it will probably lead to a reconsideration of the 

amount which should be annually appropriated to 

its maintenance and the salary of the librarian. 

What induced the Ecclesiastical Commissioners 
to decide that one hundred and fifty pounds a 
year was an adequate sum for such purposes, it is 
difficult to conceive : — unless they argued that if 
Archbishop Howley secured the services of so ripe 
a scholar as Dr. Maitland for forty pounds, one 
hundred and fifty pounds would secure those of 
such " a faultless monster as the world ne'er saw." 

William J. Thoms. 

P.S. — It may not be generally known that 
Dr. Maitland, who fully appreciated the value of 

4* S. I. Jak. 18, '68.] 



►Strype's various historical and biographical works 
a3 contributions to the history of our church, 
was very desirous of seeing a new edition of them; 
and knowing how inaccurately (owing probably to 
the rapidity with which he transcribed) the various 
documents which Strype quoted were printed by 
him, Dr. Maitland collated all Strype's extracts 
from books or MSS. at Lambeth with the originals. 
This copy of Strype thus corrected has been pre- 
sented by his executors to the University of Cam- 

Caxdle Superstition. — I now come to my 
second bit of folk-lore (see ante, p. 10). Some few 
years ago I was attending the death-bed of an 
aged relative who resided in one of the handsome 
terraces that overlook the Monkstown side of the 
Bay of Dublin. The death took place between 
four and five o'clock of a November evening, and 
as I happened to be passing through the hall soon 
after, I heard the door-bell ring. I had j ust sent the 
man-servant to the post with some letters announc- 
ing the old lady's decease to some relatives re- 
siding at a distance, and knowing that the two 
faithful servants of the old lady and her niece 
were still in the room with her remains, I opened 
the door. A woman apparently in the position of 
a respectable servant was the person who had 
rumj the bell ; and, with a slight apology, she said, 
" Please, sir, will you give me a candle ? " I 
said, " Death has just taken place in the house, 
the butler is out, and I do not know where I 
could get you a candle/' One of the servants, 
who had heard the bell, came out on the lobby 
while I was speaking (the servants of the house 
were all Protestants), and she called to me, 
u Please shut the door, sir ! What does she mean 
coming here with her popish superstition ? " (In 
using this phrase, I must observe that I mean no of- 
fence to any readers of " N. & Q." I only repeat the 
words as spoken. As a class the Protestant pea- 
santry in Ireland, though not exempt from super- 
stition, are much freer from it than their Roman 
Catholic compatriots.) The woman went away, 
evidently much annoyed at not having got the 
candle, for she said she knew that death had just 
taken place in the house. I asked the servant 
afterwards what the superstition was, but she either 
would not or could not tell me, and the variety 
of duties that occupied me in consequence of the 
old lady's death prevented my finding out the 
meaning of it. I now ask — What is the super- 
stition of getting a candle from a house immedi- 
ately after a death has taken place in it ? 


Porth-yr-Aur, Carnarvon. 

Aristotle and Gulliver. — The great poetic 
lawgiver, prescribing the length of a fable, dramatic 
or epic (Poetics, pt. ii. s. 3), observes — 

" Whatever is beautiful, whether it be an animal or 
any other thing composed of different parts, must not 
only have those parts arranged in a certain manner, but 
must also be of a certain magnitude ; for beauty consists 
in magnitude and order. Hence it is, that no very 
minute animal can be beautiful ; the eye comprehends 
the whole too instantaneously to distinguish and compare 
the parts. Neither, on the contrary, can one of a pro- 
digious size be beautiful ; because, as all its parts cannot 
be seen at once, the whole, the unity of object, is lost to 
the spectator; as it would be, for example, if he were 
surveying an animal of many miles in length. As, there- 
fore, in animals, and other objects, a certain magnitude is 
requisite ; but that magnitude must be such as to present 
a whole easily comprehended by the eye ; so, in the fable, 
a certain length is requisite; but that length must be 
such as to present a whole easily comprehended by the 
memory." — Twining's Translation, p. 76, edit. 1815.) 

Had Captain Gulliver read the Stagyrite ? We 
know by his Laputan conversaziones that the 
worthy skipper was a bit of a scholar. E. L. S. 

Once. — Certain modern values of this word 
were noted not long ago in "N. & Q." : has any 
one remarked or discussed Sidney's peculiar use 
of it in the Arcadia ? 

I give three examples out of six or more which 

are to be found there : — 

" Once, in extremities the winning of time is the pur- 
chase of life." — Lib. iii. 

44 Once, she sundred his soule from his body." 
44 But once, for them shee might baue gone 
shee would." — Lib. iv. 

Lib. iii. 

" Once," 
lent to " in 

in these passages, is evidently equiva- 

brief," or u to sum up." 

A. J. Munby. 

Land beyond the Sea. — Mr. Baring-Gould, 
in the second series of his Curious Myths of the 
Middle Ages, attributes the popular notion of 
" land beyond the sea " to a Druidical source. 
This may be true as to some of our earlier writers ; 
but I think a nearer and more homely source may 
be found for its existence among Dissenters. As 
we have derived many of our popular notions 
respecting paradise, hell, angels, the personal 
appearance of the a devil and his angels," &c, 
&c, from the hnagery of Milton's Paradise Lost, 
so the common notions respecting ." Jordan's 
stream," " land beyond the sea," the u heavenly 
city," &c. &c. are derived from Bunyan's Pilgrims 
Progress. These two books are more read than 
any others, the Bible excepted, by the religious 
world, and most of their phraseology, &c. have 
become household literature. Wesley's Hymns 
abound with allusions to Milton and Bunyan, and 
hence the prevalence of ideas which, traced one 
step further back, may be, and often are, nothing 
but old pagan notions encrusted with slight 
modern Christian additions or modifications. 

T. T. W. 
Newton and Pascal Controversy. — From 

the various letters which have appeared rela- 
tive to this noted dispute, it does not appear that 



[4*8.1. Jan. 18, '68. 

there is the least spot of ground left upon which 
M. Chasles can rest the sole of his foot. His 
names, his dates, the use of particular words, the 
data upon which the forgeries are based, have all 
been proved to be worse than useless towards 
sustaining the claims of Pascal as the discoverer of 
the laws of gravitation. There is one point, how- 
ever, which, so far as I am aware, has not yet 
been pressed, but which might supply another 
link in the chain of proof that the documents are 
forged. Has any one ever been permitted to 
examine the paper upon which the letters are written f 
A document was not long ago produced in one of 
our courts of law, and the presiding judge settled 
the question by holding up the paper to the light, 
when the water -mark date was found to be long 
posterior to the date of the deed. Might not this 
be found to be the case with the pretended Pascal 
correspondence ? T. T. W. 

Analysis of Brasses, Bronze, etc. — Through 

the kindness of two friends I am enabled to open 

this interesting subject with the analysis of two 

specimens. One is that of a Flemish brass in the 

Museum of Practical Geology, dated 1490. This 

contains copper G4*0, zinc 29*5, lead 5 5, and tin 

The other is of the very interesting bronze 
vessel exhibited at the Society of Antiquaries a 
short time ago by Lord Wharnclifle, and which 
was supposed by some to be a 1 toman mortarium, 
and by others a test or standard vessel for the 
gauging the ore measures, like the famous bronze 
" Tutbury ore dish." The analysis of this showed 
copper 78, tin 13, and lead 9. I cannot help 
thinking that the more zinc we find in the alloy, 
the later is its date. Could any of your readers 
give an analysis of some decidedly old Roman 
bronze ? A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 

How an Edinburgh Riot was Quelled in 


Lord Fountainhall, in speaking of the 

ious and 

evil reputation of Edinburgh as " a facti 

mutinous town " ki his days, gives a very o 

anecdote of the way in which a tumult was settled 
in 1555. 


rode in presently to Edinburgh, and appeared and 
choked the commotion. " 

The Setons were a spirited set of men, whether 
disguised as Eglintons, Gordons, or Sutherlands, 
for all these noble families bore that name. In- 
deed the Eglintons are Setons in the direct male 
line, the name of Montgomery coming to them 
with the earldom under a conveyance from the 
last of the Montgomery earls. J. M. 



Who was Sir Anthony Craven of Spersholt, 
co. Berks, created baronet June 4, 1GG1 ? Both 
Burke and Courthope say that the title became 
extinct in 1713, yet the former says the first 
baronet died s. p. in 1070. Here is one point 
deserving explanation. 

In Collins's Peerage (Brydges' edition, 1812), 
in vol. v., is an account of the Earls Craven, 
which makes this Sir Anthony a brother of Sir 
William Craven of Lenchwiko. Yet this account 
is hardly correct in its details. It seems clear, 
however, that John 1 Craven of Appletreewick, 
co. York, had sons, Henry 2 and \Villiam 2 ; of 
whom William 2 married Beatrix, daughter of 
John Hunter, and had sons, Sir William 3 (Lord 
Mayor of London) 'and Anthony 3 . William 3 was 
father of William 4 (Earl Craven), John 4 (Lord 
Craven of By ton), and Thomas 4 . 

All the sons of Sir William died s. p., and by 
special limitation the earldom was entailed (ac- 
cording to Collins) upon Sir William Craven of 
Lenchwike and his heirs male ; and in default, 
on Sir Anthony, brother to Sir William. 

By another patent the title was entailed on the 
heirs of Sir Thomas Craven, a third brother of 
Sir William and Sir Anthony ; and the grandson 
of Sir Thomas was the second Lord Craven of 
Hampsed-Marshall. The earldom was again 
granted in 1801 to the seventh lord. 

These brothers were sons of Robert 3 , and grand- 
sons of Henry 2 Craven : the latter being: brother 

At that period Lord Seton was Pro- [ of William 2 Craven. The strange thing is, that 

He resided at his fine old | the entails should be so variable. According to 

Collins, the Earl Craven, after the death of his 
brothers, entailed a title not on the issue of his 
uncle Anthony, but on his second cousins; and 
even then, selected at first the oldest and youngest 
(Sir William and Sir Anthony) as heirs, though 

vost of Edinburgh. 

castle in the county of East Lothian, which once 

had the finest gardens in that part of Scot- 

Whilst the noble provost was taking repose at 
Seton, a report of one of the Edinburgh tumults 
awakened him from his slumbers. The uproar 
became so alarming that two of the baillies came 
out to consult his lordship. Upon inquiry, Lord 
Seton found that the frightened magistrates had 
been accessory to the riot. He, without the 
slightest hesition, popped them " in the PiFof 
Seton"— « a place/' observes Fountainhall, "I 
have seen, which was a dreadful contumelv ; and 

the second brother, Sir Thomas, was finally se- 
lected, and alone left issue. 

As proof that Anthony, uncle of Earl Craven, 
left issue, Collins notes that he had sons : Sir 
William of Winwick, who died 1707 ; Sir Robert, 
and Sir Anthony. 

Is it not probable that here is a confusion of 
names and persons? Was not the baronet, who 

4* S. 1. Jan. 18, '68.] 



died s. p. 1G70, the uncle of Earl Craven P His 
own family thus extinct, the natural heirs were 
Sir William and Sir Thomas ; and if their brother 
Sir Anthony was mentioned, was he not last in 
the entail ? Finally, was not this Sir Anthonv 
the father of the three more recent knights ? 

I do not seek to correct errors as errors ; but in 
this case the solution of this seeming confusion is 
desired, as it seriously affects the statements made 
in a pedigree dated 108G. W. II. Wiiitmork. 

Boston, l\ S. A. 

Alexander Brodie was one of the magistrates 
of Forres in 1700. The following entry is from 

Joseph Addison. — Was Addison a member of 
the J fell Fire Club? and did this club meet in 
Kensington ? Tradition here has it that Hell 
Corner, at the south end of James Street, Ken- 
sington Square (formerly called the King's Square, 
and entered by King Street only), was so called 
from the Hell Fire Club meeting in a house 

the Forres registers : 

" 2G th Julv, 1764. Alex r Brodie & Janet Laing his 
Sp. ; a son .lames, so called in memory of the late J as. 
Hrodie of Spynie. 

44 Witness, Jas. Brodie of Brodie/' 

Can any one give me a clue to the relationship 
between Alexander and James Brodie of Spynie? 

F. M. S. 

Address, Oilice, "N. &Q." 

" Castrum RoTnoMAOi. " — Where was this 
castle situated? Henry V., on March 2, 1421, 
tested a charter at Westminster, and on the 5th 
of the same month tested several charters at " Cas- 
trum nostrum Rothomagi " (Rymer, Fwdera, x. 
pp. 68, 00). On the 4th of the same month of 
March a document purports to be signed at Shrews- 

the hie and noble presence of our 






of Kensington/' 

F r»u * i • • Soveraigne Lord. 

of ( natelaine s i . v ./u- *„ • 


Was it possible for the king 


the .s;i!lie 

corner was " The Devil Tavern" in those days. 

An Old Kensingtonian. 

Baldwin's Plans op a Koman Tkmple. — 

M. C.J. 

At the time of the discovery of the Koman temple 

at Bath, when the present Pump Room to King's 

Bath was erected 17JKJ, according to a letter of 

Sir Henry Englefield's read before the Society of 

Antiquaries of London, Baldwin, the city architect 

of Bath, had taken plans of the remains found 

for publication. Can any of your readers kindly 

inform me where they are, or in whose possession 

at present, as I am engaged in making some 

researches about the Roman remains of Bath ? No 

information of any of them can be obtained in three from a withy tree, and exclaims 

Bath itself. It has been conjectured that they 

to be at Westminster on the 2nd, at Shrewsbury 
on the 4th, and at "Castrum Rothomagi" on the 
5th of the same month : 


Christmas Carol.— I have lately heard sung 

a Christmas carol commencing 

44 It happened on a certain day 

The snow from heaven did fall : 
Sweet Jesus asked his mother dear 
To let him go to the ball." 

It goes on to relate his meeting with virgins 

three who scornfully refused to let him play at 

ball with them, and whom he drowned in the sea 

by leading them over a bridge made of sunbeams. 

or this act he receives from his mother slashes 

may possibly 1> in the collection belonging to 
Gougn in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. They 
are not in the British Museum, although some 
curious original drawings are there in the King's 
Library. Any information of them or other 
original drawings connected with the discovery of 
Roman remains in Bath will deeply oblige 

Jas. T. Irvine. 

Coome Down, near Bath. 

The Brickdust Max. — Can any of vour cor- 
respondents inform me where the original painting 
by Nathaniel Hone of u The Brickdust Man " is 
to be found ? There is a mezzotinto by " James 
Wilson," of which I have a most beautiful im- 
pression; so beautiful that I cannot help re- 
marking it is about the most charming portrait 
in this style I ever saw. In one hand the Brickdust 
Man holds a long staff; and in the other there is 
a pair of Irish, or perhaps Scotish, bagpipes. He 
is a most intellectual-looking man, with a beard 
and moustache ; his age between fifty and sixty. 

Is this a real or imaginary portraiture ? If not 
a myth, probably there is somewhere or other an 
account of him. " J. M. 

"Cursed shall be the withy, withy tree, 
For causing me to smart ; 
And it shall be the very first tree 

That shall |>erish at the heart. 


Can any of your readers inform me where I 
can see a perfect copy of the above, and from 
what apocryphal source it is derived ? 

C. F. S. 

The Introduction of Culinary Vegetables 
into England. — May I ask, through " N. & Q./' 
for information as to the dates at which the vege- 
tables and fruits that now appear on our dinner- 
tables were introduced into England ; the names 
of their introducers, and the places from which 
they were brought ? I should also like to be in- 
formed as to the vegetables known in this country 
at the dates of the respective invasions of Julius 
Ciesar and William the Conqueror. 

Of course I do not wish for information regarding 
the potato. X. Y. 

Infantry: "II Penseroso.'' — Can any of 
your readers explain to me how the word " in- 
fantry M came to be used in its present sense? 
Milton, with a play upon words, uses it in the 



[4*S.I. Jan. 18, '68 

first book of Paradise Lost, when speaking of the 
Pigmies : 

" That small infantry 

Warr'd on by cranes/' 

Can, too, any of your readers explain satisfac- 
torily to me the following passage in II Pense- 

roso ? — 

" And let some strange mysterious dream 
Wave at his wings in aery stream 
Of lively portraiture displayed, 

Softly on my eyelids laid." 

Daniel L. Botes. 

issue with the received traditions of the church. 
Of this event the " Spiegazione " relates^ that 
Joseph and Mary, unable to find a lodging in the 
town of Bethlehem, were received into his hut 
by an old man named Gelindo, and that in this 
cabin the same night was born the Saviour. 

"Fortunato Gelindo! il primo che si prostro all' adora- 
zione unitamente alia sua moglic Alinda, sua figlia A lire 
lia: e Maffeo suo garzone, e tutta la sua famiglia si 
reearono alia capanna per adorare il nato Hambino." 

Some novel particulars of Herod's history are 

recounted under the " Murder of the Innocents." 

. u . . .. Two davs before, Herod sent for his son's nurse, 
Lots.— The word "lot " and its plural lots d W| ; rned her in order to save t h e child's life ; 


are now in common use as denoting " a large num- 
ber." They have not yet found their way into any 
but light writing; though, from their frequent 
use in conversation, it is not improbable they may 
soon be adopted in a higher range. It is certainly 
not very long ago since this metaphorical use 
began, and I have an impression that it was bor- 
rowed from its having been put into the mouth of 
the clown in a pantomime of transient popularity. 
Do any of your readers know what the fact is as 
to this ? It seems a pity that our ordinary speech 
should have been defaced by an expression which, 
in the sense now generally taken, cannot bo re- 
garded but as an unfortunate vulgarism. <t. 


but, on the very morning of the slaughter in 
Bethlehem, a dog appeared which mangled the 
royal infant. [" Sul mattino comparve un cane 
che >brano il medesimo."] Herod was repudiated 
bv his consort Doris, the people would no longer 
acknowledge him as their king, and, rendered 
desperate, he committed suicide in his own 
garden. A trace of the story that Herod included 
his own son in the massacre of the innocents is 

found in Maerobius, who retails a remark of 
Augustus: "It is better to be Herod's hog than 
his sou " (Alban Butler's Lives, &c), but the fact 
is too well known to need repetition that a terrible 
malady really terminated the existence of this 
ruthless monarch. The onlv life he hesitated to 

Manuscript Treatise ox Chronology. — I take was his own. 

possess a very beautifully written MS. entitled : 

"Abrege Chronologique de l'Histoire Universelh 

Contenant les Evenements les plus remarquables depuis 
la Creation du monde jusques a . Pan de grace 1714. Par 
Penelope Gale, h Londres, de PEcole Dames Denis et Ste- 
vensons, Queen's Square, 1773." 

The volume is in small 4 to size, contains 12S 
pages, and is very richly bound in red morocco, 
gilt edges, with an allegorical frontispiece inindian 
ink on vellum. There is an address to ik Mes 
Dames " by the author, as it would appear, signed 
il Samuel Roux ; " and next follows a ^Traduc- 
tion qui sert de Preface," from which I infer that 
the treatise was composed for the use of his pupils 
by Roux, and translated into French by the lady 
whose name appears on the title-page. Is any- 
thing known of these parties or of the school in 
Queen's Square a century ago, when the book 
was written? William Bates. 

The Nativity and Massacre of the Inno- 
cents in Waxwork. — Among some papers which 
had lain for a long time undisturbed has turned 
up, appropriately enough at this season, the libretto 
of a waxwork show, which I had the curiosity to 
enter, and which stood on the ground adjoining 
a horse fair held (Nov. 12, 1857,) at Novara. 
Large groups, formed by figures of life-size, por- 
trayed Scriptural events ; and in a group of the 
Nativity, with detail not only beyond the scope 
of ordinary readers of Bible history, but at 

In explaining the " Martyrdom of the Macca- 
bees," the different stages of their tortures being 
most repulsively exhibited, the account con- 
cludes: u Oggidi pure i setti fratelli Maccabei 
son> venerati sui nostri altari. 1 ' The seven sons 
of Eleazar canonized ! 

How came it that the widow Murchio, proprie- 

>rk, was allowed to spread such 
inexact information? John A. C. Vincent. 

Old Harry and Old Nick. — The etymo- 
logical identity of chief and head, so shrewdly 
traced by Mr. Skeat in " N. & Q." 3 rd S. xii. 481 , 
encourages me to inquire whether the names of 
Old Harry and Old Kick, as applied to the foul 
fiend, may not, in like manner, be traced to one 
and the same Scandinavian root ? 

In Sweden, and I believe also in some parts of 
Denmark, one of the numerous names designating 
the Evil One is gammel Erik, i. e. Old Ertk, later 
transformed into Old Eri, and ultimately into Old 
Harry ; and if instead of old we take the earlier 
form of olden, we have Olden Erik, Olden Ik 9 Old 


A friend to whom I suggested this origin of the 

names in question, replied in the words of the 
Italian proverb, " Se non t vero e ben trovato" but 
as I seek the vero and not the bc?i trovato, I should 

the opinion of some better ety- 
mologist than my friena or myself. Outir. 

be glad to lu 

Risely, Beds. 

4*8.1. Jan. 18/68.1 



MS. Pedigrees. — Can any one give me in- 
formation as to the nature of tbe following manu- 
script, which forms No. 44 of the collection at 
Middle Hill ? I quote from Haenal's Cat. Lib. 
MUS. col. 805 — u Burlington and Gainsbro' 

pedigrees/' Is it, as I suspect, a genealogical chemistry, 
volume relating to certain inhabitants of those 
towns? Cornub. 

Philosophy ok Notation. — Can any readers 
of u N. & Q." help me to anything on this sub- 
ject? I refer to the abstract principles which 
compilers of a notation should follow, whether 

that notation be for numbers, music, language, or 

.1 . ^. I . 

St. Peter's Chair. — I beg to forward the ac- took a leading part in ecclesiastical affairs 

James Smith, Principal of the University of 

Edinburgh and Professor of Divinity in 1732, 

companying cutting, which may be worth inser- 
tion in " N. & Q." : — 

44 Is St. Peter's Chair at Rome a Genuine 
Relic? — Before concluding niy cursory remarks (says 
the Roman correspondent of The Post) upon the external 
features of the religious recurrences which have called 
together in Rome from all parts of the world so many 
representatives of the Catholic faith, I must devote a few 
lines to the celebrated relic denominated 4 St. Peter's 
Chair,' which has been exposed to public veneration for 
the la*t week for the first time during the last two cen- 
turies. I confess, notwithstanding Lady Morgan's sati- 
rical hints that this chair is nothing more than a piece of 
Arabic household furniture with an inscription on the 
back in honour of Mahomet, I looked upon it with great 
interest, such interest as an object carefully and reli- 
giously preserved for upwards of a thousand years may 
naturally excite. Such is about the time that the 
4 CathedVa of Peter* has been in the authentic keeping 
of the Church, having been a treasured relic for cen- 
turies in the old Constantinian Basilica, and kept with 
equal veneration under the high altar of the present 
church, until placed in its actual ponderous bronze case bv 
Bernini and Artusi in the reign of Pope Alexander VI I. 
Anybody very curious to obtain arguments in favour of 
the identity of this chair, as having really belonged to 
St. Peter here in Rome, may get them in Mon^ignore 

Febei's curious book, l)e Identitate Cathedra Humana, 

fmblished upwards of a century ago; but I mean to 
imit my observations to the intrinsic evidence presented 
bv the style and probable date of construction of the 
chair itself. The ohair has been for the last week elevated 
on a lofty gilt pedestal on the altar of Maria Santissima, 
in St. Peter's, where the faithful of all nations, but espe- 
cially French priests and Zouaves, are perpetually kneel- 
ing before it, while masses are being celebrated, and 
chaplets, medals, and crosses rubbed upon it, to be borne 
away with acquired virtue by pious pilgrims. Implicit 
faith is a grand thing, but there are many sincere and 
enlightened Catholics who have no faith in the antiquity 
of St. Peter's chair, and boldly declare it to be a produc- 
tion of the tenth century. liunscn states it to be a piece 
of German wood-work, enriched with engraved ivory of a 
different period. At any rate, it is nothing like a Roman 
or curule chair, such as the senator Pudens might be 
supposed to have in his house, and to offer to his guest and 
pastor Peter. For it has a pointed, Gothic-looking back, 
with three round arches and columns, one of which is 
broken ; the arms and legs are stiff and straight, like the 
stone episcopal chairs to be seen in churches of the 
twelfth century; and the front is ornamented with en- 
graved tablets of ivory, representing the labours of 
Hercules and the twelve signs of the Zodiac But, not- 
withstanding all apparent evidence to the contrary, the 
Church has declared it to be the chair actually used by 
St. Peter, and as such the honours paid to it ought not to 
excite surprise. 

J. Manuel. 




Scotland at the ^beginning of last century, lie 
was licensed by the Presbvtery of Dalkeith in 
1703, being at* the time chaplain to Sir John 
Dalrymple of Cousland, and was subsequently 
minister of the parishes of Morham, in Hadding- 
tonshire, and Cramond in Midlothian. There is a 
rare poem on his death entitled " Lamentation of 
the I niversitv of Edinburgh on the death of 
Principal Smith, 1730.'' I 
( Oswald— I presume one of the < tewalds of Dry- 
borough in the parish of Denny, Stirlingshire— as 
I find his son John settled at" Rroomhill in that 
parish in 1732. Any account of his parentage, 
birthplace, or connections will be considered a 
favour. Address, Office U N. & Q. M F. M. S. 

Height of our Chikf Towns a hove Ska- 


ied a Miss 


Being anxious to ascertain the heights 

of English cities and larger towns above the level 
of the sea, lask the favour of information thereon. 
My immediate object is to raise Salisbury from 
the hole in which it has always been placed by 
popular opinion; quite erroneously, however, for 
already, from a knowledge of actual levelling*, I 
tind its elevation of 150 feet to be 110 feet above 
the mean of London and metropolitan levels; and 
I hope to prove it, instead of the very lowest city, 
to be one of the highest of all the English cities 
and larger towns. A. 13. Middleton* 

The Close, SalUburv. 

" Weep Not for the Dead."— Who are the 
following lines by ? I met with them many years 
ago in some old magazine, and should like to know 
the author. I have also heard them set to the 
"Dead March " in u Saul," and sung at a military 

funeral : 

44 Weep not for the dead : 

Thv si'hs and teara are unavailing; 

Vainlv o'er their cold dark bed 


Hnaks the voice of thy loud wailing. 
The Dead— the dead they rest : 
Sorrow, and strife, and earthly woes, 
No more shall harm the blest, 

Nor trouble their deep, calm repose. 

Weep not for the dead." 

J. B 



[4* S. I. Jan. 18, *68. 

Gillray's "French Invasion.*'— Among a few 

of James Gillray's spirited caricatures I possess, is 
a large one representing the projected French 
invasion from the Camp de Boulogne ; where, in 
the distance, you see I lis Satanic Majesty playing 
the fiddle, and cutting capers on the guillotine. 
In a rough and boisterous sea, the French Armada 
is seen struggling in vain against adverse winds, 
which, /Eolus-like, W. Pitt is blowing — " the 
pilot that weathered the storm v ; whereas, in 
the foreground, at a windlass, are pulling it with 
might and main, towards British shores, some 
public characters, evidently portraits : amongst 
whom the bulky figure of C. J. Fox, in his torn 
shirt-sleeves and a tricoloured ribbon to his tail, 

11 T 1 111- 1 _ 1 X - 1 

glad to know 
: one of them 

Is not 

V. L. 

is very recognisable. I should be 
who the other dramatis personce are 
in profile has a blue coat and top-boots. 
Matthew Tierney one of the others ? P. 

[In spite of the labours of Mr. Thomas Wright, Mr. 
Evans, and others, the allusions in] many of Gillray's 
caricatures are still very obscure, and much in want 
of illustration. Our columns will at all times be open 
to Queries concerning, or facts illustrating them. But in 
these, as well as in other matters, we must insist upon the 
name, date, <fcc. of the caricature being correctly de- 
scribed. The only caricature of Gillray's which we re- 
member, bearing the title of " French Invasion," has a 
supplementary title, " Or Buonaparte landing in Great 
Britain," and is dated June 10, 1803. This is altogether 
very different from the one which forms the subject of 
P. A. L.'s query, which relates to one dated Feb. 1, 1798, 
and entitled " The Storm rising ; or, the Republican 
Flotilla in danger." It is directed against the encourage- 
ment which ^the Whigs were charged with giving to the 
threatened invasion, and the windlass is accordingly 
worked by Pitt, Sheridan, the Duke of Bedford, and 
Tierney. It may be added that his Satanic Majesty is 
playing the tune, "Over de Vater to Charley" (Fox).] 

Gravelot. — Can you furnish me with particu- 
lars of Gravelot's stay in England ? Where did 
he live ? Who employed him ? Where are some 
of his works to be found ? Paris. 

[Hubert Francois D'Anville, better known under his 
assumed name of Henry Gravelot, was the brother of 
D'Anville the geographer. He was born at Paris in 
1699. He commenced painting at about thirty -nine years 
of age, but took afterwards to designing and etching. In 
1733 he was invited to England by Claude du Bosc, to 
assist him in the plates of Picart's Religious Ceremonies, 
and also etched several plates for books, among which were 
those for Sir Thomas Hanmer's edition of Shakspeare. 
He drew the monuments of kings for Vertue, and gave 
the designs, where invention was necessary, for Pine's 
plates of the tapestry in the House of Lords. He also 
engraved the plates for Theobald's Shakspeare from his 

own designs ; but his large print of Kirkstall Abbey is 
considered the finest specimen of his abilities. He re- 
turned to Paris in 1745, where he died in 1773, aged 
seventy-four. De Fontenai, Dictionnaire des Artistes; 
Wal pole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. 1849, iii. 979 ; and 
Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers, p. 495.] 

Portrait for Identification. 

I have a 

family portrait of an elderly gentleman whom I 
cannot identify. He seems to have been a mem- 
ber of the House of Commons, as he holds in his 
hands two papers on which are the following 
words : — 

"Resolutions against French slaves and black corps in 

Jamaica, 1798." 
44 Letter to the honourable the speaker of the assembly 

requesting leave to vacate my scat. May, 1800." 

Can any of your readers tell me the name ? 


[We take this to be the portrait of Bryan Edwards, 
M.l\ for Grampound, co. Cornwall, and the accurate his- 
torian of the West Indies. Mr. Edwards was born at 
West bury in Wiltshire on May 21, 1713, and died at his 
house Polygon, near Southampton, on July 15, 1800. He 
exercised his literary talents in a memorable way in 
Jamaica : for by the strokes of his pen he drove Peter 
Pindar from that island ; and that bitter satirist never 
dared afterwards to attack his character. There is a por- 
trait of Mr. Edwards painted by Abbott and jengraved 

bv Hollowav.l 

Cuddy Banks. — In a note on Aristophanes, 
Entities, 243, Mitchell alludes to Cuddy Banks. 
Who was he ? P. J. F. Gantillon. 

[Cuddy Banks rigures as a clown iu Ford's tragi- 
comedy, The Witch of Edmonton, in connection with the 
Morris Hobby-horse, as follows : — 

" Cuddy. The morrice is so cast, we'll have neither 
mean nor base in our company, fellow Rowland. 

" 3rd Clown. What ! not a counter ? 

"Cuddy. By no means, no hunting counter; leave 
that to the Enfield Chase men : all trebles, all in the 
altitudes. Now for the disposing of parts in the Morrice, 
little or no labour will serve," <fca Hence the allusion in 

Mr. Mitchell's note : 

" In what exact form the Chorus make their appear- 
ance it is difficult to say: had the editorship of this 
play fallen upon Cuddy Banks, he would at once have 
set them down as so many hobby-horses." 

The "Argexis " etc. of Barclay. — The editio 
optima of these works of Barclay is generally held 
to be that in 3 vols. 8vo, Liigd. Bat. 1664-69-74. 
The first and last of these are before me ; the 

first containing the Aryenis, in five books, with 
notes and index, pp. 653 ; the last containing the 
Satyricon— this being the general name for the 
Eiiphormia, Apologio, lean Animorum, Alethophili 
LacrymtBy and Alethophilus Castiyatus, which, to- 
gether with the Conspiratio Anyticana at the end, 

4* S.I. Jan. 18, 'G8.] 



extend to pp. 720. I should be much obliged if 
some possessor of the three volumes will kindly 
inform me what is contained in the intermediate 
volume, Lugd. Bat. 8vo, HM>9. 



[The second volume, Lugd. BaUv. 16G9, contains 
Archombratus tt Theopompus «ive Argenidis secunda et 
tertia pars, ubi dc institutione principis, pp. 630. J 

Cohorts in Britain. — Can any of your cor- 
respondents well read in the annals of the I toman 
Empire enumerate the localities wherein the fol- 
lowing cohorts were stationed during the Roman 
occupation of Britain, namely, Cohere Prima Bri- 
tannicorum, Cohore Prima Flavia Britannicorum, 
Cohors Tertia Britonum. Cohore Sexta Britonum ? 
It is desired that references to the works in which 
they are mentioned be given. < J lax. 

[Robert Brady, in his GtmpUte History of England, 

fol. ed. 1685, has a chapter on "The Roman Military 
Establishment in Britain," (pp. 11-51), taken out of the 
Not id a, or Summary of Theodosius Junior. Consult also 
the u Indices Inscriptionum" in the MonumeniaH istorica 
Britannira, by Petrie and Sharpe, i. p. cxlvi.] 

Bull axd Mouth. — The following lines are 

embossed over the door of the Queen's Hotel, 
Alderegate Street. Can you help me to find out 
the reason of their being there, and their date 'i 

" Milo, the Crotonian, 
An ox slew with his list, 
And at one meal he ate it all — 
Ye Gods! what a glorious twist ! 


[Is not this the old " Hull and Mouth " ? If *>, the 
allusion in the lines is obvious, and refers, os Mr. Tirabs 

points out in his Curiosities of London (p. l">3), to the 
story of Milo, who, after killing a bullock with one blow 
of his fist, ate it up at meal.] 

Latin Quotation. — 


perseverare in errore 

Wanted by 

Paululum Mkmorij 

but this quaint old writer does not mention it 

Cujusvis hominis est errare : nullius nisi insipientis, -in 

[Cicero, PhUippia, xii. cap. 2.] 



(3* S. xii. 340.) 

Mr. S. Bbisly wishes, it would seem, to know 
to what authority the author of Murray's Handbook 
for Berks, Bucks, and Oxon is indebted for the 
following statement : 

u There is an old and existing belief that no viper will 
live in the parish of Dorchester." 

^ One would expect to find such a notion men- 
tioned in Plot's Natural HUtoru of Oxfordshire: 

as regards Dorchester. However, the readers of 
" X. & Q." may like to see paragraphs 35 and 3G 
of his seventh chapter, being the chapter headed 

"Of Brutes:" — 

" 35. Of other reptils we have little to say, but that 
in the Lordship of Blechington [now spelt Bletching- 
don •], and all the more northern parts of Oxfordshire 
[Dorchester is in the southern part of the county, being 
nine miles south-east of Oxford], no snakes have been 
ever or very rarely seen, in so much that I met with 
several ancient people about Deddington and Banbury 
that scarce ever saw a snake in their lives, at least not 
in that country. And [at Blechington 'twas confidently 
believed that a snake brought from any other place, and 
put down there, would instantly dye, till I made the ex- 

fteriment and found no such matter : Whereupon I got 
eave (in the absence of the family) to inclose my snake 
in thecourt, before the Right Honourable the Lord Angle- 
sey's house, to see what time would produce, leaving the 
gardener in trust to observe it strictly, who found it 
indeed, after three weeks time, dead, without any sensible 
external hurt. 

" 36. How this should come to pass, is a question indeed 
not easy to determin [sic], but certainly it must not b«' 
;iM-ril>ed to the talismamcal figure of the stone ophio- 
morphites to be found about Adderburv, and in most 
blue clays, whereof there are plentv in this country 
Since these are to !>e met with about Oxford too, and in 
many other places where then* are snakes enough. Be- 
side, we arc informed by Cardan f that Albertus Magnus 
had a stone that, peing naturally mark'd with the figure 
of a serpent, had this do less admirable than contrary 
virtue, that if it were put into a place that was haunted 
with serpents, it would draw them all to it. Much 
rather may we subscribe to the cause assigned by Pliny, J 
who seems confidently to assert that the earth that is 
brackish, and standefb much upon saltpetre, is freer from 
vermin than any other. To which we may add (if need 
be) sulphur and vitriol, whereof there is plenty in these 
parts of the county; but whether by one, two, or all 
these, though we dare not pronounce, yet that it is caused 
by some such mineral steam disagreeable to the animal, I 
think we may be confident." 

The first edition of Dr. Plot's Natural I littery 
of Oxfordshire had the imprimatur of the Vice- 
Chancellor of the University of Oxford, April 13, 
G7t). " The second edition, with large Additions 

* and 

London in 1705. I ha\o quoted from this second 

Among the "Additions to chap, vii." is the 
following : 

•• § 35. There are no snakes near Badmintou in Uloces- 
tershire : The cause is the barenness and coldness of the 
land thereabouts, for snakes are bred out of rich, fat, hot 
mould and mud (whence we common! v find them about 
ditches, and low, rich, shady grounds, lurking under long 
grass) of which this country affords no great plentv. 
Ilesides, it being an open country, it wants that shade 
and shelter they delight in." — Brit. Bacon, p. 73. 

This Brit. Bacon, is the work referred to in th»» 

* Bletchingdon is scarcely four miles, as the crow flies, 

east by north-east of Woodstock. 
t !)e 8*btilitate t lib. vii. 
X Nat. Hist. lib. xvii. cap. 4. 



[4*S. 1. Jan. 18/68. 

following extract from the " short account of" 
Dr. Plot "by that curious naturalist, Mr. Ed- 
ward Lhwyd, Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum 
in Oxford/' which is prefixed to the beginning 
of the second edition of Dr. Robert Plot's Natural 
History of Oxfordshire : 

"In the year 1077 he published his Natural History of 
Oxfordshire, which lie wrote (as [vid. p. 339. Athen. 
Oxon.~\ 'tis thought) in imitation of a book of Dr. Child- 
rey's, entituled Britannia Baconica, or the Natural Rari- 
ties of England y 

John Hoskyns-Abrahall, Jrx. 

Combe, near Woodstock. 


(3 rd s. xii. :m.) 

I remember the Skyrack Oak ever since rav 
boyhood, when it was a more picturesque object 
than it is now; and at a future time I will 
supply you with some of the traditions which 

It is now only 

were then extant respecting it. 

the ruin of what was once a fine oak tree. 


years ago very few persons who went to view the 
remains of Kirkstall omitted, in going to or from 
Leeds, to look at the Skyrack Oak, which is in 
the immediate neighbourhood of the abbey. In 
the Annals of Leeds, by Edward Parsons (vol. i. 
p. 190), it is thus noticed : 

" The principal object in the village of Heailingly is 
the venerable oak which has defied the storms of a 
thousand winters, and which for hundreds of years has 
presented to the observer a decaying memorial of ages 
long since passed away. This remarkable tree has been 
conjectured by some — and the supposition is warranted 
by its evidently extreme antiquity — to have witnessed 
the horrible religious rites of the ancient Britons, and in 
fact to have formed part of a Druidical grove. Universal 
tradition declares this to have been the tree under which, 
in Saxon times, the shire meetings were held, and from 
which the name of Skyrack (shire oak) has been imposed 
upon the wapentake. Of course these traditions afford 
no positive demonstration ; but, in spite of scepticism, 
they render the supposition extremely probable, and 
induce the conclusion that it must be founded on fact." 

So much of poem and legend has been mixed 
up with the history of all such objects, that it is 
impossible to discriminate the false from the true. 
Thoresby, in his Ducatus Leodiensis, gives a more 
full account of the oak, and I must refer your 
correspondent to that authority for replies to his 
other queries. In Whitaker's edition of the 
Ducatus (p. 81), the following explanation is given. 
I give it with the notes of reference : 

[" Hundreds or Wapentakes]. Ten of these De- 
curia, or Tythings, made the Centuria or Hundred; these 

in some places (and particularly in these Northern Coun- 
ties) are called Wapentakes, the Reason of which De- 
nomination is distinctly mentioned in the Laws of King 
Edward the Confessor ( 8 ), viz. when a Person received the 
Government of a Wapentake, at the appointed Time and 
usual Place, the elder Sort met him, and when he was 
got off his Horse, rose up to him ; then he held up his 

Spear, and took Security of all present, according to 
Custom ; whoever came touched his Spear with theirs, 
and by this touching of Armour were confirmed in one 

common Interest ; and thus from ptepnil, Weapons, and 

tac, a Touch, or caccane, to confirm* they were called 
Wapentakes ; but here the Reader is to be cautioned that 
he run not into the mistake of the learned Editor, who 
takes Ewencickshire for Warwickshire, whereas it is in- 
disputably Yorkshire, as appears from ancient Manu- 
scripts, and Coins minted here, &c 

f 4< Skireake], It may not l>e amiss here to note, 

that this Wajyentake of Skireake seems to have received 
its Denomination from such a Convention at some noted 
Oak, or, to use a local Word, Kenspack-Ake. That Hun- 
dreds received their Names from a 7"re^, Cross, Stone, &c. 
is familiar; and that Places were named from Oaks in 
particular is the less Wonder, because ours are said to be 
the best in the World. Hence Oakham, Ockley, Ake- 
ham, Aukland, so called (as Surron in Greece was) from 
the Oaks; and so the whole County of Berkshire* from 
4 Iieroke, a disbarked Oak, to which, when the State was 
in more than ordinary Danger, the Inhabitants were wont 
in ancient Times to resort, and consult about Publick 
Matters ' ( f ). From some memorable 0<iA (yet called in the 
North an Ake), where the Inhabitants usually met upon 
such publick Occasions, which was probably at Hedinglev 
in this Parish (of which sec p.* — ),we mav safely conclude 
that this Waf>entake was named Skireake, or the Shire- 
Oak, which according to the Saxon Orthography was 

(as it is pronounced to this Day) rcype-ac, for the Inter- 
position of the h was not brought in till the Time of the 
Normans, who wrote it Schire. If any argue the Im- 
probability of all the County Freeholders meeting at this 
Place, I shall not contend (though that there were such 
general Assemblies, and in all likelihood at such a Place 
in those ancient Times, rather than within walled 
Towns "("). is no improbable Conjecture) for it as eflfec- 
tuallv answers this Etymon, if onlv the Inhabitants of 
this Wapentake, or this Division (Ab A. -Sax., rcytian, 

to divide into Share>), assembled there. I shall only 

add, that the Hundred- Courts, which in some places were 

held every three Weeks, in others but once a Month, were 
reduced to the County Courts by Statute 11 Edw. III." 

" (•) Edit. Wheloc, p. 45. 

(*) Camden's Britannia, N. E., p. 137. 

( u ) Thus a Palm Tree served Deborah for her West- 
minster-hall, when she judged Israel, saith Dr. Fuller, in 
his Church Hist., p. 60. 

The whole of the chapter from which the above 
is extracted will be instructive to G. II. of S., 
but it is too long for insertion in your columns, 
lie will find that the division of the county into 
hundreds, or wapentakes, wa p . made in the times 
of our " Saxon predecessors.'' It would be in 
vain to seek for the precise date. It will be ob- 
red, that I have care full v followed the text, 

even to the adoption of the numerous capital let- 
lers and the italicising. My copy of Whitaker 
leaves a blank where the page ought to be in- 
serted,* and all the copies I have had an oppoiv 
tunitv of consulting have the same omission. The 
reference ought to be to p. 148, where, under the 
head of u Scyrake," the oak is once again re- 
ferred to. The interest of the quotation will be 
.an apology for its length. T. B. 


i* S. I. Ja*. 18, '*$.] 




Like the Wapentake of Shyrack in Yorkshire, 
the Hundred of Dodingtree/ in the county of 
Worcester, and the adjacent Hundred of Broxash, 
in the county of Hereford, are both derived from 
some ancient tree under whose shade the courts 
of the district were anciently held. 

Thomas E. Winxixgton. 

The manor and chapelry of Shireoaks, in Not- 
tinghamshire, are so called from the fact that an 
ancient oak there marked the junction of the 
three counties of Nottingham, Derby, and York. 

Fredkric OrvRY. 


(3' d S. xii. 523.) 

The following, which are in my collection of 
old pamphlets, may possibly interest your corre- 
spondent Corntb. : 

1. " The Humble desires and propositions of the Lords 
and Commons in Parliament assembled. Tendered to 
His Majesty 1 February, 1642. With II ia Majesties 
G rations Answer thereunto.— Printed, by His Majesties 

Command, At Oxford, Bv Leonard Lichfield, Printer to 
the Vniversity. 1643.* 

This tract is one of sixteen pages, small 4 to, 
and contains, together with the above 

u The collection of all the particular papers that passed 
between His Majesty, Both Houses, and the Committee, 
Concerning the Cessation." 

2. *• The Reasons of the Lords and Commons in Parlia- 
ment, Why they cannot a^ree to the Alteration and Addi- 
tion in the Articles of Cessation offered by His Majesty. 
With His Majesties Gratious Answer thereunto, April 4, 
1643. Printed, by His Majesties Command, at Oxford. 
Bv Leonard Lirhfold, Printer to the Vniversitv. 1643. 
Snt. 4to, 21 pp." 

3. ** The Votes agreed on bv the Lords and Commons 
concerning a treaty ; and Their desire of a safe conduct 
for a ComjDittce named by them, contained in a letter of 
the 28. of February from the Earle of Manchester to the 
Lord Viscount of Falkland. With His Majesties Gra- 
tious Answer thereunto, and a Copy of His Safe Conduct. 
Also, The Articles concerning a Cessation proposed by 
both Houses of Parliament, and a letter of the 28. of 
February from the said Karle of Manchester, to the said 
L. of Falkland, in which they were inclosed. With His 
Majesties gratious Answer to'the same. Sm. 4to, 13 pp." 
[\\ ithout printer's name or date, but evidently from the 
press of Leonard Lichfield, as the type and 'paper are 
similar to Noe. 1 and 2.] 

I subjoin an extract, by way of note, from 
No. 3 : — 

" His majesties waft Conduct. 

" Ovr Will and Pleasure is, And We doe hereby straitly 
Charge and Command all the Officers and Souldiers of 
our present Army, and all our Ministers and Subjects 
whatsoever, to permit and suffer Our liight trusty and 
Right wellbeloved Conzin and Counsellor Algernon Karle 
of Northumberland \ and Our Trusty and Welbeloved 
William Pierrtpont, Esq., Sir William Armayne, and Sir 
John Holland, Knights, and Bulstrode Whitlock, Esquire 
(together with their servants), to passe and repasse to and 

from Vs, without anv Let or Hinderance, they being 
now sent to attend Vs from Our two Houses of Parlia- 
ment. This Our safe Conduct under Our Signe Manuall 
and Royall Signet, We Charge and Command them, and 
every of them, punctually to observe and obey, as they 
will answer the contrary at their utmost perills. 

44 Gicen at our Court at Oxford, the third of 

March, 1642." 

J. Harris Gibson. 



(3* S. xii. 4:33.) 

The ships of the Romans had the rudders 
passing over the side of the vessel ; sometimes 
there were two to a ship, at others four — two at 
the prow, and two at the stern. In Stoach is a 
vessel without oars, going at full pail with two 
rudders at the stern. These had sometimes, at 
their issue from the ships, projecting cases, serving 
no doubt to keep the helm perpendicularly to 
the sea. A cross piece (a kind of clams) governed 
the vessel with more facility. In all Anglo- 
Saxon ships there are two oars at the stern for 
steering, instead of a rudder. The ship in the 
Bayeux tapestry is a long galley, with a high 
crook at the stem, topped by a figure, and a 
similar one at the prow, taller, with a bust above. 
The rudder (in the form of a large oar) is on the 
side, and there is a single mast with a top to it, 
and a square ornamented yard. A good draw- 
ing of this ship your correspondent may find in 

Kosbroke's Encyclojxrdia of Antiquities, p. 208, 
fig. 14. The derivation of rudder will show that 
it was primarily an oar: Saxon rothrre from 
rowan, to row; Herman ruder, Old German 


The modern rudder was not in general use till 
the middle of the reign of Edward III. or about 
1350, though the old plan of steering ships by a 
paddle on each side was not abandoned till long 
after. In a MS. of about the year 1800 two 
drawings of ships are given, in both of which the 
rudder appears at the stern, and a man is seen 
steering with a tiller. In another MS. of the 
middle of the fourteenth century there are two 
delineations of Xoah's ark represented by ships 
having a large house on their decks ; both of these 
have rudders at the stern, with two pintles and 
gudgeons, and a tiller. From the perfect manner 
in which the rudder appears in these drawings, it 
is highly probable that, though not then, nor 
until a much later period in general use, yet it 
had long been applied to large vessels, whose 
height and size out of the water must have ren- 
dered it extremely inconvenient to steer with the 
ancient paddles. (See Steinitz's History of the 

In the vessels represented on media* val seals 
the sail is covered with armorial compositions 



[4* S. I. Jan. 18, »68. 



Mr. Boutell observes {Manual of 
11 9^ ami* of arms. In the seal of 

Heraldry, p. 412), satis of arm*. 
Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter (High Admiral, 
c. 1416), the sail of the ship is charged with the 
arms of Beaufort ; and in that of John Holland, 
Earl of Huntingdon, c. 1430, "Admiral of Eng- 
land, Ireland, and Aquitaine/' a noble-looking 
ship is displayed with a sail of Holland of Exeter. 
The seals of the Cinque Ports of Kent and Sussex 
exhibit curious ships displaying their own proper 
banner, the lions and ships dimidiated with the 
banner and shield of England. 

John Piggot, Jvx. 

Aggas's Map of London (3 rd S. xii. 504 ; 4 th 

S. i. 20.) — In your impression of Dec. 21, Mr. 
Halliwell remarks that, in Mr. Bohn's edition of 
Lowndes, it is stated that there is a copy of Apgas's 
Map of London, 1500, in the Sloane collection in 
the British Museum; and then inquires whether 
Sir Hans Sloane's maps and prints formed part of 
the original collection of the museum, and asks 
for a reference to the old map. The answer given 
is — 

" It is doubtful whether Aggas's Map of London, 15G0» 
is in the Sloane collection at the British Museum. At 
an}- rate, it has never been seen either by the keeper of 
the maps or by the gentlemen connected with the manu- 
script and print departments." 

I think it only right to state that there is no 
doubt about the matter; and when the question 
was put to me a few weeks ago, I answered then, 
as I should have done any time these four-and- 
twenty years past, without hesitation, u It is not 
here." The error is in Lowndes, and lias arisen 
out of a very natural conclusion on the part of the 
editor. In Brayley's Londiniana he found men- 
tion made (vol. i. p. 83) of a copy of Aggas having 

to Sir Hans Sloane. Brayley's authority 


was Gough, who (vol. i. p. 745) speaks of "two 
copies in the hands of Sir Hans Sloane and Dr. 
Mead." As Sir Hans Sloane's library did form part 
of the original collection of the British Museum, 
it was reasonable to suppose that the map spoken 
of as in the hands of Sir Hans Sloane would be 

Duke of Roxhfrghe (3 rd S. xii. 294, 422.) 
E. C. and Kusticus appear to be somewhat 
hypercritical in the objections taken to the ortho- 
graphy of the title and residence of the noble 
house of Cessford. Roxburghe is as often spelt 
with the final e as without it, and the practice of 
most of the Peerages since the commencement of 
the present century appears to be in favour of the 
addition. Wood's edition of Douglas's Peerage 
adopts it in 1813, and so does the Sale Catalogue 
of — 

" The Library of the late John Duke of Koxburghe, 
arranged by (J. & \V. Xicol, Booksellers to His Majesty. 
Pall-Mall, to be sold by Auction on Monday, the 18th 
Mav, 1812, and the forty-one following days, bv Robert 
II. Kvans, Bookseller, rail-Mall," do. &c. 

With regard to "Floors," I must demur to its 
assumed Norman derivation. It is in fact a ver- 
nacular term of not unfrequent occurrence in this 
county, and is applied to the natural terraces on 
the banks of streams, occasionally formed by the 
receding current, pronounced in lowland Scotch 
and also sometimes written "the Flures" or the 
Floors. Xo example of the French form, or Fleurs, 
is said to be met with before 1772 (Jeffreys* liox- 
buryh.y iii. 87). The formation of the ground 
between the duke's mansion and the Tweed, which 
gives rise to the name, is very perceptible to any 

the river from the march- 


] >oking aero- 

mound on which the ruins of Roxburgh Castle 
stand. Other examples of the same term, applied 
to similar terraces, occur in the Ke tours in the 
registry of a succession to the lands of Flures in 
the barony of Broxfield in 1632, and again to the 
lands of Brounhills in the barony of 1* lures and 
parish of Oxnani, both in this county. In the 
Kent Roll of Kelso Abbey, the quota paid by 
Flurislaws, near Greenlaw, is recorded, as well as 
that from the Flures near Kelso (Chartulary, 
p. 499 and 508) ; and within half a mile of the 
place where I am now writing, there is a field on 
the banks of a small tributary of the Teviot. 
which has always gone by the name of the Floors, 
from the circumstance of its rising in steps above 

the stream. 


W. E. 

--- Slang Phrases: Feeder: Tick (3 rd S. xii. 

found here. Such, however, is certainly not the 500.) — Cyril will recollect that Dickens, in 
case ; but I should here mention one very im- Bomhey $ Son, appropriately names the immortal 
portant fact which has been entirely overlooked, ' Dr. Blimber's assistant " Mr. Feeder." 


This word one would have thought to 

viz. that, in the original statement by Gough, it ...... - AM .o „^~ *, MU „ v ^ **«,„ ^^^. .„ 

is distinctly said that the copy "in the hands of be thoroughly slang; but it appears from the fol- 

bir Hans Sloane'' bore the date of 1<>18, fifty- lowing quotation from Kerr's Student's Black- 

eight years later than the date assigned in Lowndes done, chap. xv. p. 4G3, to be classi 
to the original map inquired for, which is thus -If,- says Lord Chief-Justice Holt, "a man send hi* 

tin own out ot the question altogether apropos of servant with ready money to buy goods, and the servant 

the British Museum. buy upon credit, the master is not chargeable ; but if the 

R II Ma top Kaon** rvP +i^ n i i. servant usually buy for the master upon tick, and the 

it. it. major Keeper of he Department servant buv ^ {hi without the n \ a>tei , 8 (>rdert vet 

„ . .' 0t Ma P s and Charts. if the master were trusted by the trader, he is liable.'" 

British Museum, Jan. 8, 1868. X. C. 




Lathi Roots (3 rd S. xii. 401.)— C. A. W. is 

right in thinking that Latin is taught at Univer- 
sity College School on the principle of roots or 
crude form*. The grammar used is by Professor 
T. H. Key, who is head-master of the school and 
professor of comparative grammar at the college ; 
and an exercise book bv Mr. Robson. on the same 




and persons and tenses of verbs are 
certain suffixes added to the word itself, or crude 
form, as Mr. Key calls it, which of course is not 
found in literature, but from the examination of 
the inflections. Thus with nouns, the first de- 
clension has the crude form ending in a, the 
second in o, the third • or a consonant, the fourth 
//, and the fifth e; and similarly verbs are di- 
vided into the a, e, •*, consonant, and t< conjugations. 
The crude forms of comu and lupus would not be 
com and tup, as C. A. W. supposes, but comu 
and htpo. Mr. Key uses the word 

f>art of a word beyond which etymology can no 
urther go, but the crude form is merely gramma- 
tical; as, for instance, the crude form of spe<taeu- 
lum would be spectactdo, while the root would be 
*p*c, the latter part being clearly a sultix. I 
know this method of teaching is very much ob- 
jected to by some, but it has in my mind two great 
advantages. In the first place, it is much easier 
than the old method, and of that I can speak with 
confidence, as I had learned from King Edward 
VI. 'a (irammar for some time with very little suc- 
cess before going to the University College School. 
In the second place, boys begin much sooner t • 
exercise their reasoning powers about the lan- 
guage, and to take an interest in philology instead 
of merely learning to translate. The took* in 
question are published, I believe, by Tavior and 
Walton in Gower Street. * M. 

David Garrick (3* S. xii. 502.)— P. A. L.'s 

long memory puts me on wishing that he 
had "assisted" at the revival of Shakspcre's 
Richard III. in 1824, from the Cibberian tomb ; 
wherein, with the contributions of Garrick v s shovel, 

it had been forgotten through more than a 

Premising that the original Richard was in its 
length (3500 lines) and in its form unactable, I 
extract from the preface to its published re-ar- 
rangement as presented at ( 1 ovent Garden in the 
above year, the differences between the altered 
and the restored finale of u The Roses " : — 

" Cibber's Richard consists of more than 1990 lines, of 
which his own composition amounts to nearly 1100;* 

• Some of these (among them, perhaps, the "tally- 
hoing" lines quoted by P. A. K.) may have been Gar- 
rick's; who made the like Frenchified work with liomto 
and Juiirt, as Tate made with Lear, and Monsieur Duci 

with Hamlet and with Ma> htth. 


leaving of Shakspere about 900 (in many of which Cibber 
has made alterations). The play now printed consists of 
1960 lines, of which fibber's are not above 100 ; making 
a restoration of about 860 lines of Shakspere." 

lie credit 

ave been 
sperean < 



ready, who enacted the new Kichard, I take to 
myself. The discredit of its failure may justly 
be ascribed to the unpersuadable force of habit 9 
which, during three or four generations, had ac- 
cepted — I lament to sav, that the fifth persists to 
accept — the patch-work of a clever stagewright, 
not in place, out as the authentic composition of 
England's greatest dramatist. E. L. S. 

Greyhound (4 th S. i. 13.) — Your correspond- 
ent has thrown out a very curious conjecture, 
which, if followed up by abler readers of " N. & Q." 
than myself, may probably lead to some result. 
The "gres, M as he suggests, is in all probability 
the u hart of grease," or stag in his prime, as op- 

rsed to the u rascal," or lean unhealthy deer. Now 
happen to have before me the rare facsimile 
reprint of the Bolce of St. Albans, edited by Haale- 
wood, 1810. At e. ij. vo. is a sort of catalogue 
of beasts to be hunted, and the "dyuers manere 
houndes." The first beast among the former is 
the "bucke"; the first in the latter list is the 
" grehoun," and the good prioress adds : 

11 A grehounde sholde be 
Heeded lyke a snake : 
and neckyd lyke a drake : 
fotyd lvke a catte : 
tayllyd lvke a ratte : 
syded lyke a teme : 
and cliynyd lyke a beine." 

This is just the description of the Scottish deer- 
hound, and one would naturally suppose the first- 
named hound was intended to hunt the first- 
named beast. 

Now it is remarkable that in the description of 
hare-hunting in the same work, d. iij. recto, there 
is no mention of anything like coursing in our 
acceptation of the term. In the Gentleman's 
Recreations, Lond. 1710, there is a minute ac- 
count of our present custom, with long rules for 
its practice, if a gres" be the buck in his prime, 
"grehound" maybe fairly, I think, assumed, as 
vour correspondent suggests, to be the buckhound. 

A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 

Cincini>el/k (4 th S. i. 12.) — There can be no 
doubt but that your correspondent is perfectly 
correot. The tradition to the present day in 
Italy, confirmed by my own observation, is the 
same as that of Pliny, that these insects only 
appear just as the harvest is ripe, and disappear 



[4*S.I. Jan. 18/68. 

a3 soon as it is cut and carted. Their light is 
most brilliant. They fly gracefully sometimes, 
very quickly, sometimes just gliding along. The 
most I ever saw at one time was on driving from 
Leghorn to Pisa to see the "luminare" on San 
RanieiTS day (June 17). There were myriads of 
millions of them, gracefully skimming the tops 
of the stalks of com. It was the most fairy- 
like scene conceivable. A gentleman who had 
travelled both in the East and West Indies, at 
once pronounced them to be the famous u fire- 
flies." It is said they are sometimes seen if there 
be a second harvest, as of " seggiola,'' but I never 
saw them after the first. We caught several in 
gauze nets : they were much like what the chil- 
dren call " soldiers and sailors/' 

With Aristotle on the elephant may be com- 
pared Pliny, Natural History, book viii. chaps. 
i.-xi. Pliny prefaces his instances of the intelli- 
gence of the animal by speaking of it thus : 

"Maximum [of the land-brutes] est clephas, proxi- 
mumque humanis sensibus : quippe intellect us illis ser- 
monis patrii, et imperiorum obedientia, officiorumque, 
qua» didicere, memoria ; amoris et gloriae voluptas ; immo 
vero (qua? etiam in homine rara) probitas, prudentia, 
ivquitas ; religio quoque siderum, Solisque ac Luna* 


JoiIN Il0SKYXS-AnR.VnA.LL, Jun. 

Corsie, Corsey (3 rd S. xii. 390, 510.)— Thia is 

familiar to me as a puzzle of some standing ; for I 

have never found any proof of its etymology. 

The word is not uncommon. The signification of 

As to the word ik baticesola," it is new to me ; it is, invariably, a corrosive, and not care, as erro- 

but probably is simply a provincialism for the neously stated by A. II. ; although, when he goes 

on to give it the sense of u cauterizing or corroding 
care/' he is very near the mark indeed. This 
suggests a connection with the Latin corrosio, 
but it is hard to prove, though it is certain that 

word " baccherozzolo," a "glowworm," an insect 
which gives a li^ht but cannot fly. A very pood 
account of both these insects is given in the Ency- 
clopedia Britannica, art. " Entomology." 

A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 





Your correspondent seeks tne 
baticesola. Has he pot the right word ? 
"lampyridas ' might be translated " baccheroz- 
zolo." II. 

As your correspondent Mr. Ramage asks if any 
others have seen the tire-flies he mentions else- 
where in Italy, I beg to inform him that I have 
seen them at Salerno, beyond Naples, in the 
month of May. In addition to what he states, I 

we find in the Faerie Queme the adjective corsive 
doing duty for corrosive. This sense, a corroding 
canker or corrosive will explain all passages save one, 
which I shall adduce, in which it means a corro- 
sive in the sense of a caustic, a violent remedy. 
That it is not from caveo, cautus, should be ob- 
vious to all who remember that cautus is not 
corttts, though sounding a little like it. I do not 
think it is from the A.-S., but from the French ; 
but proof fails me. The earliest example of its 
use I have yet seen is in the following line which 

observed that" on approaching the ground or any * f c ,°pi*lfor Mr. Furnivall out of a Cambridge 

other object in their flight they cast a sensible 
illumination on it. 

Not having seen them in any other part of 
Italy during a long tour, nor in Sicily or Greece, 
I think they must be confined to few localities, 
and that their period of appearing is short. II. B. 

A PniLosornic Brute (3 rd S. xii. 130.) 
Looking through back numbers of " X. & Q." I 
have come across the following query of B. J. T. 
under the above heading: "What Greek author 
gives this designation, and to what brute ? " The 
following words are in Aristotle's History of Ani- 
mals, book ix. chap, xxxiii. (or xlvi. according to 
another numbering) : 

iravrwv hi TiQaavoTaTov nal vficpwrarov ruv aypiwv 
iarivb i\tyas 9 iroWa *)ap K a\ vaiScfaroi tea) {wiV" ' 
bre\ Kal irpocrKvu^u dfidanovrai rbv fkvtrOd* ' ttrri l\ ical 
tvalaOriTOP ical awAcru t$ 6.\\y vnepfiaWov. 

These words may be rendered into English 
thus : — • ° 

" Now of all the wild animals, the elephant is the 
tamest and the gentlest ; for in manv things is it in- 
structed, and many does it comprehend; thus, elephants 
are taught to make the salam to the king. Moreover, 
tins animal is of quick perception, and it is superior to 
other animals as regards intelligence in general " 

MS. : u Nor no coresy may queth that qued ; •. e. 
u Nor can any caustic remedy that evil." (See 
Political and Love Poems, ed. Furnivall (E.E.T.S.), 

p. 217.) 

It should be noted that the question is compli- 
cated by the fact that there are three words with 
this pronunciation — viz. (1) corsie, a corrosive; 
(2) corsie, adj. corpulent, from the Latin corpus; 
and (3) the term in the following sentence. Cot- 

" Coursie, part of the hatches of a 
galley, tearmed coursie.' Aud then there is corse, 
to curse, and causey, a causeway, used by Sir 
David Lyndesay about the ladies' dresses that 
"sweep the kirk and causey clean. M I regret that 
I have no more exact proof of its derivation to 

offer. Walter W. Skeat. 


French King's Badge and Motto (3 rd S. xii. 

grave gives, 


The arms borne by "nostie auguste 

Monarque, Louis le Grand, roy de France et de 
Navarre," are thus f»iven by Trudon (Traitc de la 
Science du lilason, Paris, 1689, p. 44) : 

" D'azur h. trois fleurs de lys d'or f Tecu ou cartouche 
timbre' d'un casque d'or ouvert, &c. ; couronn^ de la 
couronne Impcrialc; entoure des colliers des 
ordres de St. Michel et du St.-Esprit: soutenu par deux 

4"»S.I. Jas. 18, '68.] 



anges vet us en Le'vites, la dalmatique aux Anaux de 
I'&u, tenant chacun une banhibre de France: le tout 
pos< sous un grand pavilion d'azur fleurdelisl d'or, double 
d'hermine* ; le comble bnxte d'or, couronne de la couronne 
Impe'riale Fransaise; lc pavilion attache k Voriflamme ou 
banniere du royaume, surmont^ de la devise Itoyale, Ace 

pluribut imparl 

The device on the oriflamme was the sun in its 


Job J. B. Wokkard. 

Gab (3 rd S. xi. 337; xii. 511.)— My remark- 
that the otigin of this word appears to be lost, 
seems to have been completely misunderstood. 
Of course it is the O. F. gaber. But it alw 
answers to the A.-S. gabban and the Dutch gab- 
beren; and gob is (says Mr. John Piogot) the 
Gaelic for beak. It is also certain that gab means 
mouth in Danish, whence gabe, to gape or make a 
large mouth ; gahflnb, a chatterbox; gabmund, a 

caper, a blab, or a tattler. See Ferrall and Repp's 

Danish Dictionary. Now what I mean to express 
is this, — that when we find a word occurring in 
A.-S., in O. F., in Dutch, Danish, Gaelic, and 
other languages, it is clear that such a word must 
be of very great antiquity, and its remote origin 
appears to be lost. But a reconsideration of the 
question leads me to perceive that a word for 
mouth would be a primitive and simple word 
(formed possibly from the gabbling or gobbling 
noise it makes), and I now feel sure that there 
must have been a primitive word gab, mouth, 
which is still preserved unchanged in meaning in 
Danish, which is the Swedish and English gap, 

the time which your correspondent, Bos Piger, 
mentions. I have met with the names of various 
members very frequently in old deeds ; e. g. Alured 
le Spicer, Provost of Oxford, 1247-8; Thomas 
Spicer, Provost 1249-50; and John Spicer as late 
as 1402. "While of the two mentioned by Bos 
Pigkr, the father's name occurs between 126G 
and 1200 (in the year 1288 as mayor), under the 
various forms of I^esspicer, le Picer, le Specer, le 
Espicer, and le Mustarder; and his son Kichard, 
recovered it may bo hoped from his early diffi- 
culties, was mayor about the year 1310. 

W. D. Macrat. 

Grandy Needles (3 rd S. xii. 320, 530.) 


game alluded to is common in the Eastern Counties, 
but is played differently. Two girls stand facing 
each other, and hold both their hands up joined, 
the right hand of one to the left of the other, so 
as to form an arch, under which the other girls 
run in a row hand in hand ; while the two form- 
ing the arch, when the last conies, lower their 
hands and try to make her their prisoner. The 
song, sung by the girls in file, is as follows : 

44 Lift up your hands so high, so high, 
And let King George and his lady come by. 
It i> *o dark, I cannot sec 
To thread the tailor's needle." 

F. C. H. 
German-English Dictionary (3 rd S. xii. 524.) 

Having had experience of several German dic- 
tionaries, I can confidently recommend Lud wig's 

the Gaelic gob, and from whence are derived all Keues ^'"i"'^ 
such words as the Dutch gabberen, the French 
gaber, the A.-S. gabban, and the English gajw, 
gabble, jibber, jabber, and even gaby. For a gaby 


is a gaper, who stands with open mouth like 
idiot; tor the proof of which see Wedgwood, s. v. 

11 Gaby." Walter W. Skeat. 


Masonry (3' 4 S 


xii. 371, 520.) 
entering into argument or controversy unsuited 
to the pages of " X. & Q.," I wish merely to in- 
form A. A. that Freemasons are incapable of 

admission to the 

the Catholic 

sacraments in 
Church in England, as well as on the Continent. 
The same prohibition applies to all other secret 
societies ; but on other grounds than " their in- 
terference with the ditties of the confessional,*' if 
I rightly understand the meaning of the writer in 
these word*, which is by no means clear. 


! judgment I can fully rely, who h 

Espec (3 rd S. xii. 245, 317.) — I believe that ' me that, from his own experience all through life, 
this contracted name occurring in Oxford records, , he is quite convinced of this influence. The moon- 
implies no connection on the part of the holder light shining into his room always renders him 
with the northern baronial family of 1/ Espec, but more or less restless, and this is not to be attri- 
rather denotes, their occupation, which was that buted merely to the light: for he feels no such 
of Speriarius, Epicier, or drocer. They appear to effect from tlie early daylight on summer morn- 
have been a family of some civic importance about ings. But he has again and again observed, when 

lVbrterbuch, printed at Leipsic for John Mackin- 
lay, Strand, London, 1810. I have constantly 
used this dictionary for upwards of fifty years, 
with great satisfaction ; ana it has very frequently 
happened that, when other dictionaries had been 
consulted in vain, the words or meanings sought 
for have been found in this of Ludwig. 

F. C. II. 
Lunar Influence (3 rd S. xii. 510.) — The idea 

of the young ladies that the full moon, especially 
at harvest time, had so much influence as to be 
able to drive them mad, was certainly outrageous 
and superstitious. JJut it was not entirely 
unfounded. Whether the moon's influence is 
stronger at the harvest season than at other times, 
may be doubted : but that moonlight has an evil 
intfueuce in certain circumstances, I think pretty 
certain. I know a gentleman, advanced in age, 
whose word I can confidently take and on whose 

often assured 



[4* S. I. Jan. 18, *68. 

his sleep has been unsound, without any apparent 
cause, that it has happened on a moonlight night. 
Indeed, he is so convinced of this influence of the 
moon, that he always strives to exclude the moon- 
light from his bedroom as far as possible, and has 
a strong dislike to moonlight nights. F. C. II. 

Bishop Geddes (3 rd S. xii. 383, 513.) 

, -T The 

song alluded to was certainly the composition of 
Dr. Alexander Geddes, and not of his cousin 

Dr. John Geddes, who was Bishop of Morocco in 

the song : 

" There is another humorous thing, I have heard said 
to be done by the Catholic priest Geddes, and which hit 
my taste much : 

1 There was a wee wifeikie, was coming frae the fair, 
Had gotten a little drapikie, which bred her meikle 

care ; 
It took upo' the wifie's heart, and she began to spew, 
And co' the wee wifeikie, I wish I binna fou, 

I wish, &c. &c.' " 

r. c. ii. 

Bisnor of Madura (:3 rd S. xi. 510: xii. 512.) 
When I quoted Dr. Oliver, I should have cor- 
rected his mistake in calling the see of Bishop 
Gillard Madura. It was Madaura, a city of Xu- 
niidia, lying between the rivers Rubricatus and 
Tusca, now comprised in Algiers. Yet the doctor 
is not far wrong in his spelling, for Madaura was 
also called Madams. F. C. II. 

JURED by Fire (:3 rd S. xii. 503.)— So long ago as 
August, 1854, I asked a similar question, but 
under the heading "Singed Vellum" (l %i S. x. 
106). If C. J. has not got a tile of " N. & Q." by 
him, I beg to say that the question was first re- 
plied to by the Editor in a note, who informed 
me that an immense quantity of MSS. on vellum, 
injured by fire, had been restored under the direc- 
tions of Sir Frederic Madden. Subsequently, 
a correspondent in l fct S. x. 133 said that, when 
a manuscript has suffered in this way, it requires 
very delicate and skilful handling, and that it 
"must be reduced to a state of pulp before the 
laminae can be separated." And he added : — 

" To Mr. Henry Gough, Sen., of Islington, belongs the 
honour of having (under the direction of Sir Fredekic 
Madden) succeeded in restoring to use, in a most ad- 
mirable manner, the injured treasures of the Cottonian 
Library some of which have proved to be of the highest 
historical importance." 

When C. J. bears in mind that the softening 
process must not obliterate or injure the writing, 
perhaps he will agree with me in thinking that 
the restoration had better be attempted only by 
experienced and judicious hands: otherwise the 

the poet Burns occurs the following mention of 

ut such as had been tied up in ordinary 

result will be like the restoration of most of our 
old churches of the present day — destruction. 

P. Hutchinson. 

Apropos to the query of C. J., « How to 
restore parchment or vellum injured by fire/' it 
may be useful to those of your readers who 
may have such documents in their keeping, to 
know that in a recent fire where the flames 
heated the front of the iron safe containing title- 
deeds and leases on parchment, these valuable 
documents were rendered almost, and in some 
cases quite, useless, from the seals melting, and 
so sealing all the folds together, and from the skins 
contracting to hard lumps, where they had been 

simply "put in thp» «af« *' witlirmf on^ s*+ii A ,. ^~^_ 

tection ; D 

brown paper were as good after the conflagration 
as before. The safe was one of the best made, and 
was built in a recess ; and, excepting these deeds, 
everything, including leather-bound books therein, 
was perfectly preserved. Perhaps some of your 
chemical readers can explain the reason of this. 

F. J. J. 

Jean Etienne Liotard (3 rd S. ix. 473; xii. 
537.)— J. may iind some interesting particulars 
respecting Liotard's works in crayon (and possibly 
in oil), and their possessors, in'Walpole's Anec- 
dotes of Painting in England } ed. 1771, iv. flO. 


_Old Sayings as to various Days (3 rd S, xii. 

78.) — A. A. asks if (inter alia) the Surrey saying, 
"On Twelfth Day, the day is lengthened the 
stride of a fowl," is in use at present. In my 
boyhood, half a century ago, and doubtless at this 
day, there was, and is, a saying at Hull and in the 
East Riding of Yorkshire : " The days are get- 
ting a cock's stride longer." Crux. 

There was formerly in use in the bishopric 
of Durham, on Twelfth Day I think, the saying— 
" On Twelfth Day the day is a cock-stride longer." 


Indian Basket Trick (3 rd S. xii. 502.) — 
Nearly threescore years ago, an old connection of 
mine, who had served in India (H. M. 77th), 
described this trick as performed before himself 
and his brother officers; with this notable cir- 
cumstance, which was, perhaps, casually over- 
looked by Young Italy's relative— the exhibition 

took place in one of the officers "compounds " on the 
open ground. One other trick was also performed : 
— a girl, who itinerated with the juggler, appa- 
rently about thirteen, laid herself down on a table ; 
a thread of sewing-silk was placed across her 
bosom ; when her companion, after half-a-dozen 
sweeps of a broad and heavy sword within an inch 
of her person, swung himself round ; the final 
blow descended, and cut the thread in twain 
without touching her skin. 


4*S.l. Jan. is, '08. J 



My gallant kinsman narrated all this, teste 
se ipso; offering neither explanation nor conjec- 
ture, but simply saying that the performance was 
closely watched by himself and his comrades. 
I cannot, of course, attest what I did not see ; 
but many years' intimate knowledge enables me to 
warrant his perfect truthfulness. E. L. S. 

Old Tunes (:5 rd S. xii. 462.)— Mr. E. D. Sr ier 

ask- the dates of certain tunes upon his old hall- 
clock, for the purpose of determining whether it 
may be, or cannot be, 180 years old. The names 
of the tunes are " Harvest Home," u ( Jod save the 

King," " On a Bank of Flowers," u Minuet by 
Senesino,'' ,4 March in Scipio," and u Miliar of 

Of these, four may be set down as exceeding 
L'K) years, and two appear to fall short of it. The 
four of older date are, "On a Hank of Flowers," 
by Galliard ; the "Minuet by Son«-*ino" (an 
Italian treble singer of the Velluti order, brought 
to England by Handel) ; the " March in Scipio," 
by Handel; and "Harvest Home/' — assuming 
the last to be from Dry den's King Arthur, with 
music by Henry Purcell. The identity can b«> 
ascertained by referring to Popular Music of the 

Olden Time, ii. 583. 

The two which appear to be h s than 130 years 
old are, -The Miller of Mansfield," and "God 
save the King." 

" The Miller of Mansfield r is, in all probability, 
Robert Dodslev's "How happy a State does the 
Miller," from Lis play, Th> King and the Miller 
of Mansfield. The date of the play can be ascer- 
tained by reference to Baker and Jones's Bio- 

graphia Dramatica. Trusting to memory only, 1 
should say it is 1746. " God save the King " was 
first printed in JIar mania Anglirana as "God save 
our Lord the King." Its popularity, however, 
may be dated from the latter hall of the year 
1746, after the defeat of the Jacobites; when it 
was first sung at the theatres, and "our Lord" 
was changed to "Great George." 

Airs must have attained popularity before they 
were set upon clocks; and upon that ground I 
should infer that the hall-clock cannot be older 

John Wesley's Wig (3 rd S. xii. 510.) — I beg 
to inform Cum bert Bede that the wig of John 
Wesley was exhibited in the second Public Exhi- 
bition at Leeds, in 1843, and is thus described in 

the Catalogue : — 

"No. 15*2. The Wig of the Rev. John Wesley, be- 
queathed by him to the father of the present proprietor, 
Mr. J. Hale." 

It is a long flowing white wig; and when in 
use, would exhibit much the same appearance 
as seen in portraits of Wesley, except that 
the curl, if it ever had been curl«d, was nearly 
gone and the hairs somewhat wasted. It was 
carefully preserved under a glass shade. It is 
reasonable to suppose that Wesley, in his extreme 
old age, would feel the need of a wig, and adopted 
one resembling the mode in which lie wore his 
natural hair. ('. Fourest, Sen. 

Womvarde (3 rd S. xii. oiM.) — 1 quite agree 
with Mk. Addis in thinking Mr. Morris is here, 
for once, wrong in his explanation of the word, 
becau-»' 1 do not see how to join -weard on to 
xcol, so as to make sense. Hut the explanation 
tcolwarde, with wool next the body, satisfies all 
three quotations, viz. in the Pride of Conscience, 
in I Her n Plowman, and in the ('rede. It is always 
connected with the idea of penance or of poor 
clothing. The quotation from the Prieke of Con- 
science is very much to the point : 

44 And fast and pa woltcarde, an<l wake" 

Accordingly, when Mr. Addis receives ray edi- 
tion of the Crede from the E. E. T. S., he will 
find in the glossary : 

• 4 4 Jr<>hcardr, without anv lvnnen next one's bocv. 
$4i ns c/tcmi/se.' — Palsgrave. To go windward was a com- 
mon way of doing penance, viz. with the wool towards 

one's skin.'' 

Walter \Y. Skeat. 
"Toe Prickk ok Conscience" (3 rd S. xii. 


I dare sav Mr. Morris know of the Douce 

than the year 1745. 

Battle at Wigan (3 rd S. xii. p. 525.) 

At any rate it is known that there are 
plenty of MSS. of this poo:n. There is one, e. g. 

in Caius College, Cambridge, which I do not 

think he mentions. No doubt he used the best 

he e<»uld find. Mr. Perry has already edited, for 

Wm. Chappell. I the Early English Text Society, some of Ham- 


pole's prose treatises. They are worth attention 
certainly. MSS. of Hampole's works are sulli- 

cientlv numerous 

Walter W. Skkat. 

rare tract named in the Editor's note, is given in 

the Civil War Tracts of Lancashire (Chethani 
Series, vol. ii. p. 21 K5) ; and much, on both of the 
subjects of inquiry, will be found in A Ih'scourse 
of the Warr in Lancashire (Chethani Series, will find the second ballad he names, li On Sir 

Lancashire Recusant Ballads (.'l rd S. xii. 


Your correspondent Mr. John W. Bone 

vol. lxii.), and in Seacome's Memoirs of the House 
of fitapileg. The inquirer will, however, most 
easily refer to Baines's History of Lancashire, in 
which a good memoir and portrait of Sir Thomas 
Tyldesley will be found in vol. iii. p. 610, with a 
tabulated pedigree of his family. 

Thomas Hoghton, of Ho<rhton Tower,'' &c. printed 
in my little volume of Ballads and Hongs of Lan- 
cashire, chit jig older tlum tlw W)th Century (18* >.'{), 

p. 4/i, where it is more correctly entitled " The 
Blessed Conscience : written on the Departure 
from Merry England of Thomas Hoghton, Esq. 

Lancastrieksis. [ of Hoghton Tower." It has been printed several 



[i"»S. I. Jan. 18/68. 

times, and there are various versions. Your cor- 
respondent states that his copy is in twenty-one 
stanzas; mine is in twenty-two and a half stanzas 
of eight lines, one half* stanza being wanting. 
Will Mr. Bone favour me with the loan of a 
copy of his version, which I would duly return 
with the variations marked ? I do not know 
anything of the song concerning John Fewlus or 
Thulis, the Jesuit executed at Lancaster ; but I 
have somewhere (at present mislaid) some dog- 
gerel verses in reference to certain Roman Catho- 
lic priests and the persecution they underwent. 


Cheetham Hill, Manchester. 

Thomas Barton, D.D. (3 r(l S. vi. 471 : vii. 4(5, 
104.)— Some clerical error must, I think, have 
crept into the copy of the document upon the 
authority of which Rymer and Mr. Bruce have 
recorded Barton's presentation by the king (Nov. 
20, 1629,) " to the rectory of Kynesbury, co. Hunt- 
ingdon, void by simony." Mr. Gorham searched 
the Institution Begisters for Eynesbury Rectors 


Barton's name among them. 

And it does not appear that the living was void 
from any cause whatever at the time specified. 
Edmund Marmion discharged the first fruits of 
the living Jan. 3, 1015, and his autograph signa- 
ture occurs in the vestry-book of the parish, 
May 12, 1G15; again in 1017, and every subse- 
quent year until 1044, witli the four exceptions of 
1034, 1038, 1042, and 104:5, in three of which 
years the annual parish meeting was omitted. 
lie signs himself Edmund — Edmunde — EdnwnduA 
Marmion, sometimes adding j 


St. Neots. 

Joseph Bix, M.l). 

The Name of Sheffield (3 rd S. xii. 537) 

first Shcaf-Ficld — that is, the field on the 

river Sheaf, oi 
is built. Shay or shaiv (used convertibly) is the 
A.-S. scua, a thicket, and not a slope a> con- 
jectured by C. C. 11. Thoresby and Whitaker 
give many examples of the convertibility of Sharp 
and Shay j and I Knew persons of both names who 
belonged to the same family. It. W. Dixon. 

Seaton-Carew, co. Durham. 

William Peck's MSS. (3 rd S. xii. 503.)— The 

MS. of the History of the Isle of Axholme, and 
another quarto volume of Historical and Topo- 
graphical Memoranda, are in the possession of 

Edward Hailstone. 

Horton Hall, Bradford, Yorkshire. 


Curate and Conduct (3 rd S. xii. 501.)- 
clergy who " conduct" the services in Eton College 
chapel, and act as curates in the parish of Eton, 
are always called " conducts/' E. Walford. 




The Sailor 8 Word- Book.— An Alphabetical Digest of 
Nautical Terms, including some more especially Military 
and Scientific but useful to Seamen, as well as Archaisms 
of Early J oyages. \\x the late Admiral W. II. Smyth. 
• Revised for the Press by Vice- Admiral Sir F. Belcher. 
(Blackie «fc Son.) 

j The late Admiral Smyth had two qualifications for 
writing the present book which eminently fitted him for 
the task, for he was not only a thorough sailor, but he 
was moreover an accomplished scholar and man of science: 
and the editor's preface should be read by all who knew 
the admiral for a kindly and just appreciation of his cha- 
racter and abilities. It was the last work of a long and 
active life ; and well may the editor say of it — and what 
higher praise could be given to such a book as the pre- 
sent?— "the rising generation will find here old terms 
(often misunderstood by younger writers) interpreted by 
one who was never content with a definition until he had 
confirmed it satisfactorily by the aid of the most accom- 
plished of his contemporaries." Admiral Smyth's intro- 
duction is most characteristic of the man ; and we onlv 
hope that all the youngsters who enter the navy will 
show their gratitude to his memory for his labours on this 
most useful Word-Book, by emulating his professional 
skill and manly character. 

Parochial and Family History of the Deanery of Triqq 
Minor, in the County of Cornwall. Bu John Maclean, 
Esq. F.S.A. Part I. — Parish of B Inland. (Nichols.) 

Justice in the shape of a fitting county history has not 
yet been done to Cornwall. Much has been done bv 
Hals, Tonkin, Lysons, and Davies Uiltart, but much re- 
mains to be done — more perhaps than any one man could 
hope to accomplish. Mr. Maclean, therefore, wisely 
determined to limit his plan, and for some years has 
devoted such time and opi>ort unities as have been at his 
disposal to the elucidation of the antiquities and historv 
both personal and territorial of the Deanery of Trigg 
Minor, which contains some twenty parishes. Part I., con- 
taining the History of the Parish ( f Bl island, is now before 
us. It contains a plan of the ancient church, showing 
the portions erected during the prevalence of each style 
of architecture, and a view of the building, with two 
other plates, and numerous illustrations on wood ; and 
large Pedigrees of the families of de Toeni, Parker, Rey- 
nolds, Spry, Kempe, Morshead, and Treise, as well as 
other genealogies. 

The whole is preceded by a dissertation on the Tenure 
of Land during the Saxon period, which will be found 
interesting as well as useful in showing the origin of 
many manorial customs and the tenure of land which 
afterwards prevailed. It is hoped not only for his own 
sake, but for that of the county, that Mr. Maclean will be 
encouraged to complete a work on which he has obviously 
bestowed much care and attention, and which, therefore, 
deserves the patronage of Tre, Pol, and Pen, and all Cornish 

Paris and Vienne. Thystorye of the Noble Byght Valy- 
aunt and Worthy Knyght Parvs and of the Fayr Vyenne, 
the Daulphyns Douqhter of ryennoys. From the Unique 
Copy printed by Jr*illiam Caxton at Westminster in the 
Year mcccclxxxv. (Printed for the Koxburghe 

The romance of Paris and Vienne is for many reasons 
a very fitting book to be the opening volume of the Rox- 
burghe Library. It is of peculiar interest. It relates to 
a country which has not been very fertile in romantic 
literature; and Caxton's version of it is preserved in a 

4* S. I. Jan. 18, '68.] 



single copy, formerly the property of George III., and 
now in the King's library in the British Museum. The 
little that is known of the literary and bibliographical 
history of the Romance is related by Mr.Carew Hazlitt in 
the preface, and the text is rendered more intelligible by 
a series of glossarial and illustrative notes. The book is 
very nicely got up, and is to be followed, as speedily as 
the state of the Subscription List will permit, bv the 
works of William Browne and Samuel Rowlands ; a 
volume of Unique Early Jot Books; a collection of 
Narratives of Early Murders, and other Book Rarities 
well calculated to please collectors. 

Quinti Horatii Flacci Optra, cura II. II. Milman, D.D. 

This is a new and smaller, but not 1« — beautiful edition, 
of I>»-an Mil man's Horace. We doubt if Bisliop I)«>ugla> 
of Salisbury, renowned for his vast collections of editions 
of Horace, had upon his shelves one which could stand a 
comparison with the edition before us for its typ< gra- 
phical beauty, combined with the variety and accuracy 
of its classical illustrations. 

A prttty Book of Pictures for Little Masters and Misses, 
or, Tommy Trip's History of Beasts and Birds. With 
a familiar Description of each in Verse and Prose. To 
which is prefixed the History of little Tom Trip himself of 
his Dog Jouler, and of Woqlag the great Giant. Written 
6y Oliver Goldsmith for John Newberry, •' the Philan- 
thropic Bookseller of St. Pants Churchyard: 9 The Fif- 
teenth Edition. Embellished with c harming Engravings 
on Wood from the original Blocks engraved by Thomas 
Beuick, for T Saint of Newcastle in 177i>. With the 
History, Adventures, and Seclusion of the said Blocks 
for nearly 100 Years set forth in a Preface by the Pub- 
lislier. (Edwin Pearson, 64, St. Martin's Lane.) 

This ample title-page shows sufficiently the nature of 
this book, interesting both to the admirers «>f Oliver 
Gold.Mnith and Bewick collectors. It is a reproduction of 
a child's book written bv the author of The Vicar of 
Wakefield, and illustrated by the incomparable wood 
engraver of Newcastle; liberally illustrated by Bewick 
— for Mr. Pearson's rc^-arches after the original bloeks 
have proved successful — and they have be«n used for the 
present edition of Tommy Trip. The preface is curiously 
illustrative of the early history of printing and wood 
engraving at Newcastle". 

Literary Scraps, Cuttings from Newspapers, Extracts, 
Miscellanea, Sec. (Hotten.) 

A very useful small folio volume for the preservation 
of those ** shreds and patches "of literary information, 
which are so often lot tor want of such a rej>ertory as the 

Educational Books. — Just at this period, when the 
pupils of all educational establishments are about to re- 
sume their studies, the book-* Hera are busily occupied in 
the supply of new educational books. As some of these 
have reached us, we must make a note of them. First 
we have two supplements to The Public Latin Primer, 
issued by Messrs. Longman, viz. Subsidia Primaria I., 

Steps to I Ait in : First Course, being a First Companion 
Book to the Public School Latin Primer ; and Subsidia 
Primaria II., Steps to Latin, Second, Third, and Fourth 
Coursts, being a Second Companion Book to the Public 
School Latin Primer They are both by the editor of 
The Primer, and intended as companion books : the first, 
indeed, may be used as an elementary grammar by those 

who wish it. I land/took of English Literature, Prose, and 
Dramatic Writers, by \Y . G. Larkins (Routled^e), is a 
modest attempt to supply, in a cheap, concise, and learnable 
form, a tolerable know led t f English literature ; while 

Mr. Vickers's New Course of Practical Grammar, or Plain 
Straight Boad to Good English (Pitman), is intended for 

the use of those who only want to know how to read and 

write correctly, and not to study the language philo- 
logical ly. 

National Pout rait Exhibition of 18P8. — Lord 
Derby's excellent idea of a National Portrait Exhibition 
is destined to bear more fruit. The Lords of the Com- 
mittee of Council on Education have determined to hold, 

in the Spring, a Third and concluding National Portrait Ex- 
hibition at South Kensington. This Exhibition will com- 
prise — 1. Portraits of persons (deceased) who lived be- 
tween the years 18<K) and the pn nt time. 2. Portraits 
of persons living before the year 1800, who were unrepre- 
sented or inadequately represented in the two previous 
Exhibitions, 3. The Exhibition will be opened early in 
the Spring of 1868. In order that the |>ort raits maybe 
properly arranged and catalogued, they will be required 
not later than the Third of March. ' They will be re- 
turned in the month of August. 



Particulars of Price, ftc. of the following Books, to be tent direct 
to the gentlemen by whom they ire i juircd, whose ntmci aud ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose: — 

The C"mmcnion Sbryicb ©ci or an Oxrua^o PaATsa-Booa. Small 
8ro, 1777. 

Wanted by Mr. C. M'. Bingham, Bingham's Melcomb, Dorchester. 

Bcrrb's Visitation or Sbats a*d As»ms. Vol. I. First Series. 
I Wanted by Mr. K. Wnij'ord, V, BoutcHc Street, E.C. 

MosnitaTs Ecclbsiastical Histoby. Vol. III. M unlock and Soames' 

IfooHvn'a Ecclbsiastical Politt, and other Works. Vol. II. Benin. 

HanbuD's Edition. 

Wanted by Mr. Jno. II'. Hum, 13, Duke Street, Lincoln's 

Inn Fields. W.C. 

Towsr or London. Criibsraak's Plates. 

Old Saint Pact's. Ditto ditto. , 

Ersrirb's Brasrn SsurrwT. 

■ Lira TsiaoroM Dbath. 

GosrraVs Fa err, translated by Lord Ellesmere. 

Ht wick's History «f Q- ad*» r«os. 

Lano and Watbr Binds. 2 Vols. 

Wanted r y Mr. Thomas Rett. Bookseller. 16. Conduit Street, 

Bond Street, London. W. 

flatter* to Corrfrfpatttoentt 1 . 

Unitbrsal Catalog i-b or Boors on Art. All Additions and Cor- 
rections should be addressed to the Editor, South Kensington Museum, 
London. VY . 

Frbbasasonrt. ** Onr who w shes to I now,'* should read De Quincey's 
Vapcr on Fret masonry in The Londou Mag*,/ ne. Jan. 1824. 

Cockadbs. Cosmopolitan will find several articles on this sulrject in 
<>ur earlier volumes. The varied coloured »ne* are used only, we believe, 
by the Foreign Ambassadors. 

Jessies Claimants. J. C. II. will find an account of these in 
"N. ft Q." 2nd 8. i. 1*6,2*7. 

W. Ltaix. The line — 

** Great wits to madness sure are near allied/* 

is from Dryden's Absalom and Achitophel. 

Eslion. The couplet occurs in a short poem by S. T. Coleridge, en- 
tahd " The Knight s Ton,',." .See hu Poems, edit. 1*51. p. 30ft. 

U. M. Consult the library edi/iim of the Collected Works of Thomas 
Carlyle in 16 rols. Bro, 1*67-8. 

Erhata.— 3rd 8. xil. p. bt*. col. ii. line 5 from bottom, for " Jsmes 
Allen." reail" James- Alan ;" 4th 8. i. p. 30. col. i. line 28, for M Pa a- 
shorb." rta</ "Pbrsrorij" p. 33, col. i. line \'J from bottom, for " filling 
up "read" filling it." 

Curbs or Colons, Colds, and Hoarsbnbss bt Dr. Locock's Pul- 
monic Wabbrs — From Messrs. Ftrgyson and Sons, Auctioneers. Leek: 
"The beneficial effects we hare derived from jour Wafers make us 
feel it a duty to offer you our gratuitous testimony to their superiority 
orer any other remedy we hare eter tried for colds .coughs, and hoarse- 
ness, so peculiarly troublesome to our profession." Thene Wafers give 
instant relict to asthma, consumption, coughs, and all disorders of the 
lungs, and have a pleasant taste. Price Is. \}d. and 2s. Ski. per box. Sold 
by all Druggists. 

" Noras ft QcsRiis" Is registered for transmission abroad. 



[4 th S. I. Jan. 18, '68, 

" teamed, Chatty, Useful." — Athen^u3I. 

Now ready, in 12 vols, bound in cloth, each with very Copious Index, price 6/. 6s. 

A X 1) 

E It 


The following is a list of some of the principal subjects tr 

contain manv hundred similar 


English, Irish, and Scottish History. 

Char'es I.'s 'Remember' 

Cressy _ Place of Cromwell's Burial — Luke's Iron Crown— Ex peti- 
tion to Carthncrena — Danish In vasions — Swimr — Post-mortem Ex- 
amination of Prince Henry— Cromwell's Heart— Tomb of Elizabeth- 
James II. at Faversham— New Champion of Mary, Queen of Scots- 
Itineraries of Edward I Georve III., and Hannah Light foot— Queen 

Charlotte and the Chevalier D'Eon— Felton's Dagger— Queen Hen- 
rietta Maria's Pilgrimage to Tyburn. 


Old Countess of Desmond — Edmund Burke — Dr. John Hewitt — 
Sebastian Cabot — Lady Vane — Praise CJod Barcbonts — Matthew 
Wasbrouch and the Steam Engine— Patrick Ruthven— Henry Mud- 
diman — Bishop Juxon — George III. and Bishop Porteus — Harrison 
the Regicide— Archbishop Laud and his Sepulchre— Disinterment of 
Hampden's Remains— Lord Thurlow's Political Rise— The Cid and 
his Tomb— Ludowick Muggleton— Birthplace of Baskervi lie -Han- 
del's Death— Law of Lauriston _ Legends of Sir Frainis Drake — 
Major-General Lambert— Robert Robinson- Mrs. Cockayne— Collins, 
Author of/ To-morrow'— Walter Travers. B.D. — Col.*R. Vtnables 
—Beau Wilson — What became of Voltaire's Remains— John Bunyan 
—The late Joseph Robertson —Dr. Wilmot's Polish Princess — Dr. 
Cyril Jackson — Richard Deane the R-gicide — Dr. Wulcot— Henry 
Peacham— Coleridge at Rome— Peg Woffington. 

Bibliography and Literary History. 

Dean Swift and the Scribblerians— Archbishop Leighton's Library— 
Jiegisters of Stationers' Company— Caricatures and Satirical Prints- 
Shelley's Laon and Cythna— Age of New.-papers — (. overdale's Bible— 
Musod Etonenses— Oldys's Notes on Milton and Hudibras- Dr. Johnson 
on Punning— Record Commission Publications— Notes on Lowndes' 
Bibliographer's Manual- Antiquity of Scottish Newspapers— Chat- 
terton and the Rowley Poems— Barn aby Googe — Bacon s Essays — 
Locke— Eikon Basil ike— Pone's Imitation of Horace— Sheridan and 
Lord Belgrave's Greek — Bishop Ken's Hymns — The Arcadia Un- 
veiled—Irish MSS. at Home and Abroad — Early Scottish Printers- 
The Hudibrastic Couplet— Bibliography of the Collier-Congreve Con- 
troversy—Unpublished Satires by Archbishop Laud— MS. English 
Chronicle— Characters of the Rolliad— Seraglio library-Library of 
the Escurial-Club at the Mermaid— Catholic Periodicals— Destruc- 
tion of Priestley's Library— Treatise on Oaths— Scotch Jac bite Lct- 

^r, 8 - Marie Antoinette and the Genuine Letters— Original MS. of 
Eikon Basilike. 

Popular Antiquities and Folk Lore. 

Hampshire Mummers- The Egg, a Symbol — King Plays — Lucky 
and Unlucky Days— Four-leaved Clover— Touching for King's Evil- 
Customs in County of Wexford- North Devonshire Folk I^re— Bird, 
Omen of Death— Whittington and his Cat— Nef— Hod in the Middle 
Ages — King Alfred's Jewel— Unpublished Highland Legends -St. 
Valentine-A Fairy's Burial Place— Jacob's Staff-Zadkiel's Crystal 
Ball— Jack the Giant-Killer— Stray Notes on Christmas_St. Patrick 
and the Shamrock— Passing Bell of St. Sepulchre's— St. Swithiif s Day 
—Anatolian Folk-lore — Love Charms— Lucky Bird at Christmas- 
Bonfires on Eve of St. John. 

Ballads and Old Poetry. 

Beare's Political Ballads- Sonnets of Shakspcare— Christmas Carols 
-iancred and Gismunda— Songs by Joseph Mather— Poems by 
fcarl of Bristol and Duke of Buckingham - Drayton's Endymion — 
Numerous Illustrations of Shakspeare and Chauc-r- Swiss Ballad 
of Benaud_The Faerie Queene Unvciled-Tom Drum's Entertain- 
ment- Miakspeare Portraits- Rob?rt Adair-Thomas Lucy, the Earl 
8 Vkw ter 8 pla / e , r -The La«s of Richmond Hill - The Ballad of 
ine Woman and the Poor Scholar "—The Waefu' Heart. 

eated of in the earlier volumes of the Third Series, which 

Xotes, Queries, (ind Replies : — 

Popular and Proverbial Sayings. 

Blue and Buff— Green Sleeves— Brace of Shakes— Cutting off with a 
Shilling— Brown Study— odds Bobs and Buttercups— After Meat Mus- 
tard— Conglcton Bible and Bear— Roundheads— Antrim Proverbs— 

, Est Rosa Flos Veneris -Kilkenny Cats— When Adam delved, &c 

It ends with a Whew — Hans in Kelder. 


Isabella and Elizabeth— Derivation of Club— Oriental Words in Eng- 
land—Name- of Plants— Words derived from Proper Names Tyre 

and Retyre— Kaynard and Canard — Faroe and Fairfield— Derivation 
of Theodolite - Exchequer— Bigot — Pamphlet — Team — Lord and 
Lady— Chaperon— Morganatic— Jarvey— Meaning of Charm— Honi— 
Levesell— Homeric Traditions. 

Genealogy and Heraldry. 

Cotgreave Forgeries— House of Fala ITall- Somersetshire WIlls- 
Dacre of the North-Parravicini Family-Bend Sinister— Curious 
Characters in Leigh's Accidence— Mutilation of Monuments-Fami- 
lies of De l'lsle and Dc Insula. St. Leger, Ac, Wyndham. Salton- 
hall, De Scarth, &c.-Printed Wills- Scottish Heraldry— Trade in 

1 Spurious Titles and Decorations— Raleigh Arm-— Early Surnames 

Toison d'Or— Serjeants at Law_Esquire— Arms of Prince Albert— 

i Punning Mottoes — Fert, Arms of Savoy— Scottish Burials at Ghent 
— Shakespeares of Rowiu^ton— Origin of Mottoes. 

Fine Arts. 

Portraits of Archbishop Cranmer— Fliccius— Old Countess of Des- 
mond— Turner's Early Days— statue of George I Pictures of Great 

Earl of I^eicestcr — Turner and Lawrence— Portrait of Paley— St. 
Luke the Patron of Painters -Portraits of Our Saviour— Exhibition 
ot Sign Boards— Westminster Portrait of Richard the Second— Res- 
toration of a Paolo Veronese— Inscriptions on Portraits— Portraits at 

Ecclesiastical History. 

Lambeth Degrees-Jeremy Taylor's Great Exemplar— Fridays. Saints 
Days, and Fa»t Days— Prophecies of St. Malachi-Nonjuring Ordina- 
tions and Consecrations— Cardinal's Cap— Rood-lofts— Marrow Con- 
troversy—Bishops in Waiting— Early MSS. of the 8criptures— Com- 
plutensian Polyglot— Theosophy, Ac. — The Mozarabic Liturgy — 
Indulgences printed by Caxton — Hymns of the Church— Dancing be- 
fore the Altar— Hymn of 8t. Bernard— Abbesses as Confessors. 


Standgate Hole— Newton's House in 1757— Knave's Acre— Tabard 
Inn— Wells City Seal-Statue of George I. in I Bicester Square -Great 
Tom of Oxford— Jerusalem Chamber— Southwark or St. George's 
Bar— Pole Fair at Corby— Essex Clergymen— Lord Mayor's Diamond 
Sceptre— Yorkshire Sufferers in 1745-Boscobel Oak— Grecian Church, 
Soho— Illustrations of Old London— Grave of Cardinal Wolscy — 
Siege of Pendennis Castle— Traitor's Gate— Pershore Bush Houses- 
Isle of Axholme— Bunyan's Tomb in Bunhill Fields— Catchem's 
Corner— London Posts and Pavements— St. Michael's Mount Corn- 
wall— Pare aux Cerfs— Palace of Holy rood. 

Miscellaneous Notes, Queries, and Replies. 

Judges who have been Highwaymen— American Standard and New 
England Flag — Dutch Paper Trade — Modern Astrology — Coster 
Festival at Harlem — Written Tree of Thibet — Society of Sea Ser- 
jeants—Shakespeare Music— Armour Clad Ships— Lists of American 
Cents— Bells at Pisa — Ancient Land Tenures — Dagmar's Cross— 
Presidency of Deliberative Assemblies _ Dentition in Old Age- 
Mayor's Robes— St. Patrick and Venomous Creatures in Ireland- 
Ring Mottoes-The Postal System- Hoops and Crinolines— Mozart In 
London— Rye House Plot Cards— The Danne Werke— Sword Blade 
Inscriptions— Medmenham Club— The Camberwell Club— Battle of 
Ivry— St. Aldhelm and the Double Acrostic-The Willow Pattern— 
The Bayeux Tapestry— Abraham Thornton and Wager of Battle— 
Montezuma's Cup— Whipping Females-The Irish Harp— The Lord 
Mayor's Show— Roundels or Fruit- trenchers. 

A few Copies of the SECOND SERIES, 12 Volumes, cloth boards, 6/. 6*., may still be had. 

GENERAL INDEX to First Series, 5s. ; Ditto to Second Series, 5s. 6rf. 


4* S. I. Jan. 25, '68. ] 





NOTES: — Tomb of Hasdrubal and Battle of the Metaurus, 
69 — Charles Cotton of Beres ford, the Angler, 70 —Rally 
Clark a Centenarian, 71 — A Warrant for,Colours of Horse 
Regiment, temp, Charles II., 73 — " The Quest of the San- 
Kraal " — Beauharuais — Commoners' Supporters — Costly 
Entertainments — Lady Nairn — Praying Aloud —Mot- 
toes of Saints, lb. 

QUERIES : — Archbishop mentioned by Cave — The Arti- 
cles of War — Bryan's Arms and Crests, Ac. — Bummer — 
Mathew Buck inger— Crests, Ciphers, and Monograms — 
On different Modes of Disposal of the Dead Body — Was 
Sir Matthew Hale a Ringer? — Sir William Hamilton's 
Metaphysical Works — General Haw ley — Hoi beam of 
flolbcam, in East Ogwell, Devon — Hymn — u Non est Mor- 
tale quod Onto" — " Polite Letter-Writer "— Roses worn 
by Ambassadors — Sanskrit Globes and Warren Hastings 

fig School — M Super- 

George Selwvn at a Ladies' Board 
se Taleutes : " Vana sine viribus 

Qctbbies with Avswces : — Miss Elizabeth Smith : Bo ik 
of Job— Hotspur's Burial-Placv — Mac Leod — Sea Laws 

— Quotation — George Jerment, D.D., 76. 

REPLIES: — Dancing before the Altar in Seville Cathe- 
dral, 77 — Frye's Engravings, 78 — A Homeric Society, 
71* — Emendations of Shelley, lb. — An Heir to the 
Throne of Abyssinia, 81 — The English Language, lb. — 
Philology — Perverse Pronunciation— Proverbs — TPolkinjc- 
horne— Passage in " Book of Curtesvo " — Homeric Tradi- 
tions : M The Cyclic Poems " — Prophecy of Louis-Philippe 

— Inscription at Bakcwell — Licenses to Preach —Quota- 
tion wanted — Croker Family — Hans in Kelder — Tom 
Paine's Bones — M Regis t rum Sacrum Americanum " — - 

Hawking — Saxon Spades— The Grants of Auchinroath 

— Joan. Posselius, Ac, 82. 

Notes on Books Ac. 


wished to visit. It was six to seven miles distant 
from Urbino, but to a traveller alte prcccindo 
as I was, a few miles more or less was of no con- 
sequence. We travelled over a hilly and bleak 
country till I again reached the banks of the 
Metaurus, and there I found the u Torre d' Asdru- 
bale," or tomb of Hasdrubal, close to the church 
of Santo Stefano, situated on Monte d' Elce. Be- 
fore me stretched a plain, " San Silvestro," of no 
great extent, and above rose a high pinnacle of 
the Apennines, called Monte Nerone, no doubt 
from Claudius Xero, the conqueror of Hasdrubal. 
The priest of Santo Stefano said that the tradi- 
tionary account was that the defeat took place in 
this contracted plain ; and I can easily believe it, 
if the armv of Hasdrubal was able in one night to 
penetrate thus far. Here, however, is the diffi- 
culty 1 feel as to the site 4 of the battle. Livy 
(xxvii. 47), the only historian who gives us a cir- 
cumstantial account of the proceedings of the two 
parties, thus describes them : — 

44 Ad Senam castra alterius consulis erant: et quin- 
gentos inde ferine passus Asdrubal aberat." 

Sena, now Sinigaglia, must be some twenty 
miles at least distant, probably more from this 
spot where I now was. When Hasdrubal began 
to suspect that Xero, in w T hat way he could not 
tell, had left Hannibal in Apulia, and joined the 
other consul at Se 

, he suddenly decamped at 
ied in the dark alonir the 

TOMB OF HASDRUBAL AND BATTLE OF THE | banks of the Metaurus to this spot. Sena is not 

METAURUS. I situated on the Metaurus, but on a small stream, 

Misus, now Xigola. 

To reach the Metaurus, Hasdrubal must have 
crossed the country at night for many miles, and 
struck it somewhere about Fossombrone. There 
the hills rise at once a great height. I ere 
a very hilly country on my way to Urbin 
kept to the left of the Metaurus, which I had 
crossed by a good bridge immediately on issuing 
from the Petra Pertusa, now II Passo del Furlo, 
at the entrance to which is found the following 
inscription : 

While I was poking about in the "nooks and 
by-ways of Italy in search of its ancient remains," 
I once found myself at Urbino, far in the north of 
the Papal States, whither I had gone to see the spot 
which gave birtn to Raphael, and that I might 
examine the physical features of the country in 
which he had been cradled, believing that much 
of a man's character is often to be traced to the 
scenes of his early youth. 

As I jogged along towards Urbino from Fos- 
sombrone, where I had found the ruins of the 
ancient town Forum Sempronii, one mile distant 
from the modern, near the church of San Martino 
down the banks of the Metaurus, I continued to 
inquire without success for the site of the cele- 
brated battle-field, in which Hasdrubal, brother of 
Hannibal, was killed, and respecting whose death 
(B.C. 207) Horace (Carm. iv. 4) puts this pathetic 
lamentation into the mouth of Hannibal : — 

"Cartbagini jam non ego nuntios 
M it tarn superbos : occidit, occidit 
Spes omnis, et fortuna nostri 
Nominis, Asdrubale interempto." 

I reached Urbino, and after many inquiries 
found at last a muleteer who promised to con- 
duct me to the " Torre d' Asdrubale." I had 

"Imp. Ciesar Aug. Vespasianus Pont. Max. Trib. 
Pot. vii. Imp. xvii. P. P. Cos. vim. Censor Faciund. 

This refers to a.d. 77, and in Hasdrubal's 
time there was no bridge. Hasdrubal in crossing 
from Sena would reach the right bank of the 
Metaurus, and we are told by Livy (xxvii. 48) 
that he was not able to cross before he was over- 

taken by Xero. Besides, it seems to me that even 
if the Carthaginian arm)- had got across to the 
left bank, it would have had much difficulty in 
threading the narrow gorge through which the 
Metaurus flows before it reaches this plain on 
which I was looking. In fact, I am not able to 
give credit to Livy's account, if the armies were 

doubt that this must be near the spot which I placed near Sena. In that case, the defeat must 



[4th S. I. Jan. 25, '68. 

building of 

have taken place lower down the river than the 

plain of San Silvestro. 

I only throw out these difficulties for the con- 
sideration of scholars who may take an interest in 
such matters, but here tradition has placed the 
defeat, and here is a tower which is called " The 
Tomb of Hasdrubal." The tomb is a round 

very coarse bricks, with a room in the 
centre ten feet in diameter, lined with bricks, 
and between the outer and inner course of bricks 
there is rubble-work of stones and mortar. They 
have no tradition respecting the age of the build- 
ing ; I do not believe that it belongs to Roman 
times. I had seen the " tomb of Palinurus,' , or 
what is so called, a few months before, and I 
could not help being struck with the great resem- 
blance of the two towers. The tomb of Palinurus 

is situated at a place called Torrione, near to the 
village Torracce, a few hundred yards from the 
shore, and three miles from what is eallrd the 
promontory of Palinurus. To my eyes it had 
much the appearance of a ruined watch-tower, 
and however much I mi^ht be inclined to believe 

it to be the spot so beautifully alluded to by 

Virgil (/En. vi. 3*0), 

" Et statuent tumulum et tumtilo solemnia mittent, 
/Eternumque locus Palinuri nonien habebit," — 

I confess that my belief was of a very doubtful 
character. It did, indeed, somewhat resemble 
some tombs of Yelia which I had seen, though 
much larger, and was filled with stones and lime, 
probably the ruins of the upper part of the build- 
ing. At one time it was larger than it is at pre- 
sent, as the hill on which it stands is covered with 
its remains ; and the peasants said that coins had 
been found, though they could show none. There 
is a lower chamber, but so filled with stones that 
it cannot be entered. It is a curious circumstance 
that there should be a fair held at this uninhabited 
spot on August 4, and continuing for three days. 
May this not be a continuation of those meet- 
ings mentioned by ancient writers, at which games 
were celebrated in honour of Palinurus ? The 
spot where the fair is held is marked by a small 
chapel and a clump of very aged trees, under 
whose branches the peasants assemble to ex- 
change their various commodities. 

The plain of San Silvestro, where the defeat of 
Hasdrubal is supposed to have taken place, is 
prettily situated, being entirely surrounded by 
lofty mountains except where the Metaurus ap- 
pears to flow towards the sea. At this spot there 
is a narrow valley, along which I had not time to 
pass; but if Hasdrubal got so high up the river, 
along this he must have gone to reach the plain. 
These little sequestered plains are common in this 
part of the Apennines. The day after, on my 
way from Urbino to San Marino,' I looked down 
from a high ridge on another plain of much larger 
size ; and a couple of days afterwards, in proceed- 

ing from San Leo to Sarsina, the birthplace of 
Plautus, I crossed a third plain ; both of them 
surrounded by high mountains. 

Since I wrote this I have looked into Smith's 
Geographical Dictionary, and at Metaurus I see 
that it is said that Arnold had examined the 
ground, and was satisfied that the "Senense 
Hum," as Cicero (Brut. 18) calls it, must nave 
taken place near to the mouth of the river. With 
this I agree, if we are to be guided by Livy's 
account. I have no opportunity at present of re- 
ferring to Arnold to see whether he was aware of 
the traditionary account of the country, or whether 
lie had seen the plain of San Silvestro. Perhaps 
some of your correspondents will clear this up. 

Craufurd Tait Ram age. 




Amongst some old deeds and papers at Bentley 
Hall, near Ashbume, principally relating to the 
Beresford family, has lately turned up the follow- 
ing curious document ; and since the only issue 
of the runaway match herein recorded was no 
other than Charles Cotton, the poet and angler, it 
is worthy of preservation in " N. & Q." Oliva 
Stanhope, the young lady in dispute, was the 
only child of Sir John Stanhope, of Elvaston, 
M.P., (ancestor, by Mary Radclyfle, of Ordsal, his 
second wife, of the Earls of Harrington ; and half- 
brother to Philip, first Earl of Chesterfield), by 
Oliva, only child of Edward Beresford, of Beres- 
ford, whose pedigree I hope ere long to publish. 

I am desirous of tracing the descendants of 
Charles Cotton, the angler, who, poor man, him- 
self died insolvent, 10*7, in the parish of St. 
James's, Westminster ; Elizabeth Bloodworth, his 

Erincipal creditor, administering to his effects, 
►y his first wife, Isabella, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Hutchinson — who was buried at Alston field, 
April 20, 1000 — he left three sons, who all appear 
to have o. s. p. The eldest, Beresford Cotton, at 
one time held a captain's commission in Lord 
Derby's regiment of foot. Of the three daughters, 
Olivia, the eldest, married George Stanhope, D.D., 
the well-known Dean of Canterbury ; and Jane, 
the youngest, married Beaumont Parky ns of 
Bunny ; but whether or not they left issue, I 
cannot state. Katharine, the second daughter, 
who died in 1740, net. seventy-six, married Sir 
Berkeley Lucy of Broxbourne, third baronet, 
F.R.S., &c. ;"and their only child, Mary, married 
the Hon. Charles Compton, father of Charles 
seventh Earl of Northampton ; whose only child, 
Elizabeth, married the first Earl of Burlington, 
grandfather of William seventh and present Duke 
of Devonshire, K.G., who is consequently sixth 
in descent from Charles Cotton. 

Of the other issue of Mr. Compton and Mary 

4* S. I. Jan. 25, '68.] 

KOiiWV Alx\1> v^uiiavix/o 

< l 

and second, Arthur J3cott, R.N.j 
daughter, ~ """* 

»f Northamp- 
iddock, R.Is., 
Jane, second 
s, first Lord 

married tjreorge .oryuges, 
Rodney/ the distinguished admiral; 
married John second Earl of Egmont, and was 
created in her own right, 1770, Baroness Arden 
of Lohort Castle; and Elizabeth married the 
Hon. Henry Drummond, the Charing-cross banker. 

John Sleigh. 

Thornbridge, Bakewell. 

" The severall answeare of Charles Cotton, Esquire, 
to the bill of Complaynt of Sir John Stanhuppe, 
Knight, complaynaunt. 

" This defendaunt is desirous with an humble submis- 
sion to pacifve the complaynaunt's displeasure, to stirre 
up his fatherly affection" by all possible respects of 
obedience, and "not to justifie or excuse his actions, in 
hope that the Complaynaunt would be pleased to accept of 
his submission, & to remitt what is past upon triall to 
be made of this defendaunt's dutifull and respect full de- 
meanor towards him in tymes to come, which the de- 
fendaunt both by himselfe and his wyfe (the Complayn- 
aunt's childe) in acknowledging his' Error *fc declaring 
that he was heartily penitent for the same, and alsoe by 
thelntreatv of man v Honorable Freindes this Defendaunt 
hath endeavored to attaine, and in obedience to the pro- 
oesse of this most Honorable Courte (savinge to himselfe 
all advantage of exception to the insufficiency of the 
saide Bill) for Answeare to the same, saveth that he 
hopeth to make itt appeare to this Honorable Courte and 
to the Complaynaunt, that he is not of soe poore meanes 
and estate as the playntiff hath binne informed, for this 
Defendaunt saveth that he is the sonne and heire of Sir 
George Cotton, late of Bedhampton, in the Countye of 
Southampton, Knight, and of Cassandra his wyfe, whoe 
was one of the daughters and coheires of Henrv Mack- 
williams of Stanbume-hall, in the Countye of Essex, 
Esquire, sometymes of the honorable band of Pensioners 
to the lateQueene of ftamous memorye, Queene Elizabeth, 
Soe that this defendaunt hopeth that neither this honor- 
able Courte nor the Complaynaunt will conceave that 
any disparagement -canne redound to the Complaynaunt 
or his daughter by marriadge with this defendaunt ; and 
further sayeth that hee had an estate in Landes of In- 
heritance and Rents left unto him of the yearely value of 
600£ per annum, or thereabouts, which he yet hath, be- 
sides a personall estate to the value of one thousand 
marks or thereabouts. And if the same be not equiva- 
lent or proportionable to the Complaynaunt's daughter's 
estate; This Defendant doubteth not but to supply any 
wants thereof by his affectionate love to his wyfe, and 
respectfull observation of suche a ffather. And this De- 
fendaunt further saieth that he did not knowe that the 
saide Olive w 

rvn a 

under the age of sixteene yeares, but was 
credibly informed that she was of the age of above six- 
teene yeares, nor knoweth what Inheritance was descend- 
able upon the Complaynaunt's Daughter (now this defen- 
daunt s wife) att the tyme that he sought to obteyne her 
for his wyfe ; his affection beinge more fixed upon her 
person, and the Allyance of soe noble a ffamilye, then 
upon her estate ; neither did he knowe that she was to 
have the landes in the Bill mentioned, or what other 
landes she was to have either by discent or conveyance. 
But this defendaunt sayeth that 'that (sic) it is true that 
understand inge of the vertuous disposition of the Com- 
playnaunt's daughter, and receavinge satisfaction of the 
tfood report hee had heard by the sight of her person, he 

did by all possible meanes addr'esse himselfe to intimate 
unto her his desires, and havinge the opportunity to 
meete with her att the house of one of her Aunts, hee 
this defendaunt did in shorte time discover her affection 
towards this defendaunt, and thereupon he was emboldened 
to proceede to move her in the way of Marriadge. And 
there were some Messages interchanged betwixt them, 
whereby she signifyed her readines to answeare this de- 
fendaunt's desires therein, and the difficulty to obteyne 
her but bv carryinge of her away. And did herselfe ap- 

Eointe to "come to this defendaunt, If hee could come for 
er ; whereupon hee prepared a Coache, and in the eyen- 
inge of the day in the Bill mentioned hee came in a 
Coache neere unto Salisbury Courte, where the Com- 
playnaunt dwelleth. And this defendaunt's nowe wyfe 
came of her owne accorde to this defendaunt, and went 
away with this defendaunt, A the same night this de- 
fendaunt confesseth that they weare marryed togeather, 
and ever since Cohabited as' husband & wife ; in doinge 
whereof if this defendaunt's passion and fervency of 
affection have transported him beyond the bounds of 
wisdome, dutye, <fc good discretion, this defendaunt doth 
most humbly crave the pardon & favourable construc- 
tion of this most IIon ble Courte and of the Compl 1 con- 
cerninge the same. But as concennnge any Riott or 
Riotouse Assembly, this defendaunt sayeth that he at- 
tended his saide wyfe comminge unto him, beinge accom- 
panyed onely with his ordinarye attendance other then 
one gent: that then was in his company, and the minister 
which marryed them (beinge the defendaunt's kinsman, 
neither weare they armed with any Pistolls or otherwise 
then att other tymes they usually walked). And con- 
ccrninge the obteyninge or suinge out of the Licence in 
the Bill mentioned, or procuringe Nicholas Butler and 
Richard Edmonds in the bill named, or either of them or 
anve other to make the oathe in the bill mentioned, This 
defendaunt sayeth that hee never knewc that any such 
oathe was made but by Reporte, aud that longe after 
the same was done, nor ever sawe the faces of the saide 
Butler or Edmonds to his knowledge, nor knoweth what 
they weare or whoo produced them, nor ever made anie 
use of the saide Licence. And as to all and everyne 
the Subornacions of perjurye, unlawfull practises or Con- 
spiracies, Riotts, or riotous Assemblyes, or any other 
the offence in and bye the saide Bill of Complaynte laide 
to the chardge of this defendaunt (except onely the mar- 
ry inge of the sayde Complaynaunt's daughter) in suche 
sorte as formerlv is expressed— Herebye this defendaunt 
saveth that hee is not of them or anie of them guiltye in 
such as in and bye the saide Bill is declared. And humbly 
prayeth, by the "flavour of this Hon b,e Courte, to bee dis- 
missed from anie further attendaunce thereabouts." 


We seldom hear much of centenarians during 
their lifetime, or, in other words, while direct 
evidence of their age is capable of being produced, 
and this it is, probably, that has given rise to so 
much of the doubt and cavil that is abroad upon 
the subject generally. I have now to bring for- 
ward a case which I have been at considerable 
trouble and some expense thoroughly to ventilate ; 
the result, however, of which has been to satisfy 
me that there is at all events one person nmc living 
in England who is upwards of 100 years old ! My 
remarks in fact apply to one who was a child 

running about the paths of a retired Welsh vil- 



[4 th S. I. Jan. 25, '68. 

lage, when Arthur, the great Duke of Wellington, 
was but a new-born babe at the breast ! 

There is now living at Hawarden, in the county 
of Flint, an old lady named Sally Clark, who 
claims to have been born at Caerwys, in that 
county, in the year 17G2. She reckons her age 
(106) from the date of her marriage in 1790, at 
which time, she declares, she was 28 years old. 
She further declares that she icalked with her 
parents to Caerwys Church on the day of her 
christening. I give these preliminaries on the 
testimony of the good old dame herself, although 
it will be seen as we proceed that they require a 
certain amount of qualification. The actual facts, 
as ascertained by registers and other documents 
in my possession, are as follows : — 

John Davies and Hose Roberts were married in 
the neighbourhood of Mold, Flintshire, and had a 
first-born daughter, Margaret, living when they 
migrated to Caerwvs in 1757. Other children 
were born to them there, viz., Elizabeth, baptised 
in 1757; John, in 1758 ; Mary, in 17(51 ; and Jane, 
in 1764. And now comes in chronological order 
the following document, duly stamped and at- 
tested, under the hand of the Rev. \V. Hughes, 
the present Rector of Caerwys : 

" Baptism solemnised in the parish of Caerwvs, in the 
county of Flint, in the year 17G7. 

" Sarah, daughter of John Davies and Rose his wife, 
baptised the 1st of March. 

"The above is a correct extract from the Register Hook 
of Baptisms belonging to the Parish Church of Caerwvs 

" \V. Hughes, Rector of Caerwvs. 

"January 2, 1807." 

I may add that the baptisms of another daughter, 
Anne, and of a second son, Jonathan, appear re- 
spectively under the years 1700 and 1 772. 

When about twelve years old, Sarah Davies left 
her parents at Caerwys, to live as servant on the 
farm of Mr. Gibbons, of Ewloe town, in the parish 
of Hawarden. She continued as a servant in the 
neighbourhood until 1700, in which year, upon 
March 3, being at the time described as u Sarah 
Davies, spinster/' she was married, " after banns " 
atllawarden Church, to " William Clark, bachelor 
and labourer," as appears by a stamped copy of 
Marriage Register, No. 310, kindly supplied to 
me by the Rev. Henry Glynne, Rector of Ila- 
warden. Sally Clark continued to live in the 
parish of Hawarden until the death of her husband, 
on January 20, 1844 ; prior to which time she had 
become the mother of ten children, the youngest 
of whom is now fifty-seven vears of age ; the oldest, 
a daughter, Mrs. Elizabeth Blundell, aged seventy- 
seven, is now resident with her own family of 
grandchildren at West Derby, near Liverpool. 
Another daughter and a son live each in separate 
cottages on the outskirts of Hawarden ; and along 
with the last-named, happy and whole in mind, 
but not of course very active in bodv, resides our 


from eyewitnesses, not uncommon even now to 
see the ancient dame, who is grown almost blind, 
sitting in her armchair, with one of her many 
great-grandchildren seated on her knee. A short 
time ago, at the suggestion of Mrs. Gladstone, 
w r ho is much interested in the old lady, I had a 
hotograph taken of the worthy matron, sitting at 
tier cottage door, on the lintel of which, above 
her head, is nailed an old horse-shoe, the universal 
" harbinger of good luck " all over the world. 
Sally I 'lark has had ten children, thirty grand- 
children, and at least thirty-two great-grand- 
children, most of whom are still living, and na- 
turally proud of their ancient patriarch. 

It will now appear that supposing the old lady 
to have been baptised on the very day of her 
birth (which is not likely), she will be 101 years 
old if she lives until March 1 in this present year. 
Further than this, if her statement be correct that 
she walked to Caerwys Church to be christened, 
she would be at least* two years older still ! Her 
brother John's son, Thomas Davies, is now, or 
was very recently, living in the Mold, aged up- 
wards of eighty! Her mother, Rose Davies, and 
her two brothers, John and Jonathan Davies, lie 
buried in the churchyard at Mold. Her sister 
Jane married in Chester, and went to reside at 
Rackford, near this city, where she died several 
years ago ; and Anne, another sister, died and was 
buried near London. 

I have thus established the fact that there now 
resides, in my own neighbourhood, an individual 
born certainly 101 years ago, or just after the 
marriage of George III. with Queen Charlotte, 
ancT while yet the immortal Nelson was a mere 
stripling at school ! Finally, I shall send here- 
with the certified registers* and other proofs for 
the inspection of the Editor, and as guarantees for 
the correctness of my dates and other details. 

T. Hughes. 


[If all who undertake to write upon Longevity were 
as painstaking as Mi:. Hughes has been in inquiring 
into facts and dates, we suspect very few cases of cen- 
tenarianism would be brought forward. Sally Clark's 
identity as the child of John Davies and Rose his wife 
seems pretty clearly established. But we would suggest 
to Mr. Hughes that the case would be made yet more 
complete if further search were made in the Caerwvs 
registers to see whether the Sarah baptised in 1767 did 
not die shortly afterwards, and whether another daugh- 
ter, having been born after her death, received also the 
name of Sarah. Such cases are not uncommon. As for 
being twenty-eight years old when she was married, 
Sally's memory is clearly at fault. We suspect she is 
also mistaken as to her having walked to church to be 
baptised. It must be ver} r lucky to walk to church on 
such occasions, as so many alleged centenarians profess 
to recollect having done so. We have no doubt, however, 
that in making both these statements, Sally Clark is onlv 
asserting what she reallv believes to be true.-— Ed. 

4* S. I. Jan. 25, '68.] 





I am not aware that this warrant has ever been 
printed, and believe it to be a copy of one of the 
Exchequer records, which were so sadly dispersed 
some twenty or thirty years ago. I trust you will 
find room for this amongst the many other notes 
of a similar character which have heretofore 
graced your pages : 

« (LS.) Charles R. 

44 Our Will and pleasure is that you forthwith pro- 
vide for the Regiment of Horse of our Dearest Consort 
the Queene, raised and to be raised for Our Sen-ice, whereof 
our Right Trusty and Right Entirely Beloved Cousin 
and Counsellor Christopher Duke of Albemarle isColonell, 
the severall particulars following, and that you deliver 
them to Richard Bings, Esq r , Major of the said Regi- 
ment ; Viz 1 Eight Colours of Crimson Damask Doubled 
a yard and half in each Colours with Gold and Silver 
Fringe, Tassells, and Strings, and a Staff to each, And 
the Chaves to be Embroydred on both sides to be accord- 
ing to the description and differences following, Viz 1 . On 

the First Colours UJ under our Royall Crowne ; On the 
Second Our Royall Crowne; On the Third Our Royall 
Crest ; On the Fourth the Rose and Crowne ; On the 
Fifth the Flower de Lyz and Crowne; On the Sixth The 
Thisle (sic) and Crowne ; And the Eigtb, Plaine only with 
Fringe. Also Sixteene Banners for Trumpets of the samo 
Stuffe and Doubled as the said Colours, with Gold and 
Silver Fringe, Strings, and Tassells, And Our Royall 
Armes Embroydred on both sides. And Also that you 
provide Three toates for Two Trumpetts and one Kettle 
Drum, also Kettle Drum Banners ; each Embroydred as 
those of Our said Dearest Consort's Troop of Guards now 
are; And for so doing this shall be vour Warrant. 

"Given at Our Court at Whitehall the 5 th day of 
April!, 1G78, in the Thirtieth year of Our Heigne. 

" By his Maj u Command, 


44 To our right trustv d: Wellbeloved 

Counsellor Ralph Montague, Esq r , 

Master of our Great Wardrobe. 
(Endorsed) — <4 Warrant for Colours for the Queen's Re- 
giment of Horse — 47 — Entered. Ent. J. K." 

I have in my MS. collections appended a note 
of reference for the cornets and flags of the time of 

King Charles I. to the Add. MS. British Museum, 

No. 5,247, and also an extract from the Public 


of Februarv, 1800: 

44 It has been determined that in future all regimental 
colours shall have at the top of the staff the crown sur- 
mounted by the lion of England." 

* Several regiments have already been supplied, 
the 100th being the first II. O. II. P. 

Quest op the 

I trust I 


that a poem entitled " Ihe Quest of the San- 
graal ,t# was published by me in 1864, the first 
two lines of which were — 

[* We may 



N. & Q."] 

add, that 
by us in 

it was noticed with deserved 
our 3'* S. iv. p. 530. — Ed. 

44 Ho ! for the Sangraal ! vanish'd vase of heaven, 
That held, like Christ's own heart, an hin of blood ! " 

The first impression of this poem, with the 
exception of some copies held by Mr. Parker of 
Oxford, is now sold off; but I meditate another 
edition, either singly or as a part of a volume of 
my collected verses, to be issued forthwith. I 
have no intention by this statement to challenge 
a comparison of my poem with one which is now 
advertised by Mr. 1. Westwood with the same 
title, but only, in justice to mvself, to assert the 

It. S. Hawker. 

priority of my own publication. 
Morwenstow, Cornwall. 

Beauharxais. — It has been stated that Alex- 
andre Viscomte de Beauharnais, the father of 
Eugene, worked in the Champ de Mars, harnessed 
to the same cart with the Abbe Sioyes. I possess 
two old French caricatures of that memorable 


One of them, I believe, represents the 
It is entitled : — 

44 L'ertet du Patriotisme, et l'activite des Citoyens de 
Paris pour Tavancement des travaux du Champ de 
.Mars destim's a la Fete du 14 Juillet, 17!H>." 

The principal object in the foreground is a cart, 
to which are attached an officer of rank and an 
abbe, with others pushing it behind: truly a 
Beau-hanuiU. F. C. II. 

Commoners' Supporters. — The number of 
untitled gentlemen tearing supporters is very 
small. It would, I think, be interesting to make a 
list of them, adding where possible the origin or 
date of grant of such distinction. 

Legh, of High Legh, Cheshire, bears: Two 
lions gules bezant&3. 

Carew, of Crowcombe, Somerset : Dexter a lion 
sable, sinister, an antelope gules. 

Fownes-Luttrell, of Dunster Castle, Somerset : 
Two swans collared and chained, the chain re- 
flexed over the back. 

The supporters lately granted to Mr. Speke 
have been alreadv noticed in your columns. 

(}. W. M. 

Costly Entertainments. — Considering the 
value of money at the time, I should suppose that 
the two receptions of Charles I. by the Duke of 
Newcastle oi the day may be set down as the 
most costly ever given in our land. The first at 
Welbeck is said to have cost between 4000/. and 
5000/. ; the second, at the same place, between 
14,000/. and 15,000/. Well may even the most 
loyal and courtly Lord Clarendon, with an eye to 
all moderation, have remarked on the two feasts, 
that his majesty was entertained 

" in such a wonderful manner, and in such an excess of 
feasting, as had scarce ever before been known in Eng- 
land, and would still be thought very prodigious if the 
same noble person had not within a year or two after- 
wards made the king and queen a more stupendous enter- 




[4*S. I. Jan. 25, 'G8. 

tainment, which (God be thanked), though possibly it 
might too much whet the appetite of others to excess, no 
man ever after in those days imitated."— See Kippis's Bwg. 
Brit., art. " Cavendish," vol. iii. p. 330. 

Francis Trench. 

Islip Rectory. 

will be rather of mottoes or sentences applied to 
various holy persons, inscribed on banners borne 
in their honour in processions, or favourite sayings 
of saints. Let me liere mention, with reference to 
Mr. Dixon's well-meant correction, that I was 
perfectly aware that St. Charles did not first 

Lady Nairn.— In "IN. & Q. <3 b. xn. 5.54, adopt the motto "Humilitas"; but I gave it as 

there is an enumeration of various songs by this 



Of its correctness I do not presume to 
offer any opinion, not having the same means of 
knowledge that the writer undoubtedly had ; but 
one of the songs is assuredly not attributable to 
any lady. It bears the title* of u Cauld Kail in 
Aberdeen." It was in existence prior to the year 
1728, and had reference to the first Earl of Aber- 
deen, who died at an advanced a<je, and who till 
the day of his death was fond of flirting with the 
*• Aberdonian" beauties; but 

44 The lasses about Bogengicht, 

Theer leems * they are baitli clene and light ; 
And if they are but girded tight, 
They'll dance the reel of Bogie." 

The MS. is in a collection of miscellaneous frag- 
ments, chiefly poetical, which belonged to James 
Anderson, the learned editor of the Diplomat a 
Scotia?, now in the library of the Faculty of Ad- 

Nairn died at the age of seventy-nine, in the year 
1845, it is impossible that she could have had 
anything to do with a song of which there is an 
existing MS. before 1728, and which had been 
included in the second volume of Herd's Collec- 
tion printed in 1770, when her ladyship was not 
five years old. J. M. 

, Fraying Aloud. — I am told of the people under 

the Hambledon Hills, Yorkshire, that u they are 
very superstitious and always say their evening 
prayers aloud that the Devil may hear them and 
they be safe for the night." Now, in Much Ado 
about Nothing, Act II., Scene 1, there is some refe- 
rence to saying prayers aloud. 

" Benedict. — Well, 1 would vou did like me. 

" Margaret. — So would not 1 for your own sake, for I 

have many ill qualities. 

" Bene. — Which is one ? 

" Marcj. — 1 say my prayers aloud. 

" Bene. — I love you the better. The hearers may cry 

Does this custom now prevail elsewhere in Great 
Britain, or is there any mention of it in our old 
literature? " W. II. 

Mottoes of Saints (3 rd S. xi. 331, 487.) — At 
the first of the above references will be found a 
list of "Mottoes of Saints," which I furnished; 
and at the second, is expressed a wish that the 
list might be continued. With that wish I now 
in some measure comply; but the present list 

* Limbs. 


usually accompanying representations of him, as 
well as being tne motto of his illustrious family. 

B. Amadeus of Savoy — Facite judicium et justitiam, et 
diligitc pa uperes. 

St. Anthony — Qui* evadet? 

St. Anthony of Padua — Si quarts miracula, etc, 

St. Bernardin of Sienna — Manifestavi nomen tuum 


St. Bruno — O bonitas ! 

Carmelites — Zelo zelatus sum pro Domino Deo 

Carthusians — Stat crux cum vohitur orbis. 

St. Casimir — Omni die die Maria, etc. 

St. Giles — ^Kgidii merito, Caroli peccata dimitto. 

B. Godfrey of Cappenberg— Bene veniunt nuntii Domini. 

St. Gregory the Great— Ora pro nobis Deum. 

St. Hyacinth — Gaude Jili Hyacinthe, preces tua grata 

sunt fit io meo y etc. 

St. Ignatius of Loyola. — O sanrtissima Trinitas ! 
B. Irmgarda — Beuedicta sis^Jilia men Irmgardis. 
St. Mark — Pax tibi Afarce, evangefista mens. 
St. Teresa — Misericordias Domini in aternum cantabo. 
St. Thais — Qui ptasmasti me, miserere mei. 
St. Vincent Ferrer — Timet e Dominum, et date illi 
honor em. 

Most of the above are taken from the noble 
work of Pere Cahier, Caractiridiques des Saints. 

F. C. II. 

ARCHBisnor mentioned by Cave. — In Bos- 
well's Johnson by Croker and "Wright, published 
by Bohn, vol. viii. p. 408, there is inserted a fac- 
simile of a letter from Cave, without any note as 
to whom it was addressed or to what it refers : 

44 St. John's Gate, 22 Sept. 1741. 
" Sir — I sent to Mr. Oswald for the first volume of the 
Archbishop's Works, and had obtained an abridgement of 
his Life in order to put it in the Magazine, but lost it the 
day after, and therefore must defer it till the October 
Magazine. You mention not Burnet A bp. of Glasgow's 
Christian name, which I should choose to do. 

'• I am, Sir, your humble Servt. 

" Eiavd. Cave." 

A reference to the Magazine would probably 
supply the information which ought to have been 

given along with the letter, 
bishop whose works are referred to ? 

"Who was the arch- 


The Articles of War. — We often read of 

so-and-so being guilty of breaking the Articles of 
War. Defending an untenable post is, I believe, 
an instance of such an offence. Do these Articles 
vary in different countries ? or do they constitute 
a uniform international code ? If common to all 
civilised countries, when were they agreed upon? 

4* S. I. Jan. 23, '68.] 



Many of them must be inoperative; that just 
alluded to, for instance, unless recognised by both 
belligerents. Are they purely traditional ? or 
have they been embodied in writing ? If printed, 
where are they to be seen ? Replies to these 
queries will much oblige me, and I suspect will 
enlighten many a reader who nevertheless would 
be loth to sign himself Ignorans. 

Bryan's Arms and Crests, etc. — I want to 

know how many numbers of A Aeic and Correct 
Collection of Arms and Crests, fyc, Alphabetically 
Displayed, &c, &c, u by Philip Bryan, Engraver, 
No. 444, Strand, London," were published. I have 
four, each consisting of four sheets folio, and each 
sheet containing forty-eight coats, and going up 
to names beginning in AR. Date about 1770 



John Davidson. 

rm of b 
\\n class 

loaf around, and gain their living bv their wits. I 
find Walter Scott uses it in The Pirate, but it is 
not to be found in any of the standard dictionaries. 

Can vou tell me its origin ? 

W. C. Watson. 


Matuew Buckinger. — I have a remarkably 
beautiful specimen of the performance of this 
wonderful little man, who, without hands, thighs, 
and legs, was able, by means of pen and ink, to 
ive his own portraiture within a most exquisite 
Drder, at the foot of which he prints in ink an 
account of himself, commencing 

"London, April the 29, 1724.— This is the Effigy of 
Mr. Mathew Buckinger, being drawn and written by 
Himself. He is the wonderful little man of but 24 Inches 
high, born without Hands, Feet, or Thighs, June the two, 
1674, in German v," fcc. 


fc of Hi 

am desirous ot knowing if this pen-and-ink por- 
trait is to be found in the British Museum or 
elsewhere, and particularly what its pecuniary 
value may be. The one described was bought at 
the sale of C. K. Sharpe, Esq. J. M. 

Crests, Ciphers, and Monograms. — When 

did the late practice of collecting these begin ? 

E. N. 

On different Modes of Disposal of the 
Dead Body.— May I ask for references to the best 
books on this subject? Y. Z. 

Was Sir Matthew Hale a Ringer ?— There 

is such a tradition, but where is to be found any 
authority for it ? Is it anywhere in Bishop 
Burnet's works ? A College Youth. 

Sir William Hamilton's Metaphysical 

Works. — Are there any other published writings 
of this philosopher than his Lectures on Meta- 
physics and Logic, in four vols. : 

Reid, in two vols., and his J}iscnssioyi8 in Philo- 

sophy, in one vol. ? Are there papers of his, in any 
periodicals, which have not been reprinted ? and 
what are the best editions of the three works 
which I have named ? B. L. 

General IIawlet. — Sir Walter Scott (or his 

annotator) in his Tales of a Grandfather, p. 429 a, 
note 1, (ed. Cadell, 1849,) says that Hawley, the 
general who mismanaged the battle of Falkirk, 
" was commonly supposed to be a natural son 
of George II." I should like to know on what 
authority Scott makes this statement. George II., 
born October 30, 1G83, was exactly thirty-two 
ears two weeks old on the day of the battle of 
heriffmuir. In this battle Hawley took part as 
a lieutenant in Evans's dragoons (p. 424 b, Cham- 
bers History of the Rebellion, p. 182, ed. 18(30). 
Surely such precocity of father and son history 

will hardly parallel. Charles Thiriold. 


Holbeam op Holbeam, in East Ogwell, 

Devon. — The Holbeams held this property for 
twelve generations, and were extinct Wore 1G00, 
when the heiress, Elizabeth, daughter of John 
Holbeam, married John Marwood. They also 
were lords of the manor of Coffinswell in the same 
county, which property they acquired by a mar- 
riage with the heiress of Scobahull, temp. Hen. IV. 
On a capital in Coflinswell church — a building of 
about 1450 — is a capital bearing four shields illus- 
trating the marriages of the IIol beams. All the 
shields have Holbeam dexter. The sinisters are as 

follows : 

1. Scobahull of Scobahull. 2. Gam- 

bon of Morston, in Halberton, Devon. 3. On a 
chevron, two dogs (or conies) passant, between 
three tons. 4. On a bend, a two-headed engle 
displayed, over all a chevron charged with three 
mullets. What families do the arms 3 and 
4 belong to ? and what is the date of these 
marriages ? William Grey. 

Hymn. — Who is the author of the hymn 

u O Lord and Maker, hear ! 
O Christ, our Kin#, give ear ! 



And when was it first published ? 

Geo. E. Frere. 

" Non est Mortale quod Opto." — I once saw 
a book having a coat of arms on the back with the 
above motto. At another time I saw an old ok& 
chair with the same arms and motto, and the date 
carved upon it — 1003. The owner told me he got 
it in a cottage in the Highlands, and that it ori- 
ginally belonged to the Earl of Koss or Earl of 
Moray, he was not sure which. Can you tell me 
the arms belonging to the motto, which I forget, 
and the family to which they belong ? Q. Q. 

"Polite Letter-Writer/'— When was the 

his edition of first copy printed of this rather voluminous UtUra- 



[4*8.1. Jan. 25, '68. 

teur ? I suggest the following, by Bartolommeo 
Miniatore : 

" Formulario de epistole vulgare missive e responsive 
ed altri fiori de ornati parlamenti. 4to, Venezia, 14*7. 

Barrett Day 

Roses worn by Ambassadors. — In the 

Burghley State Papers, Reign of Edward VI., 
Haines's collection, p. 148, Sir Philip Iloby, in a 
letter to Secretary Cecil, thus writes : 

" I have receaved yr tre and the Rose w^ll, which, 
according to yr advertisement, I have tied to a lace, and 
do carie about my necke in Token of myne office." 

Sir Philip was at the time resident ambassador 
at the court of Charles V., Emperor of Germany. 
Can any of your readers give other examples of 
plenipotentiaries being thus gifted with a rose as 
a token of their office ? J. F. T. 

Sanskrit Globes and Warren Hastings. 

From Warren Hastings, Esq., Governor-General 
of Bengal, to Sir Robert Chambers. December, 
1784, Monday morning : 

" Dear Sir — I know not how to express my thanks for 
your most valuable present of the Sanskrit globes, to the 
study of which lam impatient to apply, and hope from it 
much elucidation of the historical part of the Maha 
Bharata, which is very obscure for wanting of the old 
geography of India. A few points well ascertained will 
serve to establish the rest. 

" I am also obliged to you for your care of the books. 
I shall return my thanks for you in due form to their 
author. " lam, dear Sir, 

" Your most affectionate and faithful .servant, 

" Warren Hastings." 

1. What became of the Sanskrit globes and 
Warren Hastings' deductions regarding the Maha 
Bharata, referred to in the above letter, vide 

printed Memoir of Sir Robert Chamber*, but of 
which no mention is made in Gleig s Life of War- 
ren Hastings ? 

2. Are any maps of India of an early date pre- 
served in the Vatican at Rome, or other public 
continental libraries ? 

3. Is there any ancient map of India in one of 
the public libraries at Venice, in which the names 
of places are given in Sanskrit ; and if so, has it 
ever been published ? R. R. W. Ellis. 

Starcross, near Exeter. 


George Selwyn at a Ladies' Boarding 
School.— What is the authority for the story, or 
where may it be found, of George Selwyn amus- 
ing himself when in the country by going to a 
ladies' boarding school on the pretence that he 
had authority to examine the pupils, and finding 
the progress of the young ladies in their studies 
not satisfactory, putting them all " in the bill/' 
and punishing them himself more Etoniensi? 

An Old Etonian. 
"SuperesseTalentis:" "Vanasine viribus 

Ira.' —What author used " Superesse talentis " 
as his motto, or to whom have the words been 

applied ? And is it known what man of rank in the 
reign of Elizabeth assumed as his motto " Vana 
sine viribus ira," and upon what occasion ? 

R. J. M. 

Au trial luttlj flnstocri. 

Miss Elizabeth Smith: Book of Job. — I 

f)icked up, a day or two since, a manuscript trans- 
ation of the Book of Job, by Miss Smith. The 
work consists of some fifty closely-written pages, 
and bears a presentation inscription to the Bishop 
of St. Davia's from Juliet Smith. On the fly- 
leaf occurs the following note, signed il H. M. 
Bowdler " : — 

" This is the only copy in her [i. e. Miss Smith's! 
handwriting. From a careful examination of dates, I 
prove that Miss Smith was not in possession of Park- 
hurst's lexicon till March, 1802, when it was given to 
her by the Dowager Lady Bradford. I was present, and 
perfectly recollect the delight she expressed when she 
received it. The following translation is dated 1803, and 
she brought it with her to Bath, and read it to Miss 
Hunt and me, in January, 1804." 

I cannot find Miss E. Smith's name in the dic- 
tionaries. Can any of your readers tell me who 
she was. and whether the above translation has 

F. Oledstane8 Waxjoh. 

been published or not ? 

Exeter College, Oxford. 

[Miss Elizabeth Smith, a lady of great natural abili- 
ties, was descended of a respectable family settled at 
Burnhall in Durham, where she was born in 1776. Be- 
sides most of the modern European languages, she was a 
considerable proficient both in classical and Oriental 
literature, extending her researches even into the Arabic, 
Syriac, and Persian, as well as into the Greek and Hebrew 
tongues. She died of consumption in the month of Au- 
gust, 1806. The principal work of this accomplished lady 
was published four years after her death, and entitled 
" The Book of Job, translated from the Hebrew by the 
late Miss Elizabeth Smith, with a preface and annota- 
tions by the Rev. T. Randolph, D.D., London, 1810, 8vo." 
Orme (Bibliotheca Biblica, p. 413) speaks oPthis work as 
" a good English version of Job, produced chiefly by the 
aid of Parkhurst's Lexicon ; in which almost all the 
peculiar renderings of Miss Smith's version will be 
found. " Another posthumous work by this lady is a 

Vocabulary: Hebrew, Arabic, and Persian. Lond. 1814, 

8vo. Some account of her life and character, by Miss 
II. M. Bowdler, is given in Fragments in Prose and Verse, 
by Elizabeth Smith. Bath, 1809, 8vo, 2 vols. J 

Hotspur's Burial-Place. — In the Chronicle of 
London it is stated that Hotspur was exhumed 
subsequently to his interment after the battle of 

ShrewsburY : 

" He was taken up aven out of his grave, <fe bounden 
upright between to mille stones, that all men might se 
that he was ded." 

Can any northern correspondent of u N. & Q." 
kindly inform us where he was finally buried, or 

4* S. 1. Jan. 25, '68.] 



whether any sepulchral monument to him is 

known to exist P F. H. Arnold. 

[Henry IV. ordered the "corpse of Hotspur to be taken 
out of the tomb in which it had been laid, and to be 
placed between two mill-stones in the public street, near 
the pillory, where it was kept under military guard, till 
the head was severed from the body, which was divided 
into quarters, and transmitted to several cities of the 
realm. In the chapel on the south side of St. Mary's 

in Queen Anne's reign. This interesting book has 
upon the first leaf a veritable autograph of Lord 
Nelson — written, "Horatio Nelson.' 

J. Harris Gibson. 


[This work is by Alexander Justice, Gent., and was 
first published with his name in 1705. Our correspon- 
dent's copy is the third edition, without the author's 
name or date. The full title of the work, containing a 

The fol- 

" A General Treatise of the 

church, Shrewsbury, was formerly the monument of a table of its contents, is too long for quotation, 
cross-legged knight, which tradition called the tomb of lowing is a summary 
Hotspur; but the architecture and the fashion of the 
armour are at least a century antecedent to his time, and 

Dominion of the Sea : and a Compleat Body of the Sea- 
Laws. The Third Edition, with large Additions and 

is conjectured to have belonged to one of the Leybournes. Improvements, and a new Appendix. London : Printed 
The local historians state, that the tradition respecting for the Executors of J. Nicholson/ 9 &c. Price 12*.] 
Hotspur deserves no attention. — Owen and Blakeway*s 

History of Shrewsbury, ed. 1825, L 195-197, with an '■ 


engraving of the tomb.] 

Mao Leod. — Can any of your correspondents 
inform me whether the Mac Leod, of Mac Leod, 
was ever King of Man, or whether any Mac Leod 
ever owned that island P 

G. W. M. Hall, 06th Regiment. 

44 Though lost to sight, to memory dear." 

Who is the author ? 

W, F. Mitchell. 

[The authorship of this well-known line has been 
inquired after at least three times in " N. & Q.," and has 
likewise baftltyl the researches of the editors of the 
various works on (Quotations. It is probably derived 

[In the Douglas Baronage (p. 375) it is stated, that from tho P 11 *** 8 in Cirero ' "° n F "™dship/'-« Friends, 

the ancestor of the Macleods was Loyd, or Leod, eldest thou B h ab8Cnt » are sti " P™*nt.»] 

son of King Olave the Black, brother of Magnus the la<t 
King of Man and the Isles. Skene and other writers 
have doubted the correctness of this, and the mattu may 
still be considered undecided. 

Anderson (Scottish Nation, iii. 46) states that "the 
genealogy claimed for the Macleods of Harris and Lewis 
asserts (see Douglas's Baronage, p. 375) that the ancestor 
of the chiefs of the clan, and he who gave it its clan 
name, was Loyd or Leod, eldest son of King Olave the 
Black, brother of Magnus, the last King of Man and the 
Isles. This Leod Is said to have had two sons : Tormod, 
progenitor of the Macleods of Harris [afterwards called 
of Macleod], hence called the Siol Tormod, or race of 
Tormod ; and Torquil, of those of Lewis, called Siol Tor- 
quil, or race of Torquil, Although, however, Mr. Skene 
and others are of opinion that there is no authority what- 
ever for such a descent, and The Chronicle of Man gives 

no countenance to it, we think the probabilities are in its 
favour, from the manifestly Norwegian names borne by 
the founders of the clan, namely, Tormod and Torquil, 
and from their position in the Isles, from the very com- 
mencement of their known history. The clan itself, 
there can be no doubt, are the descendants of the ancient 
Gaelic inhabitants of the western Isles."] 

Sea Laws.— Will any correspondent oblige by 
supplying title-page to the following book ? 
Page 1, headed: "Of the Dominion of the Sea 
in general, and of the British Seas in particular." 
Each page is headed : " Of the Laws of the Sea, 
Ancient and Modern." The Preface commences : 
"The favourable reception the 1st and 2nd edi- 
tions of this Collection of Sea Laws and Treatises," 
&c Pp. C84, and appendix pp. 107, 4to, printed 

George Jermknt, D.D. — Dr. Jerment, minister 
of the Scotch Seceders, Bow-lane, was born in or 
about the year 1760, and died between 1808-1 8:20, 
if I am not mistaken. Can you give me the exact 
date of his death ? Q. Q. 

[Dr. George Jerment died on May 26, 1819.— Gent. 
Mag., vol. lxxxix. (i.) CM.] 




(3 rd S. xi. 132, &c.) 

Several of your contributors and correspondents 
have called attention to the famous dance exe- 
cuted by the choristers at the Cathedral of 
Seville on Corpus Christi Day, and on other Fes- 
tivals. Some years ago — it was in 1860 — I was 
present at this unique ceremony. At some cost 
and much trouble 1 procured from the Maestro do 
Capilla the full orchestral score of the music, 
together with the words of the "Hymn to the 
Sacrament" sung, during the execution of the 
minuet, by the choristers dressed in ancient court 
costume of blue and white with nlumed hats. Mr. 
Ford states, that the dress on the Festival of tho 
Conception is blue and white, but on tho Corpus 
red and white ; and this for symbolical reasons. I 
have no doubt that this is the rule, but when I 
was present it was not observed. I send the hymn, 
whicn has not, as I believe, been published. 

William Scott. 

5G, Albany Street, Regent's Park, N.W. 



[4* S.I. Jan. 25/68. 

" Villancico y Bayle 
Al santisimo Sacramento 
a tres Voces y Orquesta, 
Tor Don Ylarion Kslaba y Elisondo, 

Maestro de Capilla, 
de la Santa Iglesia Catedral de Scvilla 

" Se glorien los mundanos 
En sus caballos y trencs, 

Y se den mil paralienes 
En sns festines insanos ! 
Mientras los fieles Crist ianos, 
Detestando la impiedad, 

Al Dios de la Majestad, 
En alto templo veneran, 

Y el milagro consideran 

Mayor de su caridad. 
In nombre Divino, 
Jesus, invocamos, 

Y Dios Te adoramos 
1'or nos encarnado, 

Y en hostia abreviado 

De celico pan ! 

Tu nombre, &c. 

[Da capo.] 

" inefabile dulzura, 

Y sagrado elemento, 
Que formas el contento 
De quien sabe de amor ! 
Mai baya la locnra 

Y tfrande atrevimiento 
Del mundo, quel portento 
Despreciado del Senor ! 

14 Banquete de escogidos 
Del nombre desdefiado, 
Quien me diera que honrado 
Te logre yo mirar ! 

Y que rcconocidos 
Todos al estremado 
Favor, con tal locado 
Se quieren re^alar." 


(3 rd S. xii. 524.) 

The identification of Frye's portraits may not 
be so difficult as is supposed by your correspondent. 
I have lately ascertained that two female portraits 
by Frye in my possession are likenesses of the 
famous Miss Gunnings. 

I append particular descriptions of these two 
portraits for the information of any of your 
readers who may possess copies. I derived my 
knowledge from MS. inscriptions endorsed on 
duplicate copies suspended in the Treasurer's 
Office at Guy's Hospital (together with the beau- 

names of the originals may not have been inscribed 
upon them, and may communicate the information. 

1. Portrait of a lady: three-quarter face turn- 
ing to right shoulder, looking downwards j light 
eyebrow; left hand lightly holding shawl of 
Scotch plaid over lace habit-shirt ; pearl necklace 
twice round, with a pendant ; pearl earrings of a 
circular pattern, with three drops. Headdress, a 
lace frilled (or plaited) cap, with centre ornament 
of jewellery flowers ; hair brushed back over roll. 
A refined but rather sleepy face, delicate nose, 
and closed mouth. — Inscribed " T. Frve, 1703." 

N.B. This is the portrait of Elizabeth Gun- 
ning, Duchess of Hamilton, afterwards of Argyle. 

2. Portrait of a lady : three-quarter face turn- 

C 7 

/T .. A jpital by ttuy. 

I also append the particulars of three more 
female portraits by Frye, in hopes that any per- 
sons who read them, and possess similar copies, 
may examine them closely to see whether the 


letined eyebrows ; 

right han 

downwards; well- 
crossed over left 


robe edged with white fur over rich lace ; pearl 
necklace once round, over close-litting puckered 
silk black collar, falling in two festoons without 
pendants; earrings same as the last. Hair rolled 
back from point in centre of forehead; headdress 
of pearls in lozenge-pattern ; lace behind ears, 
lied flowers in front. k 

jeweiiea no were in ironi. ;\ great beauty, some- 
what sleepy and lispy. — Inscribed " Frye, 1761." 
N.B. Tins is the portrait of Maria' Gunning, 
Countess of Coventry. 

.'{. Portrait of a lady, simply attired, with little 
jewellery; three-quarter head, almost profile, 
modestly looking downwards to right shoulder j 
large eyes askance ; dark eyebrows ; fine nose, a 
little retrou*$4 ; right hand holding over bosom 
a silk (or satin) robe edged with ermine, black 
silk puckered close collar with lighter ribbon in 
midst, ending in a bow; small pearl earrings, a 
single drop from a small circle of pearls. A stifl 
white frilled cap or bonnet with ribbonod top- 
knot. Lights and shadows strongly marked. — 
Inscribed " Frye, inven 1 & sculp 1 , Feb* 28, 1762." 

N.B. This is the portrait of a lady of tender 
years. It may be the third Gunning, who mar- 
ried insignificantly, and is unknown. The con- 
figuration of the nose is identical in all three 

4. Portrait of a lady : almost front face, but 
slightly turned to left shoulder ; left hand barely 
visible, holding to breast a robe of quilted silk (or 
satin) embroidered with lozenge-patterns, edged 
with ermine over lace habit-shirt ; pearl necklace 
once round neck, over black silk close-fitting 
puckered collar, then falling in numerous festoons, 
terminating in a drop ; a bow of ribbon of a lighter 
colour ; circular pearl earrings. Hair brushed back, 
and apparently powdered ; small pearl headdress 
with central pearl ornament of flowers and leaf; 
ribbon streamer falling under each ear to shoulder ; 
eyes large, prominent, with light lashes; nose 
large and rather coarse. A masculine face with a 

4*8.1. Jax.25,'68.] 




Inscribed "Frve, inv'and 




viz. either Augusta, Duchess of 

f er of the unfortunate Queen of 

England, wife of George IV., married in 1764; 
or Caroline Matilda, the unfortunate Queen of 
Denmark, married in 1766. The supposition is 
founded upon the resemblance to George III. 
supported by a MS. inscription on my copy of 



rotile to the 

ot a lady: a strict p 

right, looking forwards ; right hand entangled in 
a light covering of Scotch plaid over lace habit- 
shirt ; a white double frill round neck, with two 
frilled ends falling in frout ; circular pearl earrings. 
Hair rolled back into a dark headdress surmounted 
with a constellation of pearl circles. An aquiline 
nose, firm small mouth, prominent forehead; 
steady eye, rather like a tine boy. — Inscribed 
" Frye, inv* & scuh>\ published Dec. 20, 1761." 
N.B. The Scotch plaid is similar to the one in 


J. \Y. II. 


(4 th S. i. 18.) 

The suggestion of a Homeric Society is one of 
the best of the kind that has ever been put for- 
ward since the Shakspere Society, which it pro- 
poses as its model. Its success or failure however 
will depend on how far it acts up to that excellent 
model ; first, in having a clear idea of the objects 
it proposes, and secondly, in keeping them always 
in view in its proceedings. There are two point* 
indeed in which it cannot resemble the Shakspere 
Society, and which it may be well to state at the 
outset to prevent disappointment or discourage- 
ment First, it cannot expect to attract that 
popular and national interest which the other did ; 
and secondly, neither can it hope to discover many 
(or perhaps any) new original sources of infor- 
mation, none at least in any proportion to those 
recovered from oblivion by the Shakspere Society. 
The number of its members also is never likely to 
approach that of its predecessor. But these dif- 
ferences are not of any importance practically, and 
do not constitute the slightest objection to the 
formation of a Homeric Society. 

For what is wanted is not to excite a popular or 
general interest in the subject, nor to make dis- 
coveries of ancient MSS. or records hitherto in- 
edited (though that, to a certain degree, would 
robably be one result), nor to have a numerous 
st of members, but to enable those who, like Mr. 
L'Estrange and many others, want more ample 
and accurate information of that kind than can be 
got from the original sources in existence if they 

were properly worked, to obtain that knowledge 
in an accurate and satisfactory' form which lies 
hidden not only in England, but in Germany (the 
great land of Homeric learning), to an extent that 
would appear incredible to any one who had not 
deeply studied the question. 

I he usefulness of co-operation in this matter, 
instead of isolated labours as hitherto, is in itself 
so obvious, and has been so evidently shown in 
the parallel case of the Shakspere Society as well 
as many others, that it seems needless to say any- 
thing more on the subject at present, but simply 
to recommend all who take an interest in it to 
send in their names to Mr. L' Estrange, Chi- 
chester Street, Belfast, either with or without an 
exposition of their views as to what a Homeric 



) me, very preferable U 
lological, ' or " Classical 

are collected 


nucleus of a society, the members can communicate 
with each other and settle the work to be done 
between themselves. 

The novelty (and almost singularity) of Mr. 
L'Ebtrakge's opinions need not form the least ob- 
jection to anyone making him the present " centre" 
of inter-communication. He is not only evidently 
a person of great originality and acuteness, but 

actuated in no degree by any spirit of 
x or wish to bolster up a theory of his own, 
out by an earnest and single-minded desire to get 
at the truth, whatever that may be; and further, as 
he observes, <4 the Homeric question," on which he 
has written, forms but one branch of the subject ; 
for he truly adds : " It is evident that a Homeric 
Society, properly organised, could achieve a great 
deal more.'' 
In conclusion, I will briefly notice two objections, 

or rather one, that may seem to have some plau- 
sibility : the nugatory results of the Classical 
Societies in Germany, and of our own "Royal 
Society of Literature?' The former are nugatory 
as to results, because they more resemble the 
u Tercentenary Festival " than the u Shakspere 
Society ; " the latter, because its noble and mag- 
nificent design was almost utterly ignored in iU- 
nroceedincrs. *IA'0MHP02. 


(3 rd S. xii. 389, 400, 527, 536.) 

I have no edition of 1844, but I possess the 
4to volume edition of The Poetical Works, '* edited 
by Mrs. Shelley," and published by Moxon, 1831). 
Atpajje 151, vol. iii., are the '• Stanzas written 
in Dejection near Naples/' in which I Jind the 
" missing" fifth line of the first verse, the line 
that O. T. D. says is not contained in the " legi- 
timate edition of the poet's widow." To what 
edition does he allude? Surely Moxon's 4to 



[ 4* S. I. Jax . 25, '68. 


volume, edition of 1839 (supra), is " legitimate. 
The fifth line there reads thus :— 

" The breath of the moist air is light." 

I have always regarded the concluding word as 
a printer's erratum for " slight/ 7 We say a slight 
pain, a slight dew, &c. &c. The expression is 
common enough. It means gentle or trifling. 
The stanza seems to me to be full of mistakes. I 
would read it thus: 

" The sun is warm, the sky is clear, 
The waves are dancing fast and bright ; 
Blue islands' snowy mountains wear 
The purple noon's transparent white : 
The breath of the moist earth is slight ; 

Around its unexpanded buds, 

Like many a voice of one delight, 

The winds, the birds, the ocean-floods ; 

The city's voice itself is soft like Solitude's;' 

To C. A. VV. I would suggest that the relative 
pronoun " its " has its antecedent iu the word 
u earth ," which is evidently the proper reading ; 

"the moist air " is not in accordance with "buds." 
" Solitude's " is certainlv intended to rhvme with 
il buds " and " floods/' This is in perfect keeping 
with the rhythm in the other stanzas, where we 
find that the sixth line always rhymes with the 
eighth and ninth ones. Shelley had certainly u a 
perfect ear," as 0. T. D. says, but he was very 
careless. Thus in the second stanza, u motion " 
rhymes with "emotion;"* and in the address 
"To-night," "dawn" rhymes with "gone." The 
" Stanzas written in Dejection/' first appeared 
in the Examiner; it would be worth while to 
see the original. I have not Benbow's edition, 
but I know it. I cannot state from what source 
it was taken. It did not proceed very far, having 
been nipped in the bud by a missive from Mrs. 

Shelley's lawyers ! It was edited by a Mr. II . 

I have heard that he was a professor of hair-dress- 
ing and perfumery, who quitted his profession for 
that of a philosopher of the school of the lato 
Rev. Robert Taylor, " the Devil's chaplain/' with 
whom he was a constant associate ! Mr. R. died 
of consumption many years ago. " The Question " 
(page 274, edition 1839), has certainly a line 
wanting in the second verse. The omission is 
admirably supplied by 0. T. D. The " tall flower " 
inquired after by 0. t. D. is, no doubt, the " Nar- 
cissus Li-doris," so common in the marshes and 
by the side of small streams and clear-water 
ditches in Tuscany. Its " mother's face" is the 
water from which it often springs. The flower is 
a long retainer of dew and raindrops. The beau- 
tiful Val d'Ema, near Florence, is in spring com- 
pletely stained with the flowers of the Narcissus 
Bi-iioris. I have often gathered them.- The 
mistake of "for" for " form" is in the edition 
of 1839. 

In Benbow's edition, the poem called " Love's 
Philosophy " (page 237, vol. iii., 1839) is given 
with the remark " translated* from the French." 
What is the authority for this addition to the 
title ? Is it Shelley's. The statement is par- 
tially correct. The original is certainly to be 
found in the old French chanson — 

" Les vents baisent les nuages. 


Shelley's poem, however, is not a translation, but a 
paraphrase. The original consists of eight lines 
only. I published many years ago a paraphrase 
of this same song in the Cambridge Chronicle. It 

begins thus : 


This maybe a misprint for " devotion/' 

" The clouds that rest on the mountain's breast 
Are kissed by the viewless air/' 

And it may be found in the Universal Songster, and 
in many other selections. The most literal ver- 
sion is one by W. Crighton, Esq., of Newcastle- 
on-Tvne. It contains eight lines like the original, 
and is very faithfully and beautifully rendered. 
The first line is : 

" The flying breezes kiss the fleeting clouds/' 

In the 4to volume edition (page 10, vol. iii.), 
Lech lade by a printer's blunder is called Lechdale. 
Leehlade is a pretty village in Gloucestershire. I 
visited it some years ago, and met with several 
people who had known Shelley when he dwelt 
there. There are two cottages in which he is 
said to hare resided. The churchyard (immor- 
talised bv the poet) is exceedinglv picturesque. 
The 44 spire " of the " aerial pile h is not very 
lofty, and I found that the poet had used a little 
license. I learned that many pilgrims had visited 
Leehlade churchyard, and recited the poem on 
44 Summer evenings ! " In fact, Leehlade church- 
yard had become a Gloucestershire Stoke-Pogis 
The late Mr. Benbow also published an edition of 

il Queen Mab,' ' ant l which we may be sure was not 
an expurgated one ! The man who had edited a 
Rambler's Magazine, and had been imprisoned for 
his illustrated edition of Faublas, was not very 
particular ! The "Queen Mab" of Benbow purported 
to be printed at New York ; the editor called 
himself " Erasmus Perkins," a nom de plume 
assumed by a notorious individual who once re- 
sided at Como in Italy. This name may be found, 
with many particulars of his disreputable career, 

in Leman Rede's Memoirs of a Royal Rake. It 
would sully " N. & Q." to name him. 

I cannot leave the subject of Shelley without 
turning to your pages (3 rd S. xi. 397,460). Since 
those " notes " were written I have met in Flo- 
rence with a literary gentleman who was an inti- 
mate friend of the poet. I showed him " N. & Q." 
(id supra), and he said that the word " delight" 
(" Sensitive Plant," vol. iii. page 218, edit. 1839) 

* A friend thinks the word is " imitated." 

4* S. I. Jan. 25, '68.] 



was evidently a misprint for u the light." He 
assured me that Shelley in his MS. often used the 
small Greek theta for th. Let any one write the 
words " the light ' after such a fashion, and it 
will be seen how easy an unlearned printer might 
mistake a small theta (d) for a d, and so print 
« delight/' instead of u the light." By-the-bye, 
u P. fi. Shelley/' in large capitals, is inscribed or 
rather cut on the walls of the dungeon of the 
Castle of Chillon ; it is on the righthand wall. 
The genuineness is unquestionable. 

James Henry Dixon. 


The charge of obsc 
Estrange against the 

brought by Mr. 

Shelley's a Stanzas written in Dejection near 
Naples/ 9 is scarcely borne out by the text. The 
meaning appears to me simply a comparison, or 
rather antithesis, between the poet's fate and that 
of the day, the beauty of which he celebrates ; 
between himself, an unloved man, destined to be 
remembered, indeed, but only with regret; and 
the day, stainless and brilliant, a joy while its 
sun is shining — a joy still, in memory, when its 
sun is set. There is no question of fugitiveness on 
the one hand or the other, but merely of oppo- 
sition — the regretful remembrance of the poet, the 
bright and glad recollection of the day. 
Rendered in prose it might read thus: — 

" Some might lament, if I were taken hence, a* I shall, 
myself, lament the ending of this sweet day, which my 
heart (grown prematurely old) now affronts with a moan. 
Some might lament, for though unloved, I ah all be re- 

fretted. Unlike in this to the day v which, when the sun 
as set in its tflorv, and the enjoyment of it is at an end, 
shall keep its brightness in men's memories, and become 
a joy of retrospection." 

Mr. L/EsraLNGE's extraordinary emendation. 


's unlike this day, which when the sun, <fcc 

only adds weight and cogency (if I may be 
allowed to say so) to the remarks I ventured to 
present in my former note on this subject. Shelley 
frequently indulged in eccentric forms of expres- 
sion — was not always lucid, was sometimes even 
involved and slovenly ; but what of that ? Be- 
cause there are spots in the sun, shall we be per- 
petually thrusting up our impotent and dwarfish 
arms to rub them out — we that should be satisfied 
with the light and heat and glory of it ? 

T. Westwood. 


Dr. Beke's work. Th 



which may be interesting to those of your readers 
who have no opportunity of seeing the work in 
question itself : 

" For upwards of twentv years past there has resided 
in Rome a certain lady, of fcrnHish extraction, who claims 

to be a lineal descendant of Menilek, the son of King 
Solomon by the Queen of Sheba ; and who, in the year 
1862, printed and published, * con permesso,' at Rome, a 
pamphlet setting forth her pretensions, under the title of 

htoriche Incidenze, per mezzo delle quali si prova esistere 
ancoru e fra di noi la linea diretta di Salomon* > Re 

(TEgitto e de Giudei. It is not requisite to discuss the 
pretensions of this aspirant to the throne of Ethiopia, 
whoee pedigree I possess. It will be sufficient to state that 
they have been countenanced both at Rome and in Abys- 
sinia ; and that when Padre de Jacobis was in that city, 
as has been already mentioned, a meeting was held in the 
Palazzo del Governo Vecchio on September 9, 1841, at 
which were present this claimant to the throne and other 
members of her family, together with Padre de Jacobis 
and several Abyssinian*, one of whom was the Alaka 
Habta Selasye, and another a former secretary of Dedjatj 
Sabagadis. The lady's husband, or one of her two sons, 
occupies himself with painting sacred pictures for the 
adornment of the churches for his future empire. When 
I was in Abyssinia during the present year (1866), I 
inquired after these paintings, but could not hear of any 
except two in the Roman Catholic church of St, Joseph, 
at Massowah : the one representing the marriage of the 
Holy Virgin and St. Joseph, with St. Simeon joining 
their hands ; and the other the Death of St. Joseph, with 
the Virgin and infant Jesus attending him — my very 
brief stay in the island, in May last, on my return from 
the upper country, precluding me from seeing these two 
pictures, as I had desired to do. I am told that on their 
frames are set forth the pretensions of the artist to the 
throne of Ethiopia. It is not at all improbable that, 
under favourable circumstances, the Roman Catholic 
party in Abyssinia would have been, and might still be, 
prepared to support the claims of this aspirant to the 
throne of their own faith, who on his side would assuredly 
be willing to make them every concession in return for 
their support. Whether it was ever intended that this 
Roman Catholic pretender should declare himself to be 
the Theodore of prophecy, I cannot say ; but the intimate 
acquaintance of Uishop de Jacobis with the ancient his* 
torv of Ethiopia, his mystic and enthusiastic character, 
and his intriguing disposition, might well have disposed 
him to originate and encourage such an imposture. As 
regards, however, the idea of Kassai*s (the present 
usurper Theodore) being the destined sovereign, so to 
say, on the Coptic and Protestant side, I have been as- 
sured that it was suggested to him by the Abuna — the 
same train of thought which made that prelate assume to 
be the representative of Frumentius, and adopt his re- 
vered name of Abba Salama, leading him not unnaturally 
to propose that Kassai should in like manner adopt the 
name and attributes of the destined restorer of the 



Hermann Kindt. 


(3* S. xii. 202.) 

I much doubt whether the inference of a connec- 
tion between certain letters, or combinations of 
letters, and certain effects imputable to the words 
in which they are incorporated, as propounded by 
Bushey Heath, will not turn out to be more 
specious than real. I have myself been long ap- 

prehensive of such a connection ; but in every 
instance in which I have sought to establish it by 
actual comparison, I have found (besides the diili- 
culty, or rather the impossibility, of assigning a 



[4* 8.1. Jan. 25, '68. 

special character to the letters themselves in the 
abstract) a resemblance between the words in 
sense as well as in sound; leading to the inference 
of a derivation from a common root, to which, and 
not to any sympathy between the sound and the 
sense, the connection might claim to be ascribed. 
This will be rendered more apparent by the ad- 
duction of a few of those cases to which 1 have 
alluded as at iirst sight illustrative of the connec- 
tion in question. Tims the letter r in words ex- 
pressive of rapid motion ; as in the Greek j>iw 9 
Irish ruith (to flow), Latin ruo, English rush, 
French ruisscau, Irish sruth (a stream), English 
river, race, rapid, run, Latin curro, English hurry, 
&c. Again, the letter / with its liquefying adjuncts 

c > f) Oy 8 ) ov v > m W01 'ds implying a slower or 
smoother motion ; as in the Latin Jlo, % fluo y volo, 
fluviiiSy English blow, ilow, fly, fluid, slow, slide, 

And once more, the letter // 

Philology (3 rd S. xii. 433.)— I think that the 
following work will be found to treat fully on the 
subject concerning which J. B. L. inquires : 

" Anecdotes of the Knglish Language, chiefly regarding 
the Local Dialect of London and its Environs ; whence it 
will appear that the Natives of the Metropolis and its 
Vicinities have not corrupted the Language of their An- 
cestors : in a Letter from Samuel Pegge, Eso. F.S.A. Ac." 
The third edition, enlarged and corrected. Edited by the 
Rev. Henry Christmas, M.A. &c. London, 8vo, 1844. 

This interesting work was noticed in the Monthly 
Review for 1805, p. 242, where the following re- 
marks, explanatory of the character of the book, 
will be found : 


glide, Clyde, &c. 

combined with the letters k, c, or g in words ex- 
pressive of an angular or irregular conformation ; 
as in the words angle, ancle, caruncle, crinkle, 
wrinkle, knuckle, knee, knot, knout, knit, knob, 
gnarl, knoll, in Irish knock (a hill), nugget, 
ingot, snag, &c. 

With regard to the subsequent observation of 
Btjshey Heath respecting the syllables no and on 
as involving a reference to something mythical 
(quere mystical), and which he has illustrated 
by the adduction of the proner names Ion, lona, 
Ionia, Mona, Juno, Jonah, \oah, Adonis, what- 
ever there may be in it as a general rule, there are 
two of the words referred to that are, indeed, 
connected by a bond of relationship, if not myste- 
rious, at all events most interesting in an historical 
as well as a philological point of view — the words 
lona and Jonah. The former of these will be 
readily recognised by every Hebrew scholar as the habitually pronounced iViling. 

" With much grave humour he pleads the cause of 
4 old, unfortunate, and discarded words and expressions, 
which arc now turned out to the world at large by persons 
of education (without the smallest protection), and ac- 
knowledged only by the humbler orders of mankind, who 
seem charitably to respect them as decayed gentlefolks 
that have seen better days*; and he insists that those 
modes of speech which Dr. Johnson treated with so much 
contempt as mere * colloquial barbarisms,' claim respect 
on account of their pedigree, though not for the company 
which they are now forced to keep." 

William Batks. 

Pkrvkrse Pronunciation (4 th S. i. 11.) — The 

pertinacity with which people continue to pro- 
nounce names wrongly, is as remarkable as it is 
provoking. I know a village in the Eastern 
Counties — and no doubt the evil exists generally — 
where the names of certain inhabitants are mis- 

f pronounced habitually, and frequent remonstrances 
lave no effect The name of Goldsmith, though 
printed conspicuously over a shop, is invariably 
called Goldspring. I'he name of Cannell has been 
for generations pronounced Canham. Wilkinson 
is frequently called Wilk^rson, and Peeling is 

There is also a 

representative in that language of the "dove 
which was dismissed from the ark, and returned 
with the olive-branch in its beak ; whence, doubt- 
less, the prevalent adoption of that plant as the 
emblem of peace; and, I may add, of the bird 
itself as the symbol of the religious missionary, 
the preacher of righteousness, attested by the ap- 
propriation of the name to those by whom the 
functions of that office were specially exercised ; 
of which, in the earlier ages, Jonah, above re- 
ferred to, was one notable instance, and John the 
Baptist (for the names in the original are the 
same) was another ; the relation of the name to 
the office in this latter case being not obscurely 
evidenced by the circumstances of" his nomination 
as recorded in Luke i. 59-03 ; while of its con- 
tinued use to a much later age we have examples 
in the celebrated Irish college of missionary priests, 
lona, and in the name of its equally celebrated 
tounder, St. Columba (the Latin synonym for the 
dove), as well as in that of his successor Columba- 

nus about fifty years later. 

T. M. M. 

strange propensity to add an s to almost every 
name ending with a consonant. Thus Martin is 
called Martins. Spaul becomes Spauls, Austin is 
Austins, Spark, Sparks, and so on. To a mind 
accustomed to correct spelling and pronunciation, 
this habitual defiance of both is very annoying; 
but if you correct these people, they show the 
greatest surprise, and pronounce rightly perhaps 
for a few times, but invariably fall back to their 
old custom. F. C. II. 

Proverbs (3 rd S. xii. 413, &c.)— When Edie 
Ochiltree saw Elspeth Mucklebacket, he told her 
that "the black ox had been under her roof since 
he saw her last." In the Fortunes of Xigel occur 
the words "Bos in linguam." 

There is a well-known passage in the Aga- 


Bcffynfv . 

Povs iirl ykoje&T] fxiyas 

The epithet piyas has always appeared to me 
very clumsy. I prefer the other reading, /ucAm ; 

4* S.I. Jan. 25/68.] 



and would consider it to be the earliest mention 

of the proverb in question, meaning that sorrow 

had made the speaker dumb. 

J. Wilkins, B.C.L. 

Polkinohorne (3 rd S. xii. 523.) — This name, 
variously written Polkinhom, PolKinhorne, Polk- 
enhorn, Polganhorn (and perhaps abbreviated to 
Polkorn), is derived from Polkinohorne in Owin- 
near, Cornwall, from the Cornish pol-gan-hoam, 
the pool with (i. e. containing) iron, i. e. the chaly- 
beate pool. R. S. Charnock. 

Passage in "Book of Curtesyk" (3 rd S. xii. 
603.) — It may interest your readers to know that 
a probable answer to this question turned up in a 
most satisfactory and unexpected manner, as will 
be explained by Mr. Furnivall in his preface. On 
inspecting MS. Oriel lxxix (a fine vellum copy of 
Piers Plowman), he found an older and better 

if Curtenye than either the Hill 
MS. or Caxton's printed copy. The existence of 
this copy has hitherto remained quite unknown, 
for, owing to a misplacement of the leaves, it is 
not correctly described in Coxe's Catalogue, nor 
could any one unfamiliar with the Book of Cio-- 
tesye possibly have guessed what it was. This 
older and better copy gives quite a different read- 
ing, viz. a sonny bush myght cause him to goo louse, 

i. e. a warm nook would invite him to sit down 
and free himself from vermin. Of the last two 

corruption. This 

words, galowes is an unmeaning corruption, 
throws light also on the stanza following, in which 
the poet apologises, as well he might, for having 
spoken too bluntly, and for having infringed the 
very laws of Curtetye which he was trying to 
teach. Mr. DycR says, Saint Malo's castle was 
built by Anne, Duchess of Bretayne. The English 
were no doubt often permitted to view the interior 
of it, and allowed to remain there longer than was 
consistent with personal cleanliness. 

Walter W. Skeat. 


Homeric Traditions: u The Cyclic Posits" 
(3' d S. xii. 372.)— I beg to refer Mr. L'Estrange 
to a work — the only one with which I am ac- 
quainted—in which the subject of the Cyclic poets 

is treated of with considerable ingenuity and 
learning : — 


la Poesie 

Among these may be mentioned the Scholia of 
Acron, severely ridiculed by Glareanus ; the more 
exhaustive remarks of Salmasius, in his Exereita- 
tiones Pliniance (ad Solinum), Ultraject. 1G89, 
pp. 594-C04 ; the opinions of Loens ( The*. Crit. 
Jani Gruteri, torn. v. p. 800) ; those of Scaliger, 
in his notes to Catullus (ep. 9G) ; those of Casau- 
bon to Athenteus (lib. vii. cap. 3 and 4), and those 
of Daniel Heinsius to Horace. 

Reference may also be made to Dodwell's work 

De Veteribus Grtecorum, Romanommque Cyclis, 

§'c. y Oxon, 1701; but I do not think that this 
bears upon the subject. William Bates. 


Prophecy of Louis-Philippe (3 rd S. ix. 4:K); 

4 th S. i. 21.) — My authority for saying that the 
Duke of Orleans congratulated the Duchess de 
Herri on the birth of her son will be found in 
paragraph 84, chapter ix. of Alison's History of 
Euro/ye from Oie Battle of Waterloo, &c. itere 
are Alison's words : 

44 A protest, in the name of the Duke of Orleans, was 
published in the London papers, though disavowed by that 
prince ; but he asked the important question solemnly of 
the Duke of Albufera. ' M. le Marecha),' said he, 'you 
are a man of honour ; you were a witness of the accouche- 
ment of the Duchess de Berri. Is she really the mother 
of a boy ? * * As certainly as your royal highness is 
father of the Duke de Chart res/ replied the marshal. 
'That is enough, M. le MareVhal,' rejoined the Duke, and 
he immediately went with the duchess to congratulate 
the happy mother, and salute the iufant who might one 
day be their king." 

At pages 486-0 of the Annual Register for 

1820 will be found the protest, " done at Paris the 
30* September, 1820," referred to by P. A. L. It 
is introduced by the following editorial note : 

** The following most curious and extraordinary paper 
has been recently circulated in France, purporting to be 
a protest by II. S. II. the Duke of Orleans against tht 
legitimacy of the prince lately born, as the presumptive 
heir to the French throne." 

After the protest the following is added : 

tional et Professeur au College National de France, Ac." 
Paris, 8vo, an. vii. 

Before the appearance of this, almost all that 
we possessed on the subject was contained in 
the notes of various commentators on the lines of 
Horace : — 

"Xon sic incipies, ut scriptor Cyclical olim : 
Fortunam Priam i cantabo et nobile bellum." 

" [Note.— It was afterwards publicly disclaimed by the 


Inscription at Bakkwkll (3 rJ S. xii. 401.) 

In this inscription it is clear that the lacuna at the 
end of the first line, containing" the letters s and a, 
is to be refilled with the words sola fatktvr, 
while I would suggest that that at the end of the 
second line should be refilled with the word 
prior. Jonx Husk yxs-Ahrau all, J UN. 

Licenses to Preacii (3 rd S. xii. '501?.)— I have 
only just seen Mr. Brierlky's query. If this 
reply has not already been sent you, it may throw 
some light on the subject I should opine the 
Dr. Allwood John Wesley mentions must have 
been one of the la*t, if not the last, Oxford D.D. 
who was not in holy orders. If there were others 
De Arte PoeticA, v. 136-7. . in the later years oi his ministry, J. Wesley would 



I t«" S. I. Jan. 25, '08. 

M LikowiNO in uiir own cnurcii iiei'son* may do wiowci 
i pioaoh.yoa may ho Doctor* o( Divinity (it* wait Doctoi 
llwoocl wlion I wii* ii rosldont there), who are not or 


l)o miro to Ktu»\v uf thoiu f ami would uuoto them 

a* a precedent for bin own lay preachers. The 
quotation ia from Ion Sermon on tho Ministry, 

No. l.'Ui: 

M Llktmiae in our own church normum may ho allowed 

to mono'' v,wl n, " x ho Diuini'i of l)lvlnltv fan was Doctor 


ilnlnoil at all, and con*oqtioiitrj have no right to auniinU- 

tot \ho Lord'a Supper. 

A. Wood. 

i 'antlotnoi ton, Towkoabttry. 

Quotation wantko (IV A S. xii. is 1. ) 

" If there ho man, ye tfod*, I ought to hate, 
|)cncmlouco am! attendance ho hi* fate; 
Still lot him hti*v ho, ami in a crowd, 
A inl very much a alavc, ami very proud." 

Theao linns are by Abraham (\iwlov. 

II. KiHinvicK. 

Clint nu V\u\h\ (J» M| S. \ii. i:il, 5!W.) Your 
correspondent** suggestion, that I should examine 
tho statement of the connection between tho Kal- 
llnogardo Crokors ami (hone o( Linoham ami Tro- 
v i l its was hardl\ needed. I have long loarnt to 
put no faith in Sir II. Ilurko'a prints) pedigrees, 
ami havo exposed tho assumptions ami errors of 

many of them. I doubt, however, whether (?. I>, 

in correct in assorting that "tho Visitations are 
particular in containing oil tho existing genera- 
tion," and I am sure bo is wrong in attributing 
tho sumo authority to tho Copies of the \ isitationa 

(among tho llnrloian MSS.) which tho originals 
alono can claim to poaaoas. May I ask your cor- 
respondent to aid mo in ascertaining wbothor tho 
estate of Itallyankor was givon to Thomas Crokor 
by tho Crown in 1 tUH> h* It' so, some record of tho 

ff rati I would bo preserved among tho State pa pom 
n London and Dublin. 1 nmv add that I am in 

High Streot. What became of tho bonoa I do uot 
know: that gentleman, if alive now, could pos- 
sibly enlighten your correspondent somewhat . 

A Nativr of Guildford. 


41 ItKotsTKVM S.u'iu'M A m kuu'AXUm" (8 rd 8. xii. 

l?H| f |1>L)— This is being published in the current 
numbers of Church Opinion, published at *J, Lon- 
don House Yard, Paternoster Row, 


Hawkino (3* S. xii. 513.) 

Itocord* prove that in tho sixth century tho Roman 
Briton* had arrived .-it much dexterity in tho ohoics and 
managrmont of falcon* and hawk*/ — lilaino'* Rural 
SjH)rt* t p, 044, 

J. WlLKIXS, n.c.L. 

Saxon Spadkh («"■ S. xii. AOP.) — In Blaine's 
Hitral Snort* (vol. i. p. .'180 ) is an engraving of 
Saxons digging out a fox. The spado appears to 

bo of a triangular form. The engraving is said to 
bo taken from an illuminated MS. recorded in 
Strutt's Englith Sport*. 

• • 


TlIK (IKINW OP AtCHlNKOATIl (l\** S. Xii. 

•175.) — I might have stated, in making some 

inquiries concerning tho (S rants of Auchln- 
roath, that the Kev. Robert Grant, minister of 
Cullen, some of whoso descendants are, 1 believe, 
living in London, was brother of my groat-grand- 
father, William Grant, of Auehinroath, Ho is 

the author of the " Sketch of the Parish of Cul- 

nossosaitm of a MS, pedigree ot 1 the Crokors of eo. 
Limerick, which, ao far as I have yet proved it, is 

accurate, and that this asserts their Cornish ox- 

len, ' in Sir John Sinclair's statistical Account of 

Sivtltmil. An Kxr\TOiATRD Scot.* 


Joan. Posskuus (.l ra S. xii. 5lM.)— There were 
two o( this name, father and son. 

I. Joan. IVsselius, of I'archim ( h ], Mecklenberg, 

nourished a.i>. 1628-1501. He published (W/i- 

i/rophia Oratorio linyntt Unto*, 8vo, 15il2 ; «Syw- 
toris (irtecn % 8vo, 15tK); ICmnyciia Ihttninicolia ft 

l\m*tola* Heroico Gneco carmine reddidit, 1508, 
NN itelwivte, 8vo, 1572; FaniiUiwinm coUoquiurmn 

cup of this kind is amongst tho plate belonging to ! liMlm, Gra>co et latino, 8vo, 158(1 
the Klder Hrethron of the l rinity 1 louse, at 2. Joan. Posseliu*, of Kv^stock, son of the former; 

nourished a n. 15tkVltUW. He published the fol- 
lowing: .ijtophthcijmata cj Plnturcho et alii* sr/rcVii v 
S\v>, 15M; Fascicnln* Orationnm. Francidurt. 


r. J. u. 

Hans in Kki.okh (ft* S. xii. 178.) — A silver 



W, J, Hkkmiaup Smuu. 

Iom Punks Honks i4 iu S. i. 15,) — I thnk n.wi ^1^ # - ., 4 , ,. 1 i> * ut »»n 

tluwii r.%12.^ rnnai k., 1 • A 1 V I ? L>tn». ( I his contains an •'Gratio de luvstOiMno ); 

1 nose reins must nave Invn nrivatolv disnosod oi 11 • r *\ <\ • n . 1 .• o i.m\i 

«» » . . . ' * * u, t w " " u HesuHti OiH*m Omnia, Grave et Latino. Svo, ii*H f 

ItHU, 1015, 

The above list, which however might pro- 

bablv Ih^ enlarged from other sources, is com- 

pileu (Vom the following works : Jiiopra/thit 

f>s>rtatiiv l'ni\Yr$cil<\ ed. am. 8vo. Paris, I96S; 

HiMiotAiW d (\wnuio (i<*Ht9\* % ed. Simler. Tiguri, 

fol. 1574; I'niivr*** Ttn-arnni Orbit, Alphonsi 

Laser i\ Vart^a. lHitavii, fol. 1713. K. A. l\ 

I have always heard that they weiv pimhaaed at 

a sale after Cobbett'a death at Ash. bv a person 
who was ignorant at the time of the Wgain he 

was making j the chest ho bought turning out to 
be tho receptacle of the bones of Tom Paine. In 
the summer of IS \\) \ WH s mentioning this story in 
the pmence of Mr. John Chonnelh corn-me^hiuit, 
ot 1 UuiUlloixl, Surrey, who continued it bv adding, 
es, and it you will come with me (\ was then 

▼erj ih^x, which he did m his own cellar in the AWiv, I think, does not moan ruddv, but rwi/c, in 

at aj 

Kiukk: Ukkvhk^kn: Kirk (4 lh S. i. 14.) 

4*8. I. JA3I.2V68.] 



the sense of rough (Matt. ix. 10), being a literal 
translation of Iryrdjxw, M not having the nap worn 
off"; i. 0. rough, as not beinp worn smooth by fre- 
quent use. Defameden stands for ln$4iu<r*y (Matt, 
ix. 81.) Wejnust remember that the u spreading 
abroad of his'fame," an it is called in modern ver- 
sions, had the effect of bringing Jesus into disre- 
pute ; for, as stated in verse 84, the Pharisees took 




a i 


» a great ferment" 

beer from the Wei 
\ word for ferment 

iii.T*2). I think it 

Dr. Johnson derives 

Tin- rxpivsMon i- 

represent the Greek word &pMn*«, 
which might mean howling. The word burr is 
now used for a rough guttural utterance ; and in 
Celtic hurralt is a deep-toned howl. The literal 
fact is, that the herd of swine were much dis- 
turbed or excited, and precipitated themselves 
into the soa. A. II. 

Execution of Lona XVI. (3'« S. xi. 521 ; 4 th 

S. i. 20.) — Judging from the well-known work in 
three large volumes on the French Revolution, 
with portraits and innumerable etchings by l)u- 
plessis lierthault, after designs by Prieur and 
others, the execution of the ill-fated monarch, as 
represented in one of the volumes now before me, 
■ >n the IMaco Louis XV, or Place de la Involu- 
tion, must have taken place between the centre, 
where the obelisk stands, and the Iluo ltnyale, 
perhaps n oarer where the fountain is, opposite the 

Naval Department f Minist&re de la Marine), which 
fully coincides with Prince Talleyrand's indica- 
tion to Lord Howden; but, as regards the wide 

entrance to the gi.rden of the Tuileries, I should 
say. from the samo authority mentioned above, that 
it aid exist at that peri 


(See hf. de Lamhrsc 
entrant aux Tuileries, mve wti dftachetnepit de Royal- 

Allemand, July 12, 1789. The entrance was 
then about as it is now. P. A. L. 

P.S. At the beginning of the Revolution, the 

statue of Louis XV, le 

g oi 


aimi (who so well 

deserved the name) was pulled down. 



St. Switiun asks what is the opinion of 

your learned correspondents respecting the pro- 
nunciation of sovereign. A satisfactory reply will, 
I think, bo found in Walker's Dictionary /where 
the different pronunciations of the letter o are 
clearly given. In sorcreigtt it is pronounced as in 
company, dozen, love, governor, «c. 

I>" # N ## R. 

British Museum Duplicates (8* S. xii. 342; 

4 lh S. i. 21.) — I recently became possessed of a 
volume of curious tracts, all relating to Ireland, 
1080 and 1000. In the lot there is a long " list 
of such persons a* are attainted bv the late Kinir 

James in Ireland : Nobility, Gentry, and Com- 
monalty (amongst whom are several women and 
children)." The book is substantially bound in 
red calf, and lettered on the back u Irish Tracts, 
Lond. 1080. W. III. R." The title-page is stamped 
u Mvsevm Hritannicvm, and British Museum, sale 
duplicate, 1787." J. Harris Gibson. 


See a note by II. F. in l )n<! S. vi. 365. Can any 
reader of "N. & Q." inform me when last the 
British Museum sold a copy of the Complutensian 

Polyglott P Joseph Rix. 

St. Neots. 

Cardinal Pole (3 rd S. xii. 405.)— His kindred 
in Cornwall are always called Poole, though the 
name is spelt Pole. William Grey. 

'•NOH \M 18 LK8 Ennemis" f3' d S. xii. 484.)— 
This was the phrase used by tne French during 
the truce after the capture of Sebastopol, to de- 
signate their Russian foes, with whom they fra- 
ternised. See Times' Correspondent of that date. 

William Grey. 

Coxkiktory Courts (4 th S. i. 12.) — Before the 
time of King William 
as well spiritual as temporal, were determined in 
the Hunared-Courts, wnere was wont to sit one 
bishop and one temporal judge called u Alderman- 
nus;" the ono for matters of spiritual, the other 
of temporal cogniiance. The separation of the 
ecclesiastical from the temporal courts was made 
by William the Conqueror, as will be seen in 
his charter quoted in Burn's Ecclesiastical Law, 

vol. n. p. .H, tne concluding worua oi wuicu 
u Judicium vero in nullo loco portetur nisi in 
Episcopali sede, aut in illo loco quem Episcopus 
ad hoc constituent" And let judgment fee given 
in no place but in the episcopal seat, or in that 
place which the bishop for this shall have ap- 
pointment. The episcopal seat was the cathedral. 

S. L. 

Scornsn Legal BALLAn (3 rd S. xii. 484; 4 th 

S. i. 42.) — I know not if the following particulars 
relating to James Ferguson, the son of Lord 
Pitfour, be worthy of notice. He was an estim- 
able gentleman, and a saver of good things, but 
pre-eminently a staunch political partisan. He is 
recorded as saying, " I was rarely nresent through- 
out a debate, but never absent from a division. 
I have heard many speeches which convinced mv 
reason, but never* one which altered my vote. ' 




a vear or two, he wrote a very long letter to his 
old master detailing all his miscarriages, and re- 
questing to be taken back into his service. Mr. 
Ferguson, who hated trouble, sent back the letter, 
writing at the bottom, " Accepts the above, J. F.," 



[4* S.I. Jan. 25/68. 

and John and lie were only separated by death. 
Mr. Ferguson was succeeded in his estates and 
residence of Pitfour, in Aberdeenshire, by his 
nephew, the late Admiral Ferguson, an amiable 
and popular gentleman, I believe the son of " the 
Governor " mentioned by G. The house of Pit- 
four stands in a noble park of some 2000 acres, 
with a fine sheet of limpid water. CII. 


Maiden of Confolens " (4 th S. i. 7.)— Mr. Bright 
possessed a copy of this tract. (See sale catalogue, 
No. 2934.) It is a translation from a French tract, 
of which the following is the title, extracted from 
Brunet, Manuel, vol. iii. p. 180 : 

" Histoire merveilleuse <le l'abstinence triennale d'une 
fille de Confolens en Poitou. Trad, du lat. Paris, 1602." 

I suppose it is now in vain to search for the 
Latin original of this tract. Brunet cites this in 
a note on another tract upon a similar subject 
Histoire admirable et veritable (Time Jille Cham- 
pestre du Pays (TAnjou, etc. 

Similar narrations seem to have been frequent 
at the end of the sixteenth and beginning ot the 
seventeenth centuries. The most curious and 
apparently the best authenticated is quoted by 
Brunet {Manuel, vol. iv. p. 912), under the title 
" Provencheres, on Provenchieres, Mddecin du 

Hoi." I possess a copy of the fourth edition of 
this tract, 1010, with the " Cinquieine discours 
apologetique," 1017, subjoined. K. J. It. 

This story reminds me of an extraordinary case 
of an individual who was designated " The Fast- 
ing Man " ; and who, about the vear 1842, created 
a sensation in Ireland, especially in Dublin. His 
name was Bernard (commonly called "Barney") 
Kavanagh ; who, beyond all doubt, could and'did 
fast for a long period. His brother, and some 
other enterprising person, turned this to account, 
and let him out as a miracle-working saint. They 
started first in the county of Mayo, and turned 
the matter into a good money speculation. They 
subsequently made their way to Dublin, where 
amongst the lower orders there was a regular 
sensation. He was actually said to have cured 
blind and lame, and other human infirmities, and 
he was exhibited in the Queen's Theatre, Great 
Brunswick Street, where thousands went to see 
him; but were admitted only on payment of 
smart fees. I was then connected with one of 
the leading daily papers of the city, and, along 
with a clergyman, went to see the miracle worker. 
We saw he was a notorious impostor— at least in 
the miracle line ; and he was exposed, and left 
the city at once. He "tried it on" in England 
afterwards, but was discovered feasting on ham 
and bread ; and, I believe, he died soon afterwards. 
Many readers must remember the facts. 


S. Bedmoxd. 


V conduct is a sti- 

pendiary, but, unlike a chaplain, without endow- 
ment, although holding a similar office. The 
Oxford statutes direct prayers to be made u per 
aliquem sacris ordinibus initiatum, co.mnuni aula- 
rium sumptu conducendum.'" In 1633 the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, in his definition of a title, 
speaks of a" conduct or chaplain in some college 
in Oxford or Cambridge.- 9 At Eton the chaplains 
are called conducts, conductitii. The curate con- 
duct probably means a conduct with cure of souls. 

Mackenzie E. C. Walcott, B.D., F.S.A. 

Shell Fish (3 rd S. xii. 475.) ^Mr. Craufurd 
Tait Ram age may find numerous passages in the 
older (and even later) poets alluding to the sala- 
cious nature of shell-fish food. Thus L'Estrange, 
in the Counter Scuffle, one of the most humorous 
productions of the time, sings of 

** The action 
Of buttered crabs and lobsters red, 
Which send the married pair to bed. 
And in loose blood have often fed 

A faction." 

Bushey Heath. 

The Four Ages of Mankind (3 rd S. xii. 479.) 
I cannot tell G. II. of S. who was the author of 
this satire, but I remember a somewhat different 
version of it which I heard long, long ago, when 
a boy. Once at a social party, when called upon 
by Braham for my sonp, I could not refuse the 
task, and accordingly did my best (never having 
known how to articulate a note in music) to obey 
the call, in the subjoined words, which, when 
finished, the complimentary maestro declared it 
to be a clever thing, and if either he had my 
words or I had any of his voice, they might be 
better than "tolerable, and not to be endured 


44 An ape and a lion, a fox and an ass, 
Will show how the lives of most men do pass : 
They are all of them apes to the age of eighteen, 
Then bold as lions till forty they've seen ; 
Then crafty as fuxes till threescore and ten, 
And then they are asses, and no more men." 

44 A dove and a sparrow, a parrot and crow, 
Will show you the lives of most women also : 
They are all of them doves to the age of fifteen, 
Then wanton as sparrows till forty they've seen ; 
Then chatter like parrots till turned of "threescore 
Then birds of ill-omen, and women no more." 

Bushey Heath. 

Pynaker (3 rd S. xii. 503.) — In Stanley's very 
much enlarged and improved edition of "Bryan s 

Dictionary of Painter*, published in 1849, at- 
tached to a Memoir of Pynaker, is the following 
note : — 

" Pvnaker's landscapes, of the cabinet size, are not 

numerous. In Smith's Catalogue raisonne of the works of 
the Dutch and Flemish masters (vols, six and nine), will 
be found an account of about seventy. They are mostly 
what may be termed representations of romantic scenery*: 
mountainous and well-wooded countries, with ancient 

4*S. I. J as. 25, '68.] 




rnias, cascades, muleteers, and peasants with cattle. His 
ideas are altogether Italian. His pencil only is Dutch, 
and that of the highest quality— with a breadth, a bril- 
liancy, a richness, almost unequalled by any other land- 
scape painter except Cuyp. There are many of his finest 
works in England/' 

Possibly, the information conveyed in the above 
note, which I believe was not in the original edi- 
tion of Bryan, may give a clue (if nothing more) 
to what your correspondent Sigismund the 
Seeker requires to know. II. M. 


St. Simon (3 rd S. xii. 524.)— In answer to the 
question of Depuis la Revolution*, respecting 

aI. Jules Favre's speech in the French legislative 
body, I must first correct the account given by 
The Times, which ought to have been thus : 

u One of the most eminent speakers, Moniienr de Paris 
(laughter) — pardon, gentlemen, 1 speak like M. de Saint 
Simon (since we are brought back to his epoch we mav 
be Dermitted to use his language) — Monseigneur do Pans 


permitted to umj nis language) — Monseign 

In the time of the (tallican Duke de St. Simon, 
who left us such interesting u nitSmoirea," bi>hops 
were styled " Monsieur/' the name of their see 
following : thus, Iloasuet was Monsieur de Meaux ; 
FtSnelon, Monsieur de Cambrai. Since the demo- 
cratic era, inaugurated by our great revolution, the 
bishops are styled by the aristocratic titles of 
" Monseigneur" and " Votre Grandeur.' 9 M. Jules 
Favre knows all that very well ; his mistake was 
only a witty "effet oratoire," in which French 
ears always delight. Paris. 

Folk-Lore: Superstitions: Cock-crowing at 
Night: Robix " Weepixg" (4 th S. i. 10.)— With 
regard to the superstition about the crowing of 
the cock at nighty 1 extract the following from 
Mr. Robert Hunt's Papular Romance* of the Wed 
of England (Second Series, p. 100) : 

44 If a cock crows at midnight, the angel of death is 
passing over the house ; and if he delays to strike, the 
delay is only for a short season." 

With regard to the robin u weeping/' the ex- 

Jression and the superstition exist in the north of 
>evon. It is there believed that, when a robin 
perches on the ton of a cottage and utters ita 
plaintiff " wed," the baby in the cottage will die. 
\ot very long since, a little poem on the subject 
appeared in Prater's Magazine. 

Bushey Heath does not state where he has 

met with these two superstitions, 
to know. Jonx IIoskyn 

I should like 
Ybraiiall, J UN. 

Combe Parsonage, near Woodstock 

Recovery after Execution (\« and 2 nd S. 

passim.) — Please add the following instance to 
your notes upon this subject. I have taken the 
cutting from a IocaI paper of Dec. 19. Unfor- 
tunately I have no access to Italian newspapers 
here, so m to have supplied locality and date. 

Perhaps some of your correspondents would give 
these particulars, and inform us as to the fate of 
the poor fellow : 

" Surviving an Execution. — The Italian journals 
relate a most singular story. A soldier who had deserted 
and taken to brigandage was captured and condemned to 
death. Being brought out to the place of execution, a 
tiring party of five performed their painful duty ; and the 
sergeant commanding them, perceiving that the man was 
not quite dead, gave him point blank the coup de grace. 
In the belief that this was really a finishing stroke, the 
body was handed over to the gravedigger ; but as night 
was approaching the latter postponed his office until the 
morning, leaving above ground what he naturally sup- 
posed to be a corpse. The unfortunate man, however, 
was still alive, and the cold night air, by irritating his 
wounds revived him. Painfully he dragged himself to 
the wall of the enclosure, against which he managed to 
place a ladder which happened to be there, got over, 
although all bleeding and with his arm broken by the 
bullets, and delivered himself up as prisoner to the nearest 
guard-house. The Ministers of War and of Justice each 
claim this resuscitated victim of martial law, but the 
belief is that he will be nardoued. His wounds are not 
mortal, and his arm has been reset." 

J. Manuel. 

New cast le-on-Tyne, 

Latctd (3 rd S. xii. 329, 422.) — Dryilen pre- 
i served the word from Chaucer, in his u l'alamon 

i and Arcite " : — 

44 The way that Theseus t(*>k was to the wood. 
Where the two knights in cruel battle st«>od ; 
The laund on which they fought, the appointed place 
In which the uncoupled hounds began the chase." 

Hook ii. line 843. 

But in Scott's and It. Bell's edition of Dryden, 
lairn has taken the place of laund, which is to be 
seen in the original edition of T/w Fables, folio, 


In Coles's English Dictionary, 100(J, are : 

4 lAinda y lairnd, an open field without wood," and 

iMundy lawn (see Ixinda), plain untitled ground in a 


Use of the Word "Party " (3 rd S. iii. 427, 

400; xii. 365, 424; 4 th S. i. 35).)— The use of thin 
word, in the signification of an individual, is not 
unusual with the older writer*. I adduce an 
earlier instance than that cited by Mr. Cowper: 

44 The fifthe thing that is to be considered in meates, is 
the time, which standeth chiefly in three poynts, that i 
to sav : Time of the veere ; Time of the dav ; Age of the 
partUr—Y. 177. 

44 The thirde thing appertaining to dyet, is the age of 
the part ie, which may the better bee perceived, if first I 
define what age is, and what difference there is in age." — 
The Haven of Health, Sec, by Thomas Cogan, Maister of 
Arte*, and Uacheler of Phisicke, 4to, London, 1589. 

I may cite another instance of the use of the 
word, in the same sense, in a curious little book, 
bearing no date, but probably half a century later : 

u Now some prescribe the Imagination of a fair and re- 
gular Building, divided into many Rooms and (Galleries, 
with differing Color-, and distinct Pillar-, which tin- 





[4 th S. I. Jan. 25, '68. 

Party must fancv to stand before him as so many Repo- 
sitories where he is to place the Things or Ideas which he 
designs to remember," 4c. page 98.- The Art of Memory: 
a Treatise useful for all, Sfc By Marius d'Assigny, B. D. 
London, Printed,' and Edinburgh, reprinted, *fce. 12mo. 

The Words "Nesh" " liabilities — In the volume 
first cited I find these two words used in a curious 
sense. The former, a good old word, signifying 
" delicate/' " susceptible to external influences of 
weather," &c, is now abandoned by genteel folks, 
and has fallen to the almost exclusive use of the 
u commoner sort." 
to " tough" : — 

" If guestes come to thee at vnwares, 
In water mixt with wine, 
Sowce thou thy Ilenne; she will become, 
Short, tender, nesh, and fine." — P. 132. 

The latter word I have often myself heard used 
in the unusual sense in which it occurs in this old 

not say a Bible would last 1100 years, but that 
at the present rate of supply it would take 1100 
years to supply the whole population of the world 
with Bibles. If supplied at once, I showed that 
120,000,000/. sterling would be sufficient for that 

Here I find it used, as opposed 

or social 
Tell a 

writer, as meaning pecuniar;/ means, 
standing, rather than intellectual capacity. 
person that you cannot allbrd .such a purchase at 
the price demanded, or that you have no cash 
about you, and he demurs to the truth of such' a 
statement from "a gentleman of vour ability/ 1 


So in the passage before m 

"But if the Lawe of God had then prouailfd, or might 
now preuaile among us, which punlsheth adulteric with 
death, and simple fornication by dowrie and reoom pence 
of marriage, both they would haue beenc, and wee should 
bee more fenrefull to offend in that hehalfe : or, if the law 
of Justinian were in force, which punisheth adulterers 
with death, and simple fornicators, if they bee of hahititie, 
with the losse of halfe their goodes, but if they bee poo re, 
with imprisonment and banishment," — I*. 251. 

William Dates. 


Posies and Aphorisms on Trenciie 


necessary purpose, lo keep stores supplied during 
1100 years would, according to his computations, 
reauire a much larger sum. 

I know that Bibles are published by other 
societies than our Bible Society, but some of these 
are included in its returns. On the other hand, 
in the total enumeration gosnels and portions of 
scriptures are included, and the proportion of 
copies of the whole Word is small, so that 
120,000,000/. may be taken as a moderate esti- 
mate, and that figure is undisturbed by the com- 
putations of vour correspondents. 

1 am indebted to Mr. J. J. B. Workard for a 
clerical correction. In copying out I wrote 
799,047,000 instead of 947,000,000, but this does 
not n fleet the main facts of the case, which con- 
cern the means for supplying the whole world 
with the whole Bible within a brief period. 


4 ' Bloody ? ' C-V* S. xii. 4<>0.)— This epithet, now 
so generally used by the vulgar, in the indefinite 
sense referred to by Loud I low den, seems to have 
been not unsuited to 4t ears polite " in 1755, for I 
liiid the following line 

" ( )h ! she's Moody angry, what shall I do ? " 

in an opera then performed at Drury Lane, called 
The Boarding School, or the Sham Captain, pub- 
lished by William Duncan, jun., Glasgow, 1/55. 

It is to be hoped that the boasted civilisation 
and refinement of the present age will soon banish 
the use of it from our street vocabulary, for I believe 

pestries, etc. (3 rd S. xi, 18 ; xii. 485.) — Burton, | it is in the streets only that it is now heard. 
in his Anatomy of Melancholy , pt. 2, sec. 3, mem. 
7, nit., after stringing together a number of wise 
counsels and cautions for the conduct of life, adds : 

"Look for more in Isocrates, Seneca, Plutarch, Epic- 
tetus, &c. ; and for defect, consult with cheese-trenchers 
and painted cloths." 

D. M. 


Bishop Earle says of the Pot-poet : — 

" He drops away at least in some obscure painted cloth, 

to which himself made the verses." — Microcosmography, 

p. 83. 

Dr. Bliss here notes : 

" It was customary to work or paint proverbs, moral 

sentences, or scraps of verse, on old tapestrv hangings, 

which were called painted cloths. See Reed's S ha kspeare, 
viii. 103." r 

I have seen in old English houses fire-places and 
chimneys covered with old Dutch tiles containing 
many pictures; proverbs and aphorisms. Q. Q. 

Bible Statistics (3 rd S. xii. 412, 510. )— I fear 
that Rusticus has partly misunderstood my cal- 
culations and thereby exaggerated them. I did 

Notes by Thomas Salwey: Monsters ( 

S. xii. 428.)— 4 Elizabeth. Ballads about both of 
those 4I monstrous children" occur in Black-Letter 
Ballads and Broadsides (lately possessed by Mr. 
Daniel, now by Mr. Iluth), recently published by 
Mr. Lilly. The ballad about the second monster 
mentioned will be found at p. 27 of Lilly's re- 
print; the ballad about the first, at p. 201. From 
the latter ballad it does not appear that the child 
was bom with a rufl. An engraving of the child, 
life-size (Of inches in height), is given in the ori- 
ginal : but this I have not seen. At pasre 243 



true Discripcion of a Childe with Iluties, &c. . . . 


The year 1502 was rich in these monstrosities. 
Ballads about three monstrous pigs, besides the 
two children, are to be found in Lilly's reprint 
belonging to this year. Other like ballads, printed 
in other vears. are to be found there. 

4* S. I. Ja*. 25, '08. ] 



At page 145 is " The true Discripcion of this 
marveulous straunge Fishe, &c* . . . 1669/' which 
is perhaps worth noting here, though doubtless 
other strange tisbes had been netted before the 

advent of Shakespeare's Tempest. 

8c. 2.) John Annis, Junior. 

Tap-Room Game (3 rd S. xii. 477.)— This game 
I have seen played more than half a century 
ago in Lancashire, there called Kinging the Bull. 
It required some steadiness of hand and eye to 
accomplish this. The string was generally some 
three yards long. This game may have been a mo- 
dification of the ancient pastime of the " Quintain * 
or probably of u Tilting at the King/' to suit the 
taste of those who were excluded from the justs 
and tournaments. William Harrison. 

The game which J. S. C. had never seen before, 
is or was common in the alehouses of Cheshire, 

games are common in the Latin writers, and espe- 
cially in Plautus. Smith, in his Dictionary of 
Antiquities, gives an account of the value of the 
various throws, under A lea, Talus, and Tessera, to 
(See Act II., which I refer Mr. Ration if he is anxious for 

further information. 


Kino Zohrab (4 th S. i. 31.)— This must be 
King Zohak, the tyrant, from whose shoulders 
two serpents sprung after the devil had kissed 
them. They constantlv endeavoured to get at his 
brain to devour it, and could only be kept from 
doing so by a dailv oblation of two human heads. 
Vide Sou they 9 8 Thalaba, book v., and the note 
from D'Herbelot. W. J. Berxhard Smith. 


Letter of Lord Oalway (4 lh S. i. 20.) — I 


however, addressed to Lady Russell, 
Marquis de Chasteauneuf, in behalf of an old 
" Pasteur du Desert/' named Gaillard, who thir- 
teen years previous had taken refuge in Holland, 
and now begged Ijord Gal way to intercede in his 
favour to be allowed to return to France, in order to 
I believe the author settle some family matters. The letter, wholly in 

handwriting, is dated " Wiudzor, le 

P. A. L. 

and is called Ring-the-Bull. It is more suited to a 
garden than to a room. A cord twenty feet long 
may be attached to a bough of a tree, or to a post, 
as in Germany, where, especially at the watering- 
places, this game is often seen. Fret. 

Jeremy (4 th S. i. 29.) 

inquired for was a religious of the Order of the 

Theatina, instituted in 1524, Fleury relates of 10 Aoust, 1074/' 

him that he remonstrated stronglv with Pope 
Paul IV., upon the bad conduct of his nephews, 
in 1559. But of his treatise on the Mass, sup- 
posing him to have been the author, I am unable 
to furnish any information. F. C. II. 

Dice (4 th S. i. 28.) — A very careful description 
of the Roman dice will be found in Dr. Adam's 
Roman Antiquities in the section on Roman En- 
tertainments. He there says, that the Roman 
dice were of two kinds — tessera and tali. The 
tessera had six sides, like our dice; and were 
marked in Roman numerals from I. to VI The 
tali had four sides longwise, and two ends which 
were left blank. The four sides were marked 
with points— one, three, four, and six. 

' F. C. II. 

The Ancient Scornsn Pronunciation of 
Latin (4 th S. i. 24.)— Mr. Clyne may stand fast 

in his old idea of this in spite of the" quotations 
which appear to have shaken his belief. 

In many cases he is led away by the spelling 
without attending to the pronunciation ; as, for 
example, the letter d which is in Scotch day. In 
the same way be is continually sounded as bay. 
"Beaffwieye." * 

His great mistake, however, is relying on the 
jingling rhymes of the poets he quotes. On what 
system of pronunciation can he reconcile the 


44 Sod semper variabiles 
44 Conwti meo Jacobi " 

of Mr. Andro Kennedie's Testament ? The truth 
Mr. Rayton is evidently not aware that the is that these Hudibrastic rhymes are beyond all 

The one rule or regulation. Turn to Butler himself, to 

say nothing of the well-known cecle*iastic and r. 
stick, or such lines as — 

44 The vile affront that nal try ass, 
And feeble scoundrel iludibraa,'* 

compared with 

44 put the squire in'i d/cot, 
I should have first Mid Hudiora*." 

Open the book by chance. I have done so, and I 
find that the page begins with line 341, of canto I. 

part ill. What are the rhymes I find r Worn, 
turn ; bones, poltroons; pieces, addresse- ; drove, 


kind was called tessera, the other talus. The 
tessera was a cube resembling our common dice, 
and marked (not in writing) on all six sides. 
Three of these tessera were used for the purposes 
of playing. The talus was the hucklebone of a 
sheep or goat : originally used in the same way 
as schoolboys of the present day use it, i. e. the 




two ends being left blank) with the numbers 1, 
3, 4, and 6. I believe tali are frequently found 
in tombs. I am not aware of the existence of any 
locus das n'cus on the subject ; but allusions to both 

• Heir is should be pronounce I as an heir is, a'i<! then 
it rhymes with revrrteri*. 



[4* S. I. Jan. 2b, f GS. 

love ; forsook, provoke ; able, dabble ; ghost, 
loos'd; near, Lancashire ; beforehand, entertained. 

George Vere Irving. 

"Ultima ratio Regum " (4 th S. i. 10.) 

" Calderon a fait sur le me me sujet une piece extrava- 
gante, intituk'e : ' En esta vida, todo es verdad, y todo 
mentira.' On a e'te fort indecis pour savoir, de la piece 
francaise ou de l'espagnole, laquelle est Foriginal. Cequi 
passe pour sur, c'est que Calderon vint a Paris, etmemc 
y fit des vers espagnols h la louange de la reine regent e, 
Anne d'Autriche; et que Corneille, qui avouait assez 
franchement toutes les sources oil il puisait ou l'idee ou 
le plan de ses pieces, comme le Cid et quelques autres, ne 
dit point qu'il diit le sujet d'He'raclius a personne ; et 
qu'il dit, au contraire, de cette piece, quo cVtait un 
heureux original, dont, sitot qu'il eut paru, il sVtait fait 

beaucoup de belles copies." — A/males Dramatirjtte*, torn. iv. 
p. 411, art. "Heraclius," Paris, 1800. 

The above shows that it is at least doubtful 
whether Corneille borrowed from Calderon or 
Calderon from Corneille. The date at which 
Louis XIV. caused the words to be inscribed on 
his cannon, and that of Calderon's vi.-it to Trance, 

might throw some light on the question. 

X. II. 

Silbtjry Hill (4 th 8. i. 14.) — The extract 
given by your correspondent evidently refers to 
the opening of this celebrated barrow recorded 
byStukeley; and King Cumdha is as plainly a 
clerical error for Cunedha — a name which is well 
known in aboriginal British history, and with 
which the antiquary identified the river and vil- 
lage of Kennet, as well as Marlborough (perhaps 
he should rather have said Mildenhall, an adjoin- 
ing parish), anciently called Cunetio. The Welsh 
annals speak of two distinguished princes of the 
name of Cunedha ; one of them being a personage 
familiar to the readers of King Lear ( Lhyr), under 
the title of Duke of Cornwall. lie is said to have 
flourished about the ninth century B.C., and 
ultimately to have become sole ruler over the 
dominions of his ill-fated father-in-law. So 
Shakespeare took some poetical licence with his 
accepted biography. The other Cunedha was 
surnamed Wledig, or the Illustrious, and was a 
regulus of the Cumbro-Britons contemporary with 
the Emperor Constans ; and his death is placed 
a.d. 389. This later Cunedha must be excluded 
from any connection with Silbury Hill, if it is 
proved that the hill is older than the Roman road 
which passes by it; and such exclusion would 
agree with a residence in the north. Cunedha 
Wledig is said to have been a benefactor of the 
church, and his family is honoured in the Triads 
as one of the three holy families of the Isle of 
Britain. It is quite possible that there may have 
been another Cunedha or Kenneth, whose name 
still lives in the neighbourhood, but whose acts 
have passed into oblivion. I trust that vou will 
receive a communication from some competent 

authority, now that the subject has been noticed 
in your pages. Shem. 

Language for Animals (3 rd S. xii. 501.) 
Mr. Hyde Clarke will find that "Miess ! Miess! " 
(to be pronounced long, the ie like the English 
ee) is the u open sesame for a our feline friend " 
in Germany. 

peated twice like the English u Puss ! 
will make an impression on any German cat ; but, 
as a rule, the cats of the fatherland of "Puss in 
Boots " are much wilder than English cats, as 
they are not so much petted or allowed to join 
the u home circle " as the latter. 

I am confident that this call, re- 


little. The 

language " in Germany I know very 
appellation of "Roter" (cur), Ger- 
man dogs regard, I am sure, a3 a very derisive 
title. The cosmopolitan language for driving oil 
a dog I have always found to consist in stooping 
down to the ground as if picking up a stone, and 
afterwards raising the arm. and 


producing a 

mostly in the name 

r l^i 

kind of hissing or whistling sound. The German 

u horse-language'' consists 

of the diverse kinds, as " Scheck' " (piebald), 
u Fuchs " (literally fox ; colour of a fox), u Schim- 
mel " (a white or greyish horse). There are also 
universal calls for cows (generally and fondly 
called " Olsch," /. e. old one), geese, hens, and 
ducks. It must be observed, too, that I am 
speaking here of the North of Germany. Geese 
are always spoken to as " wooler, wooler; " hens 
as "ticker, ticker;" ducks as "paak, paak." 
Thus, " wooler-Ganse " ( — geese); "ticker- 
Huhuer" ( — hens, chickens); u paak-Enten " 
( — ducks) are "acknowledged and well-esta- 
blished facts" for and by all German children. 

There is a pretty u plattdeutsch " children's song 

beginning — 

* 4 Ticker, ticker Honeken, 
Wat don jie up mienen Hof ? M * 

But I am at a loss whether to write it u ticker " 
or "ticka," and "wooler" or " woola," as the 
respective last syllables of these words are pro- 
nounced as Mesdame8 Brown and Partington 
pronounce the end syllables of u Idea " and 
" Emma." Hermann Kindt. 

Ache or Ake (3 rd S. xii. 491.) — Sir J. E. 

Tennent appears to have muddled this question 
a little. His remarks are applied to the singular, 
and he refers to the Kemble dispute — above thirty, 
and not ten years ago, when John was bevond 
either akes or ditches — for the argument touching 
the plural pronunciation. Chaucer's printing oke 
as the past tense of ake has nothing to do with 
the assertion of the dissyllable aitches, which 
Kemble substantiated not only by rhythm but by 

* Literally 

"Ticker, ticker chickens, 
What are vou doing in niv vard ? " 

4*S. I. Jan. 25, '68.] 



rhyme from various authors. There can be no 
question on that subject. Bushey Heath. 

Pra yer 



whatever for placing the Apostles' Creed and the 
Lord's Prayer in churches. I suppose it would 
be difficult, if at all possible, to ascertain exactly 
wh*n the latter practice bee an. But it is most 



many cases with royal arms and decalogu 
date. I do not think that any earliei 

could be discovered. 

F. C. II. 

Sir T. Chaloxer (3* S. x. 28 ; 4 th S. i. 33.)— 

I would suggest that the lacuna or hiatus in the 
third line ot the I>atin epigram should be filled 
with the word ultro. " Iroi " 1s clearly wrong ; 
and it is just possible that the last letter may be a 
mistake xor thr accent often marked over adverbs 

in Latin. The 


vivuntque simmima iumo. 

E. Walford. 

Hampstead, X.W. 



The Towers and Temples of Ancient Irelanil ; their Origin 
and History discussed from a New Point of View. By 
Marcus Keane, M.H.I. A. Illustrated with One Humtred 
and Eighty -six Engravings on Wood, chiefly frotn Pho- 
tographs and Original Drawings. 

Irish archaeology, like almost all Irish questions, is one 
on which opinions are widely divided and as strongly 
maintained. The round towers and sculptured crosses of 
Ireland form no exemption from this law. Dr. Petrie 
and a large body of followers maintain that they were 
erected at various periods from the introduction of Chris- 
tianity, or (more strictly speaking) from the fifth to the 
close of the twelfth century. Others recognising them as 
being essentially Christian, maintain that they only date 
from the twelfth and following centuries. Mr. Keane 
takes altogether a different view of their date and origin, 
and the object of the work before us is to prove that they 
were erected for the purposes of heathen worship, many 
hundred years before the birth of Christ, by a race long 
anterior to the Celts — a people who, " under the names 
of Cuthites, Scythians, and various other denomina- 
tions, bore sway on the earth for a considerable period, 
commencing at the period of Nimrod, the grandson of 
Ham" : and Mr. Keane, in support of this view, main- 
tains that Cuthite superstitions traditionally preserved 
were the origin of Irish legendary hagiology. After this, 
the reader will be prepared to learn that Jacob Bryant's 
Ancient Mythology and Yaber's Pagan Idolatry are among 
Mr. Keane s prominent authorities. But be our author's 
views sound or fanciful, he certainly has spared neither 
time, labour, nor expense in the endeavour to bring them 
before the world. lie has travelled thousands of miles 
for the purpose of visiting the objects of his theory, and 
has put forth the theory itself in a volume which is 
very handsomely printed, and profusely and beautifully 

A Century of Birmingham Life ; or, a Chronicle of Local 
Events from 1741 to 1841. Compiled and edited by 

John Alfred Langford. Vol. I. (Simpkin & Mar- 

Mr. Langford is a bold man, and acting upon very 
sensible advice, has produced a book which is quite ori- 
ginal, from the utter absence of all originality. In- 
stead of doing, as a great many compilers of such a work 
would have done — rewriting in our modern and refined 
language the curious old notices given us in the advertise- 
ments and paragraphs from Arises Gazette, which form the 
staple of the book, Mr. Langton has been contented to tran- 
scribe them literally, and just string them together with the 
necessary comment ; so that in the first volume, which 
contains five chapters, each of which occupies a decade, 
we have " the very age and body, the form and pres- 
sure," of Birmingham Life from 1741 to 1790, brought 
before us in a most remarkable and instructive manner. 
The book deserves to be well known far beyond the im- 
portant seat of manufacturing enterprise to which it re- 
lates, the rise of which enterprise, among other things, it 
curiously illustrates. 

Ancient Parliamentary Elections : a History showing how 
Parliaments were constituted, and Bejyresentatives of the 
People elected, in Ancient Times. By llomershaw Cox, 
M.A., Barrister-at-Law. (Longmans.) 

As Mr. Cox well observes, this book could never have 
been written had not the late Record Commission issued 
to the public the various learned and valuable works 
which contain the important documents on which our con- 
stitutional history must be founded— had not these been 
supplemented by the writings of Thorpe and Kemble, and 
the series of chronicles now publishing under the superin- 
tendence of the Master of the Rolls — and, what is perhaps 
even more important, but for the ready access now given 
to our Public Records. Having availed himself of all 
these sources of information, Mr. Cox sums up the result 
of his inquiries in the present interesting little volume, 
and gives as the general conclusion to be drawn from 
them that, according to the primitive law of Parliament, 
all the free inhabitants of the county were entitled to 
vote for the Knights of the Shire, and that in every 
city all the free resident householders had a right to parti- 
cipate in the choice of representatives. 

Books Rkckived. 

Shakespeare Illustrated by Old Authors. By William 

Lower Rushton. (Longman.) 

We noticed some time since the first portion of these 
ingenious illustrations, which were originallv communi- 
cated to the Berlin Society for the Study of Modern Lan- 
guages, and printed in their Archiv. The concluding 
portion is equally interesting. 

Tlte Dialect of Banf shire, with a Glossary of Words not in 
44 Jamieson*s Scottish Dictiotutry" By the Rev. Walter 
Gregor. (Archer & Co.) 

The Philological Society has done good service by the 
publication of this curious Glossary, which occupies 
some 220 pages. When mav we hope to see, under the 
auspices of the Society, all these Local Glossaries incor- 
porated in one great collection ? 

Mr. Tennyson is about to issue a " Standard" edition 
of his work in four library volumes. This edition will 
be carefully corrected by the poet, and will contain some 
notable additions to his published writings. 

Messrs. Clakk, of Edinburgh, have in progress a 
translation of the celebrated History of Councils, by Hefele. 
translated bv the Rev. William \i.' Clark, M.A. (Mag- 


lalen Hall, Oxford), Vicar of Taunton. 



[4*8.1. Jan. 25/68. 



Particulars of Price, ftc, of the following Books, to be sent direct 
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Reasons for rejecting thk Evidence of Mr. Almon. 1807. 
Narrative of the Life of a Gentleman lono resident in India. 

The Irenarch; or, Jctstice of the Peace's Manual. 1774. 

Pearson's Political Dictionary. 8vo, 1792. 

Memoirs of J. T. Serres, Marine Painter to His Majesty. 8vo, 

The Royal Register. 9 Vols. 12mo, 1780. 

A Collection of esteemed Political Tracts, 1764, 17'*% and 1706. 

3 or 4 Vols. Almon, 176^. 

Vox Senatus. 1771. 
Wilkes' Speeches. 3 Vols. 

The Expostulation; a Poem. Bingley, 1768. 

Junius discovered by P. T. 17H9. »♦,*«.» , 

Spirit of the Public Journals for 1805. Vol. IX. London, 1806. 
A Letter to the Duke op Gkapto.v, on the present position of 
Affairs. Almon, 1768. 

The Vices ; a Poem, by the Author of Junius. London, 18?8. 
Collection of all the Remarkable and Personal Passages in The 

Briton, North Briton, and Auditor. 1766. 
General Cockbcrn's Dissertation on Hannibal's Pas^aoe over 

the Alps. (Privately printed.) Dublin. 181.0. 

The Hibernian Magazine for 177U 1772, 1773 

The London Musklm of Politics, Miscellanies, a>d Litebvtikf. 

4 Vols. 8vo. 1769,1770. 

A Collection of Letters on Government, Liberty, and the Con- 
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A Collection of most interesting Political Li.rrhiis, published 
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Universal Catalogue op B>oks ov Art. All Addition* and Cor- 
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London, W. 

Among other intt resting Papers, in our ncj-t will lj» found — 

Proposa' for a Combat by the Emperor Paul. 

French King's Badge and Motto. 

Fiat Justitia, ruat C«*eluin. 

Feuds of Scoitish Nobles. 

Meaning of Latten. 

Etymolouy of Greyhound. 

Vioilans has caVel our attention to a slip in our notice of Dean 
Stanley s Memorials of Westminster Abbey (ante. p. 2\), where, instead 
of Deanery of Canterbury, we should have saui Canonry. Dr. Stanley 
was Canon not Dean of Canterbury. 

R. B. The song of " Home, sweet Home" is in the opera of Clari, 
written by Howard Panne. The music is bu Henry Bishop. It has no- 
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Shorn Relics. Miss Cave has stated on the. title-page of her Poems, 
edit. 1786 and 1789, that the volume contains •• a few Select' Poems from 
other Authors." 

ul}' ^he supposed origin of the slang word Wdcher is given in 
"N. & Q. M 3rd S. ix. 433. 

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4*8. 1. Feb. 1, '6S.] 





" Bernard Abbatia" — Jolly— Scotch Land M«a- 
Mrs. Siddoni — St. James's Square, OT. 


NOTES :— The Proposal of c4 Un Combat en Champ clos," by 
the Emperor Paul of Russia in 1801, WJ — " Fiat Justitia, 
ruat Coalum," 94 — The " Quarterly Review," on Longevity 
and Centenarianism, 95 —Feuds of 8coti»h Nobles. IMC, 
93 — Nichols's "Biographical Anecdotes of William 
Hogarth," 97 — The Literary Pension of the Civil List — 
Literary Institutions — David Garrick — Newspaper Tele- 
grams - 

QUERIES :— The Abyssinian King: Theodore Imp.— Beck- 
ford : Hastings — Borrow's * Zincali " — Brocket! — Burn- 
ley Weddiug Custom — General Dalrymple's Library — 
Fluke — A Gilded Child — Massachusetts Governors : 
Colonel Percy Kirke — Montgomery's Prayer — Noble 
Woodman : The Accident to Mr. Gladstone — Pas ton — 
Paulet or Powlet — Raw Flesh — Rogers — Arms of the 
Town of Rorasey — Sir Robert Rookc — "The Universal 
Catalogue for the Year 1772." 99. 

QrERlKS with Answers :— The Coronation Stone — Mount 

Oso — Mouse-niece of Beef —PI iuy's "Natural History " 
— Milton's Mulberry -tree, 101. 

REPLIE8: — French King's Badge and Motto, 102 — Sisy- 
phus and his Stone. 103 — La t ten, 76. — M E vocal io Numi- 
num" of Besieged Cities, 104 - 8t. Peter's Chair. 10ft — 
Greyhound, lb. — Eobauus, 107 — James Telfer, 108 —The 
Highway min Ncvison, 109 — J an nock — Position of Font 
in a Church — Pershore : its Etymology — Soldruj) — 
Shakspeare: Shylock — Degrees of Consanguinity — l>ate 
of Cardinal Pole's Death— Ged's Stereotypes— Botsford 
in America — Mr. for Lord — England— Do la Mawe Fa- 
mily — Hour-glasses in Pulpits — Religious Sects — Ealing 
School — Family of Napoleon, Ac. 110. 

Notes on Books Ac. 


IN 1801. 

Amongst those lively, sarcastic, but charming, 
and alas ! often too truthful letters of Alexander 
von Humboldt to Varnhagen von, which 
the highly-gifted niece of the latter, Mademoiselle 
Ludmilla Assing,* has edited and published just 
eight years ago, there is one written by the 
famous lady-diplomatist, La Princesse de Lieven, 
to Humboldt, and sent by him to Varnhagen as an 
interesting addition to this " statesman-write rV t 
immense collection of contemporary and other 
autographs. Madame de Lieven, who will be re- 
membered in England as the qnrituelle (not 

Mile. Ludmilla Assing is the daughter of Varn- 
hagen's sister, who, under the pseudonym of 44 Rosa Maria," 
was a favourite German poetess some twenty or thirty 
years ago. Her daughter is very favourably known as 
an authoress, especially on biographical and political 
subjects, both in German and in Italian. After the pub- 
lication of some volumes of her uncle's famous 44 Diaries,*' 
which Mile. Assing has edited and annotated, she was 
obliged to leave Prussia, being under the ban of imprison- 
ment, and lived for some years in Italy. Here she pub- 
lished, among other German and Italian writings, her life 
of Piero Cironi in Italian. I do not know whether this 
interesting lady has a niche in the new edition of Men of 
the Time; but there is a short biographical memoir of 
her in the Autographic Mirror, vol. iii. 1865. 

t As the Edinburgh Review calls him.— J?. It. 1863. 


menca) wife of the Kussian 

years ago, was the intimate friend of M. Guizot, 
to whom, according to some* reports, and for the 
benefit of contributors to " N. & Q." a.d. 1888, 
she was united u for better for worse," on which 
account Humboldt called her " Madame de 
Quitzow." Guizot, pronounced according to the 
German, sounds like Quitzow — the w is not pro- 
nounced in this word in German — an old family 
name well known in the northern parts of Ger- 
many, from which country Humboldt had been 
told the Guizots had emigrated to France. The 
old Prussian minister of state, General Thile, had 
told Humboldt this ; but I think it more likely 
that the old Prince Wittgenstein, who had a most 
infamous, slanderous tongue (and who himself 
enjoyed the sobriquet of "the old fox" at the 
witty court of Sanssouci), had brought this name 
into use ; as La Princesse de Lieven was at that 
time looked up to as having much to do with 
Russian politics. Howsoever this may be, here 
is the letter, and its catch-word the "combat en 
champ clos," of which I wish to speak here. 

14 Vous ne m'avez pas oublie', mon cher baron (writes 
M mr de Lieven from Paris, January 8, 185G). Je le ais 
bien par deux messages bienveillants que le baron lirock- 
hausen nVa ported de votrc part. Je Fai bien charge' de 
vous en te'moigner ma vive reconnaissance, mais je trouve 
mieux encore de vous le dire moi-m£me. AujounFhui je 
la fais servir de passeport a une question que je me per- 
meta de vous a dresser. 

"Vous qui saves tout, pouvez-vous souvenir du fait 
suivant ? L'anne'e 1799 ou 1800 Fempereur Paul ima- 
gina de proposer un combat en champ clos, oil l'Angle- 
terre, la Russie, FAutriche, je ne sais pas quelle puissance 
encore, videraient leursdifferends par la personnede leurs 
premiers ministres, Pitt, Thugut, etc. La redaction de 
cette invitation fut confiee a Kotzebue, et Farticle inso're' 
dans la gazette dc Hambourg. Voila le souvenir qui me 
reste. Je n'ai pas riv6 cela. Pouvez-vous completer 
cette tradition ? je ne rencontre personne qui puisse 
s'en rappeler. J ai penstf que vous pourriez venir en aide 
4 ma mctnoire, ct j'y tuns, parce qu'on croit que je 

44 V raiment Taul P r nVtait pas si fou. Ne trouvez- 
vous pas notre temps plus fou que cclui-la ? quel chaos! 
et pourquoi ? 

u Mon cher baron, je vis ici dans un petit cercle intime 
de vieux amis qui sont aussi les votres et qui vous con- 
servent un bien l>on souvenir. Quel plaisir nous aurions 
a vous y voir, et ouhlicr ensemble les trist esses du jour! 
Ah! que les hommes et les chose* valaient mieux jadis! 
Est-ce un propos de vieille femme que je vous tiens r 

u Adieu, mon cher baron. Je vous demande souvenir 
et a mi tie', et je vous promcts bien la re'eiprocite'. Toute h 

44 La Pim5Cessk de Lieven." 

(Bricfe von Alcxmuhr von Humboldt an Varn- 
luujlum von JEnse, 1827-1828, 5th edition, 1800, 
pp. 307-8.) Humboldt, "qui savez tout," could, 
nowever, not remember the circumstances, and in 
a letter of inquiry to Varnhagen he says : 



[4«" S. I. Feb. 1 , '68. 

" Madame de Quitzow, who has not written to me for 
the last twenty-five years, wishes to know of me, whether 
the Emperor Paul, during the epoch of his political mad- 
ness, had caused Kotzebue to make the proposal, that the 
foreign ministers should meet in personal combat in lieu 
of the armies. I was at that time (1799-1800) in South 
America, and did not know at all the anecdote which the 
Russian princess (now, as it seems to me, very much 
biassed towards the Occident*) wishes to ascertain."— See 
Brief e, p. 301. 

There is no further trace in the Brief e whet! 
arnhagen could tell Humboldt all about this 
fair; but Madame de Lieven's letter was much 

_ _ _ _ » a 


talked about at court. 

Humboldt showed it to 

the present Queen-Dowager of Prussia, the con- 
sort of Frederick William IV. (see Briefe, p. 310); 
and I think it most likely that Varnhagen — himself 
a diplomatist who had seen a great deal of court 
affairs (see Carlyle's Essays, vol. iv., article u Varn- 

~~ "*) — remembered all the circum- 
stances. They are these : — Kotzebue, a mean 
servile creature, who lias had a most pernicious 
influence over German thinking and German 

hagen von Ense 

Kotzebue, who would do u very- 
undertaken the 

ethical feelings,— 
thing for Russian money, had 
" redaction " of this fanciful enterprise. The whole 
was " une idtSe fixe "of Paul, who spoke about 
it first to one of his generals, Count Pahlen, and 
the latter drew Kotzebue into the secret, intimat- 
ing at the time that the emperor wished most 
particularly that the Austrian ambassador, M. de 
Thugut, should be mentioned "de la maniere la 
plus ridicule." Towards the end of December, 
1800, the emperor himself conversed freely with 
Kotzebue about this u combat," and mentioned 
the very words and sentences in which the article 
should be drawn up. Kotzebue wrote it down, 
the emperor made a slight alteration ; it was dated 
December 30, 1800, and first of all appeared, 

to Paul's wish, in the Hamburger 

I do not know 


Zeitung, January 15, 1801, No. 93. 

whether — which will most likely be the case 



paragraph was printed in German ; but the ori- 
ginal French words, in which the emperor and 
Kotzebue concocted the plan, are these : 

" On apprend de St.-Petersbourg, que l'Empereur de 
Russie, voyantque les puissances de l'Kuropenepouvaient 
s'accorder entre elles, et voulant met t re fin a une guerre 
qui la de'solait depuis onze ans, voulait proposer un lieu 
oil il inviterait tous les autres souverains de se rendre et 
v combattre en champ clos, ayant aveceux pour £cuyer, 
juge de champ et he'ros d'armes lours ministres les plus, 
e'claire's et les ge'ne'raux les plus habiles, tels que MM. 
Thugut, Pitt, Bernstorff, lui-meme se proposant de prendre 

this document ; and Humboldt must have heard 
something about this, for in a letter to Varnhagen 
he says : 

" According to uncertain inquiries which I have made 
here (Berlin), the proposal is said to have been to the 
effect that not the ministers, hut the monarch* themselves, 
should have met for this duel." — See Briefe, p. 304. 

Was the emperor then u si fou " after all P 
Somewhere I have met with an epigram which 
appeared a short time after Paul's death, and with 
which I will conclude my own '' redaction," as I 
fancy it is not generally known : — 

44 On le connut trop j>eu, lui nc connut personne; 
Act if, toujours press*?, bouillant, impcrieux, 
Aimable seduhant, memo sans la couronne ; 
Voulant gouvorncr soul, tout savoir, tout faire micux, 
II fit beaucoup d'ingrats— et mourut malheureux ! " 

Hermann Kindt. 


In that most delightful work, The Book-hunter, 
the learned author, Dr. Burton, in p. 149, has the 
following note regardinc: the famous Lord Mans- 
field : 

44 It was on this occasion [the slave-trial of 1772], and 
in answer to the plea of the vast property, amounting to 
millions, at issue on the question, that Mansfield uttered 
that memorable maxim which nobody can trace back to 
any other authority — 4 Fiat justitia, ruat caduin.' " 

The expression was current long before Lord 
Mansfield was born. Among my books there is 
one — 

44 Fovre Treatises, tending to disswade all Christians 
from foureno lesse hainous then common Sinnes; namely, 
the Abuses of Swearing, Drunken nesse, Whoredoine, and 

Briberie By IohnDowname, Batchelerin Diuinitie, and 

Preacher of God's Word. ... At London : Imprinted by 
Felix Kyngston, for William Wilby, and are to be sold at 
his shop in Pauls Church-vard at the signe of the Grey- 
hound. 1(509." 

At p. G7 of this work is the sentence : 

44 For better it is that a priuate man should perish, 
then that t^e publike administration of law and justice 
should be staved and hundred." 

On the margin opposite is printed in italics, 

u Fiat justitia et ruat cerium.'' 

But the phrase is met with even earlier, and on 
a much more remarkable occasion. Some months 
ago I had the pleasure of spending a day amid the 


a plea- 

sure very much enhanced by the ready attention 
and courtesv of those in charge, on which indeed 
1, an outsider, had no claims. Among other 

avec lui les ge'ne'raux de Pahlen et Kutuscoff; on ne sait ' 7 77 ' a C11UI "°- ^ 

si Ton doit y ajouter foi, toutefois la chose ne parait des- works that Came under m >* notlce was 

titue'e de fondement, en portant l'empreinte de ce dont il 

a souvent ete taxe. 

The sovereigns then, not the ministers of state, 
should have met "en champ clos ,, according to 

44 The Historie of the Church since the Dayes of our 
Saviour Jesus Christ, until this present Age .... by the 
famous and worthy Treacher of God's Word, Master 
Patrick Symson, lale Minister at Striveling in Scotland. 
Third Edition. London: Printed by John Dawson for 
John Bellamie, . . . 1634." 

* " Sehr occidentalisch gesinnt," stand in the original 
German. Humboldt's letter is dated January 13, 185G. 

There are various additions in manuscript at 
the end of several of the sixteen centuries into 

4*S.I. Fkb. 1/68.] 



which the book is divided. 


)f century sixteen, b. 11. consists 01 an extract 
from — 

" A little Book, entituled, « The Royal Charter granted 
unto Kings, l»v God himself; and collected out of His 
Holv Word, in both Testament*. By T. B., Dr. in Di- 
vinitie. London : Printed 1649. Chap. 15. That Episco- 
pacy is Jure Divino, p. 127-132." 

It relates " A very strange, and no less melan- 
choly story concerning a nobleman of Italy and 
Mr. John Calvin." The story is given very mi- 
nutely and picturesquely, but I cannot give it in 

The sum is:- ~~ 


The nobleman adopted the 
sold off his Italian posses- 

reformed doctrines, 
sions, came to Geneva, and began to build him- 
self a house. Shortly after he found fault with 
one of the masons, and gave him " a gentle tan " 
on the head. The mason " Hies upon him like 
a dragon, and shakes him by the beard." The 
nobleman stabs him mortally, and thinks no more 
of the matter; but is, much to his astonishment, 
called before the judges, and compelled to plead 
his cause. His rank and arguments have such an 
effect that all the judges are swayed to acauit, 
especially when, as his last reason for getting free, 
he points out that if he be put to death, no 
nobleman afterwards would dare to join them. 
Calvin, who is on the bench to settle any cases of 
conscience that may arise, remains firm to his first 
opinion, that murder is murder whether com- 
mitted by peer or peasant ; and, standing up, he 
cries aloud, in the hearing of the whole assembly, 
"Fiat justitia, ruat cesium." The court give a 
verdict of Not guilty, whereupon the ministers 
solemnly lay down their white wands, and with 
them their offices as preachers ; protesting they 
would not proclaim the Gospel to a people whose 
11 humane lawes should run contrary to the lawes 
divine." The nobleman was condemned, and the 
ministers returned to their work. I know not if 
this was the first time the maxim was uttered, 

The words 
-" Let 

but it is exceedingly probable it was. 

are remarkably suitable to the occasion 

justice be done, though heaven fall." J. S. G. 




The last number of the Quarterly Review con- 
tains an article on Longevity and Centenarianism, 
in which I am treated personally with so much 
courtesy that it may be ungracious on my part to 
make any reply to it. 

But nevertheless, I cannot refrain from pro- 
testing against the whole scope and tenor of the 
article, which does great injustice to those who 
have of late years ventured to doubt whether the 
numerous cases of alleged longevity which from 

time to time appear in the public papers have 
any foundation in reality. 

fo>r many years did the late Mr. Dilke apply 
his extraordinary talent for investigating evidence 
and ascertaining the truth to the examination of 
cases of longevity which were considered authen- 
ticated, and the result was in almost every case — 
I believe, I might say in every case which he 

investigated — an exposure of its utter want of 
foundation . 

The wholesome scepticism on such matters 
which Mr. Dilke first promulgated was afterwards 
shared bv Sir George Lewis, who bestowed much 
time and attention upon the subject. But it is 
great injustice to the memory of these gentlemen 
to represent them as not believing it possible that 
life should, in any case, reach one hundred years. 

What was contended for by them, and justly 
and properly insisted upon, is this : that cases of 
persons attaining the age of one hundred years 
and upwards are so exceptional, so at variance 
with all that has been ascertained of the average 
duration of human life, that such cases can only 
be admitted a* established upon clear and un- 
questionable evidence. 

tlemen been 
receive with 

Nor have the labours of these gen 
altogether in vain. People generally 
more hesitation than they were wont all statements 
of extraordinary longevity ; and the reports of the 
Registrar-General will, I suspect, prove a gradual 
decrease in the number of supposed centenarians. 

One may well be startled, therefore, at seeing a 
contributor to the Quarterly Revietc in the year 
1808 gravely avowing his belief that writers on 
the subject of the Old Countess of Desmond 
14 have settled the question that she lived one 
hundred and forty years!" — that, "in the evi- 
dence for Parr's one hundred and fifty-two years, 
there may possibly be a Haw or two, but we are 
disposed to accept as fact his exceptional lon- 
gevity ! " Of Jenkins's one hundred and sixty-nine 
years the Keviewer avoids saying anything": yet, 
what are seventeen additional years, when one 
believes a man to have attained one hundred and 
fifty-two ? — but he gives in the names of seven 
or eight old women of reputed ages varying from 
one hundred and two to one hundred and ten, 
which he considers established cases ; and then 
argues that, if we take the lists of Eaton, Bailey, 
Taylor, etc. (lists, be it remembered, simply 
copied from old magazines and old newspapers), 
11 and accept an eighth part of them, it will 
result that centenarianism is neither impossible 
nor improbable." 

Accept an eighth of the cases recorded by 
Eaton and the other writers ! I will undertake to 
say that if the Reviewer had ever devoted himself 
to the troublesome and laborious task of in- 
vestigating such cases, he would not accept one 
case in a hundred. None but those who have 



[4* S. I. Feb. 1, '68. 

tried it can have an idea of the time and labour 
which such investigations cost; and with the 
best disposition on the part of correspondents to 
assist you, how difficult it is to arrive at the 

The case of Mary Billing is a case in point. It 

was brought forward in The Times by the intel- 
ligent medical gentleman who attended her, and 
it had been investigated by the Board of Health 
for Liverpool, and all were duly satisfied that she 
was really one hundred and twelve years old. But 
the improbability to my mind was so great, that 
despite of the authority of her doctor and the 
Liverpool Board of Health, I got a friend living 
at Liverpool to go into the case thoroughly, and 
the result was that Mary Billing proved to be only 
ninety-one, and not one hundred and twelve.* 
Two or three years ago I prepared some 

papers upon this subject, which would, I think, 
have satisfied the Keviewer that Si 

Sir George 
Lewis had good reasons for his doubts. 

L T n for- 

tunately I cannot at this minute put my hands 
upon them, nor, what is of far more importance, 
upon the documents on which they were based. 
As soon as 1 recover them, I hope to convince 
all who take an interest in the important question 
of the duration of human life, that though, as 
the Reviewer savs truly, centenarianism is not 
"impossible," it is so exceptional as to be almost 

At the risk of being considered presumptuous 
for daring to enter the lists against so doughty a 
champion as the Quarterly Reviewer, I must needs 
take up his challenge; and believing as I do 
that I have Truth on my side, I will venture to 
the encounter, hopeful of victory. 

William J. Thoms. 


Shakspere wrote Borneo and Juliet, it is said, in 
1595, otherwise it might be imagined that the 
opening scene, where the servants of the rival 
houses of the Montagues and Capulets fight in 
the streets of Verona, had been suggested by a 
similar occurrence in July, 1G06, where the Cun- 
ninghames and Setons had by means of their " ras- 
call seruandis " commenced a disturbance in the 
streets of Perth, which with difficulty was put 
down by the exertions of the Privy' Council and 
the citizens of the burgh. 

The Parliament of Scotland did not uniformly 
assemble in Edinburgh. Upon the occasion 
alluded to it sat in Perth upon July 1, 1606; and 
James 1. was duly informed how the Lords of the 
Articles had been chosen according to his majesty's 
pleasure, and that these persons had managed 
everything very nicely. All was se rene, when the 

* See « X. & Q.» 3rd S. vii. p. 503. 

Earl of Glencairn and Lord Seton (afterwards Earl 
of Winton), who had a feud, broke the peace in 
consequence of their servants, who participated in 
the enmities of their masters, provoking a quarrel 
in the streets of Perth. The two hostile parties 
drew their swords, and commenced fighting, their 
respective masters joining in the meUc. James 
had a particular detestation of all hostile proceed- 
ings. It was, however, necessary to tell him what 
had happened. This delicate task was undertaken 
by the karl of Dunbar, Lord Scone, and Sir Thomas 
Hamilton, Lord Advocate, and subsequently Earl 
of Metros— a title he gave up for that of Had- 
dington. The following is an extract from their 
letter : 

" That grudge borne be the freindis of the houss of Eg- 
linton to the eric of Glencairne and his freindis is notour 
to your Mn ,lr , nmangis whome thair is assurance stand- 
ing, whilk me supponed sou Id haue bene ane sufficient 
band to haue staved troubill and inuasion betuix thame 
during thair remayning heir at this tyme. Neuerthcles 
vpon tysday at nicht, immediatlie efter supper, the mais- 
ter of Wintoun and his brother sir Alexander Seton, 
being accumpanied with nyne or ten, going to the erle 
of Eglintones ludgeing, reucontered be the way the erle 
of Glencairne, accumpanied with threttie or thairby, 
who in respect of the cvill will borne betuix these fclkis 
and him absteaning from all wilfull occasion of inuasion, 
his lordship being in the beginning of his cumpanie, and 
the maistcr of Winton in the foreend of his cumpanye, past 
by vther, ane reasonabill spaice, till sum rascal I seruandis 
in the end of thair cumpanies, being more malicious and 
querrellous nor thame selfis, drew thair swourdis and 
began ane tumult, whilk having lested verie long, ended 
be the great travellis of the townesmen and of your 
Maiesties gairde, withowt any farder skaith nor the licht 
hurting of verie few and more dangerous woundis of ane 
Johne Mathie, seruand to the erle of Glencairne. Whilk 
fact, as it wes verie oflensiue to the haill nobilmcn and 
counsall, in respect of the tyme and place, so hea it in 
particular so grieved my Lord Chancelor, as having 
discharged his brothers "sones, and all that wes with 
thame, any ways to cum in his presence, so is he als bent 
as any man leiving to have the trowtli of the occasion 
and beginning of that insolence preciselie tryed and con- 
dignelie puneissed, withowt respect or favour of any per- 

Alexander Seton, the Lord Chancellor, was 
very awkwardly placed : he was uncle of Lord 
Seton, and had risen to his high position in con- 
sequence of the great love James had to the Setons 
who had so faithfully served him and his mother, 
and who had never in one instance swerved from 
their duty as loyal subjects. Thus a breach of the 
peace arising out of the acts of his own near rela- 
tive must to him have been exceedingly distressing. 
James had created him in 1591 Lord Fyvie and 
Urquhart in Aberdeenshire, with remainder to 
the heirs male of his body, whom failing", to Sir 
John Seton, of Barns, his immediate elder brother, 
and his heirs male ; and in 1G05 he was promoted 
to the earldom of Dunfermline. 

How matters were ultimately smoothed we can- 
not explain; but one thing is evident — that, as 

4* S. I. Feb. 1, '68.] 



Lord Dunfermline continued in favour with the 
king until the day of his demise, he must have 
found means to pacify the two factions. * J. M. 




I write this short note for the benefit of those (if 
any such there he) who may be labouring under the 
same error which I myself at a certain period enter- 
tained, as to the bibliography of this entertaining 
work. The first edition, which the author John 
Nichols modestly calls " a pamphlet," appeared in 
1781. This was translated into German by A. 
Crayen,and was published at Leipzig in 1783. The 
second English edition, corrected and considerably 
enlarged, is dated 1782 ; And in 1785 appeared the 
third and best edition, " enlarged and corrected," 

. 629, with the humorous epistle of Hogarth )p 
is friend King to dinner — " to Eta Beta Py " — 
written on a plate, and supported by a knife and 
fork, engraved upon a second title-page.* This book, 
now not very often met with, contains a mass of moat 
curious and valuable matter relating to Hogarth, 
his times, associates, and contemporaries, as well 
as his productions both on canvas and on copper : 
as such it is indispensable to anyone interested on 
the subject, and must stand by the side of your 
correspondent Mr. Sala's later and most interest- 
ing work. Lowndes (Holm's edit.) duly notes 
the work and its three editions ; but goes on, in 
his next paragraph, to speak of a " new edition " 
in 1833, entitled : — 

• 4 Anecdotes of William Hogarth, written by himself; 
with Essays on his Life, 4c, selected from Walpole, 
Gilpin, Ireland, Lamb, Ac. ; to which are added a Cata- 
logue of his Prints, Account of their Variations, 4c." 
J. B. Nichols & Son, London. 

Now what I want to point out is, that this 
latter cannot properly be termed a u new edition " 
of the former work, as might be inferred ; and 
that the possession of it by no means supersedes, 
as I for years imagined, till I happened to fall on 
the older work and saw its value, the necessity of 
also procuring its precursor. As a mere guide to 
the collector of Hogarth's engravings, the later 
work is probably preferable, and it is valuable as 
containing the autobiography of the artist, and 
essays on his life and genius by various commen- 
tators ; but the contemporary anecdotes and illus- 
trations — the reprints of fugitive matter relating 
to the man and his works — the biographical no- 
tices, &c. — must be looked for alone in the earlier 
work of John Nichols, and in the best edition of 
this, of 1786. 

To avoid misconception, it is perhaps necessary 
to say, that I have spoken of this book only in its 

[• The u Eta Beta Py " plate is also prefixed to the 
edition of 1782.— Ed. " N. 4 Q."J 

octavo and separate form. There is properly a 
fourth edition, u with clx genuine plates/ 9 in 
2 vols. 4to, 1810. This contains large additions 
from the pen of George Steevens, who also wrote 
the prefaces to the second and third editions, and 
to whom the author was indebted for nearly all 
the critiques on Hogarth's plates. (See Nichols's 
Literary Atiecdotes, iii. 9, and vi. 032.) These 
additions were made in a copy purchased at Stee- 
vens's sale bv George Raker, of St Paul's Church- 
yard, who allowed them to be copied for this 

fourth edition. William Bates. 


now, it ap- 

The Literary Pension of the Civil List. 

Now, when we have in the leader of the Govern- 
ment, and his brilliant lieutenant in the other 
House, not only patrons of literature, but also 
conspicuous ornaments in its ranks 
pears to me to be a propitious time to impress on 
the public notice the inadequate funds put at the 
disposal of the ministers of so great and opulent 
a country as this, to aid the necessities or reward 
the exertions of the now very numerous members 
of a fraternity so esteemed, so necessary to our 
intellectual delight and the national glory, withal 
so notoriously disqualified by the nature of their 

% 1 • 

pursuits from realizing (exempting a few solitary 
individuals of eminence) that wealth that is so 
generally within the means of the active man of 
the world. 

5000/. per annum seems to me to be the very 
minimum at which it should be allowed to stand ; 
but as my object is merely to suggest the subject, 
at what appears to me a most fitting time, and 
that through the most appropriate channel (the 
pages of " N. k Q."), I shall here leave it in the 
nands of the Editor and those of his able con- 
tributors for an influential and, I trust, successful 

As the City magnates show an intention of 
retrenching the useless expenses of some portion 
of their civic pageants, I would suggest their 
devotion of an annual fund saved therefrom to 
the same purpose, for the literary members of 
their own time-honoured corporation. 

J. A. G. 


Literary Institutions. — It might be worth 
while to u note " that the Literary and Philoso- 
phical Society of this town will attain its seventy- 
fifth year on Februarv 4 next. Its members number 
at the present time 1450. Number of volumes in 
the library about 40,000. Courses of lectures on 
various subjects are delivered during the winter. 
This society has been very prolific in its lifetime ; 
from it have sprung the " Natural History Society 
of Northumberland and Durham," " The Tyneside 



[4* S. I. Feb. 1, f 68. 


Society." . . 

A list of the various literary societies through- 
out the country, with their respective dates of 
institution, and number of books, members, &c, 
as at the close of 1807, would be worthy of inser- 
tion in the early pages of your fourth series. 

J. Manuel. 


David Gakrick. — A life of the greatest actor 
of modern times is announced to be ready in April 
next. It is suggested that the few poems, pro- 
logues, &c, written by Garrick, should be incor- 
porated into the forthcoming biogranhy. I shall 
be glad, in a week or two, to refer the author to 
several poems in the I'nivcrsal Magazine ; also to 
the account of the funeral, and a cony of Garrick's 
last will and testament. The birth-place of the 
illustrious man was Hereford, but the actual house 
in which he was born is not quite settled. Two 
are named, both being in Widemarsh Street, Here- 
ford ; one of them was occupied for many years 
by a relative of mine, the other being only a few 
yards distant. I believe the former one to be the 

On this point I will make further 


right one. 

Middle Temple. 

Newspaper Telegrams. — The following para- 
graph appears in the Daily Telegraph of Jan. 9, 

1808 : — 

" Few readers of newspapers can have any accurate 
notion of the extra energy and skill which are exercised 
in their interest on special occasions, when the tele- 
graphic wires arc made use of as a reporting agency. 
Perhaps the most notahle instance of this which can be 
mentioned was when Mr. Gladstone made his recent 
series of speeches in Lancashire. It will be remembered 
that two speeches, one delivered at Ormskirk and the 
other at South port, were forwarded to the London papers 
on the same night, and appeared on the following morn- 
ing. Taken together, they made the longest express that 
has ever been sent through the wires, either in England 
or America, since the establishment of the system of 
telegraphing. It contained 10,882 words. The South- 
port speech, filling about four and a half columns of the 
Daily Telegraph, was conveyed to Liverpool bv train, 
and reached there at 11.25 p.m. Five minutes later its 
transmission to London by the wires was begun, and 
proceeded regularly and rapidly until the whole had been 
despatched, the last word reaching the central station in 
London at 1.40 a.m. The total number of words trans- 
mitted of Mr, Gladstone's speeches was 30,745." 

PniLip S. King. 

" Bernard Abbatia." 

" Prognostication sur le mariage de Henry . . . Roy 
de Navarre et Marguerite de France ; calcutee parmaistre 
Bernard Abbatia, docteur me'decin et astrologue du Roy." 
8vo. Paris, Guil. de Niguerd. (1572.) 

The above is the title of a very rare book which 
I have copied from Brunet, who gives the wood- 
cut of the maistre, and of whom I can find no other 
notice whatever. It is not a prognostication in 

the technical meaning of the word, or almanack, 
but a " nativity " of the king. I take the oppor- 
tunity to mention that some astrologers used 
colours for the different " houses " of their scheme : 
thus, white was for birth and marriage ; black for 
death and disease. Barrett Davis. 

Jolly. — This word has become almost as uni- 
versal in its application, or rather, misapplication, 
in higher classes, as that most reprehensible one 
denounced by Lord Howden amongst the lowest. 
But I was surprised to fall upon it in Spenser 
yesterday, applied in somewhat of the modern 
fashion : — 

" The Shepherd's Calendar : " September. Hobbinoll and 

" Diggon. In deede thy bull is a bold bigge cur, 

And could make a jolly hole in their fur. 

In the same eclogue, I find Christendom used 


in the restricted sense of this island only. 

Diggon, who has left his native plains for some 
other country where the folds are kept by Popish 
shepherds, where the sheep, he says, u beene of 
ravenous wolves yrent." 

** Hobb. Fie on thee, Diggon, and all thy foule leasing ! 

Well is known that sith the Saxon king, 
Never was wolf seene, many nor some, 
Nor in all Kent nor in Christendome ; 
Rut the fewer wolves (the sooth to saine). 
The more been the foxes that here remaine." 

J. A. G. 

ScoTcn Land Measures. 

Carucate. — This measure of land was introduced 
to Scotland from England, and is the most an- 
cient division. It represents as much land as 
could be tilled by one plough in one year. (V. 

caruca, carrus, &c.) 

Borates, oxgangs. — Derived from bos, oxgate, or 
oxgang (gang, Scotch, go), the quantity of land 
that might De tilled by oxen, fixed by Act of 
Sederunt, 1585, at thirteen acres. In some places 
an oxgate did not exceed six acres, in others 
twenty acres. Eight oxgates make one carucate. 

Librata is said to have contained four oxgates. 

Nummata. — This is said to have been equiva- 
lent to the acre, and is chiefly applied to land in 
the West of Scotland. 

Denariata is similar to the librata. 

Husbandland extended to as much as an oxgate 
in some places, and exceeded it in others. Land 
let to husbands or husbandmen. 

Costera applies to lands lying along the coast, 
and also to headlands. 

Oker was an undefined quantity in a field or 
arable field, but subsequently was a definite mea- 
sure, acre, orjugera. 

Rood was chiefly descriptive of lands in town- 
lands, and is akin to the virgate. 

Vina was the sixth part of the rode or rood. 

Perticate, or parcel, or piece of land, was the 
saine as the virgata. 

4* S. I. Feb. 1, '68.] 



Daboch is chiefly in the North of Scotland, 
comprehending eight oxgang. Each plough was 
drawn by eight oxen ; Dav, Gaelic, ox ; ochd, eight : 
hence ploughgate or carucate. The davoch was 
extended by the reyiam majestat&n to four plough- 
gates. Seth Wait. 

Mrs, Siddons. — Mr. and Mrs. Kemble, parents 
of this eminent actress, resided in Bye Street, 
Hereford, where their house was burnt down, 
when a female servant lost her life in the flames. 
The house, when rebuilt, was called " The Burnt 
House/' and is still standing. It was occupied 
twenty-five years ago as an office by Mr. James 
Jay, solicitor. Mrs. Kemble (the mother of Mrs. 
Siddons) was on a visit to a friend at Brecon 
when Miss Kemble was born. The writer has 
seen, thirty years ago, on the penthouse of a 
blacksmith s shop at Kington, Herefordshire, * 
handbill (under glass) of one of her early per- 
formances in a neighbouring barn. The theatre at 
Hereford, now destroyed, was in its day cele- 
brated as the nursing place of Powell, Bettcrton, 
and other celebrated actors. It stood in Broad 
Street, on the site of a part of the ground occupied 
by the present Corn Exchange. Within five hun- 
dred yards of it was the birthplace of Nell Qwyn, 
whose grandson, Lord James Beauclerck, was 
Bishop of Hereford for forty years. The cottage 
in which she was born was part of the wall of the 
Episcopal Palace garden. Alpha. 

Middle Temple. 

St. James's Square. — Authors and printers are 
peculiarly liable to blunder, and manv amusing 
instances have been at various times collected, but 
two such blunders as are to be found in Belgravia, 
for August 18C7, are almost unparalleled. They 
occur in one of a series of articles on the u London 

by Walter Thornbury." The writer 



a list of the inhabitants of St. James's Square in 
1677, among whom were the Earl of Clarendon 
and Laurence Hyde, the two sons of Lord Chan- 
cellor Clarendon, and these two men are thus 
described : — 

" Earl of Clarendon. This was the very year that, 
tormented by his enemies, taunted with selling Dunkirk 
with effecting his master's marriage with an ugly and 
unsuitable Portuguese princess, and with building a vain- 
glorious palace out of stone intended for St. Paul's, the 
historian of the civil war tied to France." 

44 Laurence Hyde. This was the reprobate Rochester, 
who, when his lampoon on the • mutton-eating king' 
proved too severe even for careless Charles, turned quack- 
salver and astrologer on Tower Hill. He lived a repro- 
bate, but died repentant. He was not quite bad to the 

of John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester. "A page 
from a directory does not seem to promise very 
agreeable reading/' as Mr. Thornbury observes, 
but it is surely more useful than such " reading " 

as the above. Henry B. Wheatley. 

The Abyssinian King : Theodore Imp. 

The Times newspaper, under date January 4, says : 
" his descent from King Solomon has not been 
quest ioned." Shakspere has instructively traced 
tne dust of Caesar to a bung-hole; but the blood 
of Solomon in the veins of that imn Theodore ? 
To what base purposes, indeed ! Joking apart, 
however, one would be glad to know the precise 
channel of descent by which it flows; and also 
to learn if the Hebrew nation have preserved 
authentic records of any other descendants of King 
Solomon. A. II. 

Beckford: Hastings. — Mr. Beckford, of Font- 
hill Abbey, quartered the arms of the Catesbys 
of Northamptonshire, through his great-grand- 
mother, Mary Hastings (married to William 
Coward, M.P. for Wells), whose grandfather, 
William Hastings, had married Amy, daughter 
and heir of Hugh Catesby of Ilinton. From 
Baker's History of Northamptonshire it appears 
that this William Hastings was presented to the 
living of Woodford by the king, and died 1037. 
What more is known about him ? Was he of the 

noble family of that name ? 

F. II. G. 

Borrow's "Zincali." — Predari, in his Oripine 
e Vicende dei Zingari, gives some specimens of gipsy 
poetry from the Rhymes of the Gitanos in Bor- 
row'a Zincali, prefacing them with the following 
remarks : — 

44 Eccovi alcune poesie dei Zingari di Spawns, tolte da 
liorrow, il quale le porge come documenti della attitudine 
poetica dei Zingari, giacche le dh siccome loro creazioui, 
mentre non sono piu die traduzioni dal castigliano del 
celebre Don Giovanni di Carcamo Cava, gran facitore di 
rime per le belle Gitane, e che Cervantes ha si bene fatto 
uno dei prototipi della sua Preziosa." Pp. 251 and 252. 

Is this the case ? W. K. Drennan. 

Brock ett. 


brockett to the badger only, according to some 
recent notices in "N. & Q. M ? Guillim, in the fourth 




Slanation of hawking and hunting for the use and 
elight of gentlemen. He there states : — 

44 You shall understand that the second year you shall 
call them (the Harts) Brockett, as old woodmen have 
anciently termed them. 

Now every one knows that Lord Chancellor 
Clarendon had been dead upwards of two years in I Hence, no doubt, the name of Brockett Hall in 
1077, and that "Lory" Hyde was not created Earl Herts, rather than from its being the haunt of 


of Rochester until 1682, two years after the death badgers. 



[4* S. 1. Feb. 1, 'G8. 

Burnley Wedding Custom. — At Burnley, in 

Lancashire, an ancient custom prevails by which 
all persons married at St. Peter's Church are fined 
by the boys at the grammar school. The money 
thus obtained is sufficient to maintain the school 
library. Is this merely a local custom, or does it 
exist elsewhere ? P. M. II. 

Alderley Edge, Cheshire. 

General Dalrymple's Library. — Mr. W. J. 

Smith, bookseller, Brighton, published a cata- 
logue of books from this library about three years 
ago. I am anxious to obtain a copy of it. Can 
any reader of "N. & Q." refer me to one, or 
oblige me with the loan of a copy for a day ? 

F. M. S. 

Waltham Abbey. 

Fluke. — What is the origin of the vror&Jluke? 
and how does it come to be applied to three things 
so different as a small insect, a kind of potato, and 
a chance hit ? IIarfra. 

A Gilded Child. — Can any of your readers 
help the writer to the authority for the statement 
that a child gilded over, representing an angel in 
some civic fete or sacred mystery, dies in con- 
sequence ? M. D. 

Massachusetts Governors : Colonel Percy 

Kirke.— What is known of the family of the 
noted Colonel Kirke, of bloody memory? He 
married Lady Mary Howard, daughter of George 
fourth Earl of Suffolk. To what family did he 
belong, and^whendid he die? Was he related 
to Percy Kirke, who in 1735 was a brigadier- 
general, commanding his majesty's own regi- 
ment of foot ? * 

Colonel Elisetis Burgess. — Who was this 
gentleman, Commission Gorernor of Massa- 
chusetts, March 17, 1714-5? Ho sold his ap- 
pointment to Colonel Shute, in April, 171G; and 
May 9, 1719, he, or a namesake, was made Re- 
sident at Venice. What else is known of him ? 

Thomas Povey was appointed Lieutenant Go- 
vernor in 1702, came to Boston, returned in 1705, 
and was succeeded by William Tailor in 1711. 
What is known of him ? W. H. Whitmore. 

Montgomery's Prayer. — Can any of your 

readers inform me in what edition of Mont- 
gomery's works I should find the rhythmical 
prayer that commences : 

" Let us pray ^vhen morning bright 
Ushers in the dawn of light 

Ere the stir and strife begin 
Of this world of woe and sin ; 
For a blessing on the da}% 
To its Maker let us pray. ,, 


E. M. 

m [* Some account of Colonel Percy Kirke's public career 
is given in « X. & Q. » 2"d S . viii. 472.-Ed. ] 

Noble Woodman : The Accident to Mr. 

Gladstone. — Are we to understand that the ex- 
chancellor was actually swinging an axe himself 
when the mishap occurred, or was he only looking 
on ? I suppose in either case it is a chip that has 
flown into tne eye, a very common occurrence. It 
is said that the late Earl Fitzwilliam was an ex- 
cellent hand at felling — in fact, very few practised 
workmen could surpass him — and that he laid a 
wager that he and his woodman would fell any 
other nobleman and his woodman in the kingdom 
for 100 guineas. Query, have any other of our 
nobility had a predilection for this active and 
healthy exercise ? G. J. C. 

Paston. — Information as to the time of death 
of Mrs. (Miss) Margaret Paston, of Burninghani, 
(query, Burlingham ?) on whom Dryden wrote an 
epitaph, is wanted by OIL 

Paulet or Powlet. — When did a Paulet marry 
a Valletort ? When did a Paulet marry one of a 
family bearing — on a chief, a demi-lion rampant ? 
Both these marriages were before 1490. 

William Grey. 

Raw Fle8H. — A citation has been made of a 
notice that in an early media) val age some parts 
of Britain were so destitute of inhabitants that 
stones were placed by the wayside for the use of 
travellers, wno had killed deer or other irame, to 
express the blood and juices from the flesh, for its 
better preservation, and to render it more edible 
without dressing ; a method long after used by 
the Highlanders, and still later by the American 

The reference for the above-mentioned cita- 
tion is believed to have been from the Romance 
of Pierce Forest, but as it is impossible to seek so 
isolated a fact in that ponderous volume devoid of 
an index, it would be valuable to British statistics 
if any reader could identify the true reference, 
especially if accompanied by any confirmatory 



Rogers. — Information as to the year of the 
death of young Master Rogers, of Dowdeswell, on 
whom Dryden wrote an epitaph, is wanted by 


Arms of the Town oe Romset. — Can you 
explain why Romsey, Hampshire, bears for its 
arms the portcullis ? This device appears on the 
corporation maces, seals, &c. Was it that the 
abbey became the property of Henry VHL, who 
solcl the magnificent Norman abbey church here, 
now under restoration, to the inhabitants, and his 
device remained to the town ? S. H. W. 


Sir Robert Rooke. — A curious specimen of 
printing from the Clarendon Press, Oxford, dated 
August 3, 1751, has come into ray possession. It 

4* 8. I. Feb. 1, '68.] 



consists of a single sheet about seven inches by 
five. It has a broad ornamental margin in- 
cluding this inscription 

" The noble art of printing was first invented by John 
Guttemberg, of Mentz, a city of Germany, in the year 
1440, and brought into England by John Ialip, of London, 

In the centre is the following sentence : 

" Sir Robert Rooke, knighted on Durdham Down, near 
the Hot Well, Bristol, for a great action there performed." 

Under which there is a note in these words : 

u See Chart's History of England: 9 

I presume that Chart is a misprint for Carte. 
I have examined Carte's History for the period in 
question, bat can find no reference to any action 
in which a Sir Robert Rooke took any part at 
Durdhara Down. Can any of your readers 
me with any information respecting eith 
Sir Robert Rooke or of the action to which 

A i 



nE Year 

1772, 8vo. London : Printed for the proprietors, 
and sold by J. Bell, near Exeter-chanpe in the 
Strand." Who was the compiler of this work, 
and how many volumes did it extend to ? In a 
copy that I have there are some leaves entitled 
"The General Catalogue/' and "The Foreign 
List" but these do not appear to be consecutive. 

T. G. S. 


tfiuer it* tottb Shufocrs. 



short time ago some Continental savant were 
allowed to chip off a portion of the Coronation 
Stone in Westminster Abbey, with the view of 
determining its geological character. The result 
was such as entirely to upset our national tradi- 
tion that it once formed the pillow of Jacob at 

Bethel, inasmuch as its geological formation does 
not exist in Palestine ; but I shall be glad to know, 



M. D. 

[ From a u Geological Account of the Coronation Stone " 
by Professor Ramsay, printed by Dean Stanley, in Me- 
morials of Westminster Abbey, pp. 499, 500, it appears 
that the stone is a dull reddish or purplish sandstone, 
strongly resembling that of the doorway of DunstafFnage 
Castle, which was probably built of the stone of the 
neighbourhood. It is extremely improbable that it was 
derived from the rocks of the Hill of Tara, from whence 
it is said to have been transported to Scotland ; neither 
could it have been taken from the rocks of Iona. That 
it belonged originally to the rocks round Bethel is 
equally unlikely ; while Egypt is not known to furnish 
any strata similar to the red sandstone of the Coronation 

Mount Oso, — Can any of your readers, who 
may possess a good map of North America, tell 
me the whereabouts of Mount Oso in California, 
and its approximate distance from St. Francisco ? 


[According to the Official State Map of California, 
Mount Oso is about fifty geographical miles to the south- 
east of St Francisco, in the county of Tuolumne.] 

Mouse-piece of Beef. — What is the origin of 
the term "mouse-piece" of beef, applied by 
butchers to a joint cut from the hind quarter, in 
very close vicinity to the rump ? It is much used 
by confectioners for potting. The name has long 

puzzled me. East Anglian. 

[Both Todd and Jamieson derive the term from muys, 
Teut., " carnosa pars in corpore." According to Nares, 
it is the piece below the round, as appears by that learned 
work, The Domestic Cookery. The credulous Aubrey 
informs us : " There is a certain piece in the beef, called 
the mouse-piece, which given to the child, or party so 
affected, to eat, doth certainly cure the thrush." — Miscel- 
lanies, p. 144. J 

Pliny's u Natural History." — I have a fine 
copy of Pliny, Venetiis, MCCCCLXXXin. Is this the 
earliest printed edition of the Natural History f 


[The first edition of Pliny's Natural History was printed 
at Venioe in 1469, folio, and is amongst the rarest and 
most valuable of the productions of the fifteenth century. 
Only a hundred copies appear to have been printed. It 
was unknown to Hardouin, the editor of Pliny ; and 
Ernesti, speaking of it, says, " vitiose expressa multa, sed 
tamen multa meliora sunt quam in aliis editionibus, nnde 
ad textum Plinii constituendum necessarium est.*' The 
distinguished copy in the Grenville library sold at the 
auction of Camus de Limare in 1786 for 3000 francs, and 
is mentioned by Brunet, Dibdin, Peignot, and De Bure.J 

Milton's Mulberry-tree. — Can any of your 

readers give me any information relating to the 
mulberrv-tree in the gardens of Christ's College, 
Cambridge ? Was it planted by Milton himself, 
or is the story merely a tradition, and is there any 
further history attached to the tree ? W. D. 

[The following account of this notable tree is given by 
the late Mr. C. H. Cooper in his Memorials of Cambridge, 
ed. 1860, ii. 53 : " The principal object of attraction in 
the garden of Christ's College is a mulberry-tree, which, 
according to tradition, was planted by John Milton dur- 
ing his residence at this college. The fact that it was 
planted by the great poet has been religiously handed 
down from his own time, in one unvarying tradition 
amongst the fellows of the college. This memorable and 
ancient tree, which stands on a small grass-plot at the 
extremity of the garden, has been preserved with the 
greatest care, the stem, portions of which are encrusted 
with a covering of sheet lead, is banked up with a mound 



[4* S. I. Feb. 1, '68. 

of earth covered with grass, and the branches are sup- 
ported by strong props. It has weathered many a tem- 
pest. Every spring it puts forth its leaves in all the 
vigour of youth, and in autumn nothing of the kind can 
be more delicious than its fruit. It is a living proof of 
that paradox of the botanists, that plants never die of 
old age." In the same volume (p. 1) is an engraving of 
this tree. A paper on Milton's mulberry-tree, by the 
Rev. Charles Lesinghain Smith, M.A. is in the Cambridge 
Portfolio, p. 207. There is also a tradition at Stowmarket 
that Milton in one of his visits to his old tutor, Thomas 
Young, planted a mulberry- tree near the vicarage-house. 
Masson's Life of Milton, i. 173. 

Since writing the foregoing we have received the fol- 
lowing communication from a lady at Cambridge : — "I 
have just paid a visit to the far-famed mulberry-tree in 
the Fellows' garden of Christ's College planted by Milton 
about the year 1633, at which period he entered Christ's 
College as undergraduate. The tree is now in a very 
flourishing condition, producing an abundance of fruit. 

The gardener told me the leaves were nearly as large as 
his hand. In the year 1849, twenty loads of earth were 
placed around it to protect its trunk and roots ; since 
then earth has been added on two different occasions, 
forming a mound six feet high, covering the whole of its 
trunk. One branch which was imbedded in the earth in 
1849 has struck root, and is likely to become a new and 
flourishing tree in the midst of the old branches. The 
old and decayed parts are carefully protected by zinc. 
In the winter of I860, when the frost was unusually 
severe, it suffered much — almost past recovery ; but, by 
great care and attention, it has been restored to a very 
healthy and productive state. Last year it made wood 
in abundance ; the shoots were from six to seven inches 
in length, a piece of which I enclose. The tree is famed 
and revered throughout the world; strangers from all 
parts visit it, and make note of it, especially the Ame- 
ricans ; one in particular took off his hat, and did 

reverence to it. Many of its branches are supported bv 




(3 rJ S. xii. 502 ; 4 th S. i. G2.) 

I do not know Fleming's "famous work on 
Prophecy," and have not heard with what object 
he introduces his statement quoted on p. 502. 
1 he i following passages will show that he stated 
his facts truly as to the French Irnpresa. 

Be b Colombia*, in his Science Heroique, 
p. 611, ed. 1669, says : ' 

" On peut ajouter k toutes res Devises, celles dont se 
servent presentment a la Cour les Personnes Roiales. 
Le Koy— Le Soleil, Necpluribus impar." 

t This was Louis Quatorze. Both editions were 
in his reign : the first in 1644. In 

" Me'dailles but les Principaux fcvenements da R&gn e 
de Louis le Grand, avec des Explications historiques* 
par l'Acade'mie Roy ale des Me'dailles et des Inscriptions* 
a Paris, de l'lmprimerie Roy ale, m.dccii," 

the second is 

"Autre me'daille sur la Naissance du Roy." 

Then follows the "Explication," of which a 
part is this : 

" Suivant l'idee de la Devise du Rov, dont le Soleil est 

le Corps, on a represents au milieu la naissance de ce 

Prince par la figure du Soleil qui se lfeve. Le Roy est 

sur un char e'le vc, au dessus des nues, tin? par quatre 

chevaux Les mots Ortus Solis Gallic i 

signilient le lever du Soleil de la France." 

But — 74 is the " Devise du Roy " itself, very 
beautifully engraved, with the explication, part of 
which I give : 

41 L'ancien usage de faire des Devises, qui caracteVisent 
les Princes et les Hois par quelque qualite ou par quelque 
action, dure encore aujourd'huy." 

Then follows a mention of that of the king's 
father, the late king, Louis Treize, which was la 
Massue d'Herculej and finally, a description of 
the king's devise : 

" Le Soleil qui sert de corps h cettc Devise, et les mots 
Nec Pluribus Impar signifient qu*ainsi que les rayons 
de cet astre eclairent h la fois la Terre et plusieurs Globes 
celestes, de mesme le genie du Roy suffiroit a gouverner 
ensemble et la France et plusieurs Koy aumes. L'exergue 
marque l*ann& 16G3, oil cette devise a est<£ faite." 

A more recent introduction of heraldry into 
the service of Mr. Fleming's species of literature 
is to be seen in a pamphlet published in 1853, 
entitled The coming Struggle of the Nations of the 
Earthy or the Political Events of the next Fifteen 
Years, &c. I observe that the copy from which I 
transcribe is marked as one of the "Hundred and 
eighteenth thousand." At pp. 24-25 of this de- 
lightful work occur these openings of prophecy 
to the reader: — 

44 We would particularly point the reader's attention to 
the 4 merchants of Tarshish, with all the young lions 
thereof ; what a beautiful description is this of the 
Honourable East India Company and the peculiar con- 
stitution of the Anglo-Indian Government! This consti- 
tution, as is well known, is both civil and military, com- 
mercial and imperial. The former is represented" bv the 
merchants, the latter by the young lions, or the officials 
of the Company, who receive their authority from the 
Lion of Britain. . . . Indeed the application of the title 
is admitted by the Company itself, whose arms are a 
shield the quarterings of which are filled with young 
lions rampant." 

This gentleman failed in his heraldry. The 
Company carried 13. three ships under sail or, 
each ship garnished with a cross of England : on 
a chief or between two roses proper, a pale quar- 
terly B. and G., in the first and fourth a fleur-de- 
lys or, in the second and third a lion passant 
gardant, or. So that there were no " young lions 
rampant." If this was ever seen in Leadenhall 
Street, it must have caused great amusement. 

4* 8. 1. Feb. 1, '68.] 



But four years after, the Company came to an 
end ; and fifteen years having nearly passed, u the 
coming struggle of the nations of the earth ' does 
not yet seem to be near its consummation. 

D. P. 

Stuarts Lodge, Malvern Wells. 


(4* S. i. 14.) 

Mr. A. Sk ither writes : " I have an indistinc 
recollection of two (I think) hexameter lines i 
one of the Latin poets, describing very graphically 
by the clever use of spondees and dactyls, th 
work of Sisyphus in Hades with his stone. 
Perhaps the lines he inquires for are those i 
which Lucretius (iii. 1013-1015) describes th 
mythic punishment : 

44 Hoc est adverso nixantem trudere moi 
Saxum, quod tamen 4 sum mo jam ver 
Volvitur, et plani raptim petit aequora 

One may perhaps trace also in C 
line (Metamorph. iv. 469) 

u Sisyphu ' versat 
Saxum, sudans niteudo, neque proticit hilum." 

In contrast with the labouring spondees here 
employed, Homer had depicted the downward 
flight of the stone in rapid dactyls 

avrap iwura ircSorSc Kvklr&ero Kaas cfvouSijy. 

C. G. Prowett. 

Garrick Club. 

1 Aut petis, aut urges ruiturum, Sisyphe, saxum "• 


nether-world scenes. 


seems to dash off a representation of toilsome 
exertion : petis and ruiturum convey to the mind's 

rry that follows. 

ie Spectator (No. 253), draws 
attention to II 

• n 

_ yt a graphic expression ot tne 
alternations (Odyss. xi. 692-697). 

% M This double motion of the stone is/ 9 says lie, " admir- 
ably described in the numbers of these verses ; as in the 
four first it is heaved up by several spondees intermixed 
with proper breathing places, and at last trundles down 
in a continual line of dactyls." 

tappy English 
Spectator Addison 


Essay on Criticism. He 
does not mention Yida's Poetica — a work to which 

Pope was largely indebted. 


readers of "N. & Q." ma 
like to see the following lines {Poetic, iii. 41B 
423) of him whom Pope, in that poem (v. 705] 
apostrophises as " immortal Vida : — 

44 Atque adeb, siquid geritur molimine magno, 
Adde moram, et pariter tecum ouoque verba laborent 
Segnia : seu quando vi multa gteba coactis 
Sternum frangenda bidentibus, aequora seu cum 
Cornua velatarum obvertimus antennarum. 
At mora si fuerit damno properare jubebo : 
Si se forte cava extulerit mala viper a terra, 
Tolle moras, cape saxa manu, cape robora, pastor : 
Ferte citi flam mas, date tela, repel lite pestera." 

John IIoskyns-Abrahall, Jux. 

Combe Parsonaere, near Woodstock. 

Possibly the verses referred to hy Mr. Smith er 
are those quoted from some unknown poet by 
Cicero, Tusc. Qiuest. i. 5 : — 

Probably Mr. A. Smither refers to the Greek 
lines in the Odyssey, which Pope imitates, making 
the u sound the echo to the sense : " thus — 

" Up the high hill he heaves a huge round stone ; 
The huge round stone, resulting with a bound, 
Thunders impetuous down and smokes along the 
ground.*' Pope's Odyuey, xi. 735-737. 


The hexameters are : 

44 Aut petis, aut urges ruiturum, Sisyphe, saxum ; 
Volvitur Ixion, et se sequiturque fugitque." 

Ovid, Met. iv. 4G0, 461. 





(3' d S. xii. 301.) 

Permit me to add a few more notes on this 
subject to the valuable article of Mr. Wyatt Pap- 
worth. First from the Lexicographers : — 

"LATTEN Mktall. G. /xxtfcm, Liton ; I. Ottone, 
Lot time ; H. Alatdtu, Latdn ; B. Lattoen; I . Letton, q uasi 

«s Latinum, aut k latitudine laminarum. L. jEs corona- 
Hum, qu6d ex eo corona? [probably the chandeliers in 
churches] conficerentur. Aurichalcum, Orichalcum." 

My nth ue. 

44 Lattex, Lattix. Iron tinned over." 

44 Lattex. Broad thin plates of iron tinned over." 


44 Lattex (leton, French ; latoen, Dutch ; lattwn, 
Welsh). Brass ; a mixture of copper and calaminaris 


* To make lamp-black, take a torch or link, and hold 
it under the bottom of a latten bason, and, as it groweth 
black within, strike it with a feather into some shell.' 
Peacham." — Dr. Johnson $ Dictionary, 1st edition. 

** Lattex, denotes iron plates tinned over, of which 
tea-canisters are made." (Then follows a long account 

how done.) 

44 Lattex — Brass. Plates of milled brass, reduced to 
different thicknesses, according to the uses it is intended 
for." — Dictionary of Art* and Sciences, 1771, sub voce. 

" Lattkx or Lattix. B 

Entick, 1793. 

44 Latten, or Latoun. A metal. Archdeacon Nares 
contends that it is brass, not tin ; and so the Manuel 
Lexique renders Lai ton, « in el a] compose? de cuivre rouge 
et de calamine.' B. Jonson renders 4 orichalchum ' (Hor. 
Art Poet. 202) by 4 latten.' "—Richardson. 

44 Candlesticks, made usually of the mixed metal called 
laton or latten (an alloy of brass), were found in all 
houses." — Thos. Wright, History of Domestic Manners in 

England, p. 376. 





[4* S. I. Feb. 1, 'G8. 

In that very curious collection of statutes re- 
lating to import and export duties called the 
" Acts of Tonnage and Poundage, 1702," are the 
following : 

" Basins of Lattin, Brouches of Lattin or Copper, But- 
tons of Lattin, Buttons of Brass, Steel, or Copper, Caudle 
Plates, or Wallers of Brass or Lattin, Cisterns of Latten, 
Chafing Dishes of Brass or Lattin, Do. of Iron. Counters 
of Lattin. Lattin voc. Black [Block ?] Latten. Shaven 
Latten, Lattin Wver, Iron Wyer, Brass or Copper Wyer, 
Steel Wyer." 

Latten nails with iron shanks are prohibited to 
be imported by strangers, p. 700. Latten is pro- 
hibited to be exported, p. 701. " If brass, copper, 
latten, bell metal, pan metal, gun do., or shruff 
do. be carried beyond sea, clean, or mixed, double 

wire and pins were then made. By statute 4 William 
and Man', cap. '5, a duty was laid on * battery, kettles, 
&c.,' and on * metal prepared for battery.' 

" On the authority of these documents I venture to 
doubt whether there is any good reason for attempting to 
distinguish between latten and brass . . . .Some statutes, as 
well as some writers, seem to treat brass and latten as 
two distinct metals, as the Acts 21 Henry VIII. c. 10 
and 33 Henry VIII. c. 7. Plowden, in the dissertation 
contained in his report of the case of Mines (Plowd. Rep. 
339)— in which he says that brass consists of copper and 
lead or tin, and latten of copper and calamine— -only showed 
that by latten he meant brass, and that by brass he meant 
something which is not now so called. 

" As to battery, it is not, strictly speaking, a distinct 
metal at all, but a process of manufacturing vessels and 
utensils out of a metal ; and hence it is sometimes used 
to designate the vessels themselves, as in the expression 
batterie de cuisine/ The metal to which the term has 

the value thereof to be forfeited, tin and lead only been unusually applied is copper and its alloys." 


In Palladio's Architecture lib. i. fo. Venezia, 
1570, is the following passage : — 

" Di questo metallo (raine) mcscolato con stagno, b 
piombo, od ottone che ancor esso e rame, ma colorito con 
la terra cad/nia, si fa un misto detto vol^armente Bronzo, 

del quale spessissime volte gli architetti," &c. 

This passage is thus translated by Sir Henry 
Wotton, p. 9, ed. 1721 : 

" Things of this Metal (Copper) mixed with Tin, or 
lead, or Latten, which is also copper, and colored with 
Lapis Caliminaris, is made a metal called Brass, which 
often Architects do use," &c. 

It is very curious there should be so wide a 
difference between the authorities, some describing 
latten clearly as a sort of brass or bronze, and 
others quite as clearly as iron tinned over. Per- 
haps some of your readers could afford further 
information. A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 

These remarks, from the able pen of Mr. Edward 
Smirke, are printed in the Archaeological Journal 
of the Archaeological Institute of Great Britain, 
&c. 8vo, London, 1852, p. 281-4. W. P. 


While searching for one object, the attention 
occasionally gets caught by another, 
my eye down the letter " L " in some indexes, 
the word " Latten " appeared, and as the substance 
of the remarks is not included in the notes already 
collected, I beg to forward them : — 

" It appears that the mayor and bailiffs had forbidden 
the men of Bristol to use tin in the making of girdles fur 
sale, under colour of certain letters patent granted to the 
Mystery of Girdlers of the City of London, wherebv the 
artificers of that craft. . . were* restrained from using . . . 
any metal inferior to laton, batterv, iron, and steel. This 
charter to the Girdlers of London was granted in the 
first year of the reign of Edward III. . . . With respect to 
the metals laton and bateria, both are mentioned in the 
ordinance or charter 1 Edward III., and this is the earliest 
notice of bateria in any document that I have met with 
in the public records. In the recital of this charter 
in the close roll, 30 Edward III., auricalcum is substituted 
lor laton. In 7 Elizabeth, a company for * mineral and 
battery works' was erected, and received from the queen 
a grant of the ore called Calamine for making 'mixed 
metal called latten.' (Pettus, Fodinm Regales, pp. 57, 58.) 
tfy a petition in or about 1GG5, mentioned bv the same 
author, it appears that latten was the material of which 


(3'<* S. xii. 413.)* 

" Some authors say that the true name of Rome was 

kept a secret, \e hostes incantamentis I)eo$ elicerent. 

Where do these Latin words come from ? CI I." 

I cannot reply to your correspondent CH.'s 
inquiry where these words are to be found, but 
suppose them to be in some commentator or writer 
upon antiquities, as incantations of this kind are 
usually termed by classical writers carmina simply, 
although in prose, or incantamenta carminum (see 
Pliny, N. II. xxviii. 3, Hard.). But the subject 
is one so curious and interesting, that I will beg 
to be allowed the opportunity of making a few 
remarks upon it. 

With regard to the Evocatio numinum, the tes- 
timony of Macrobius is clear and express. lie 
tells us (Saturnalia, iii. 9) that it was a eettled 
opinion that all cities were under the protection 
ot some patron deity, and that the Romans had a 
custom which was kept secret and unknown to 
many ; that when they had been besieging a city, 
and had made such progress that they considered 
themselves able to take it, by a certain incanta- 
tion (carmine) they called out its tutelary gods, 
supposing themselves insufficient to complete the 
conquest of the place without this ceremony ; or if 
able, that it would be a wicked deed to carry the 
gods into captivity. For this reason the Romans 
wished the name of the patron god of their city, 
and the Latin name of the city itself, to remain 
wholly secret and a mystery : the first of these, 
however, had become known from the writings of 

[* It is right that we should state that this communica- 
tion reached us before D. J. K.*s article (3 rd S. xii. 512) 
was published.— Ed. " N. & Q."] 

4«*S. I. Feb. 1, '68.] 



those who had disputed about it ; some thinking 
it to be Jupiter, others Luna, others Angerona, 
expressing silence by her finger placed upon her 
lip; others lastly, amongst whom Macrobius classes 
himself, Ops Consivia ; but the true name of their 
city, he adds, was unknown to their moat learned 
men, the Romans endeavouring to guard against 
suffering themselves by that religious rite which 
they were conscious they had often employed 
against their enemies. This account is confirmed 
by Pliny the Younger 

- Verrius Flaccos auctorcs ponit, qnibua credat, in op- 

ocari Deura, in cuius tuteld id oppulura easet 


ideo occultatum in cujus Dei tuteld Roma easel, nc 
hostium simili modo agerent. Defigi qmdem dins d«p 
cationibus nemo non metoit."— iV. Hi*. xxvuL 4, Hard. 

A remarkable instance of this custom is given 
in one of the early books of Livy, upon the occa- 
sion of the taking of Veil, when the Dictator (M. 
Furius Camillus), commanding the Roman army, 
is represented to have proceeded to the final attack 
with full religious ceremony : 

" Turn dictator, auspicato egressus, quum edixisset ut 
anna milites capercnt, Tuo dicta, inquit, Pythice Apollo, 
tuoque numine instinctus, pergo ad delendam urbem 
Veios ; tibique hinc decimam partem prods voveo. Te 
simul, Juno Kegina, qiue nanc Veios coKs, precor, ut nos 
victores in noetram tuamque mox faturam urbem so- 
quare : ubi te dignum amplitudine tua templum accipiat. 
H®c precatus, superante multitudine, ab omnibus locis 
urbem aggreditur," &c. (Lib. v. e. 21.) 

This form of evocation, it will be seen upon 
comparison, differs from that given by Macrobius 
in the chapter of his work already alluded to, 
which is too long to be repeated here, and seems 
to have been drawn up witn much more care than 
the one attributed to Camillus, though agreeing 
with it in substance and general result This 
form, and one of devotio which follows, the writer 
describes himself to have obtained from the fifth 
book of hidden things (res recondite) of Sammoni- 
cus Serenus (slain in the time of Caracalla), who 
himself professed to have discovered them in a 
most ancient work of one Furius. And Macrobius 
specially warns his readers not to confound to- 
gether the evocatio and devoti 


be pronounced 
i-chief, using a 

which it was so used, 
cases of Tonii, Fregell®, Gabii, Veii, and 
>n», in Italy; Carthage, and Corinth, and many 
s and armies of the Gauls, Spaniards, Africans, 
Moors, beyond its limits ; * and supposes the 

• The name of Carthage occurs in the forms of evocatio 
and devotio given by Macrobius, and perhaps they were 
those used with respect to that city. If so, no instance of 
their supposed effect could be more striking. 

custom to be referred to in the following lines of 
Virgil, in which Servius, in his Commentary, 
agrees with him : 

" Kxcessere omnes, adytis arisque relict: 
Di, quibus imperium hoc steterat" 

Josephus also, in recounting the prodi w 
posed to have taken place previous to the destruc- 


does not omit to 

ention its formal abandonment by the presiding 


From the mention of the early use of this 

custom amongst the Romans 
it was originally derived to them, together with 
other religious rites, from the Etruscans. But in 
one particular their practice seems to have been 
pecufiar—that of suppressing the supposed true 
name of their own city : 

" Roma ipsa, cujus nomen alterum dicere, arcanis cacri- 
noniarum nefaa habetur : optim4que et salutari tide abo- 
litum enunciavit Valerius Soranus, luitque mox pcenas. 
Xon alieuum videtur inserere hoc loco exemplum religioms 
antiquse, ob hoc maxime silentium institute. Namque 
Diva Angerona, cui sacrificatur ante diem xii Calend. 
Januarii, ore obligato obsignatoque simulacrum habet" 
(Plin. H. N. iii. 9.) 

And Solinus speaks to the same effect : 

"Traditur etiam proprium Rome nomen, et verum 
magis, quod nunquam in vulgum venit, sed vetitum pub- 
lican, quandoquidem quo minus enuntiaretur cjeremoni- 
arum arcana sanxerunt, ut hoc pacto notitiam ejus abo- 
leret fides placite taciturnitatis. Valerium denique 
Soranum, quod contra interdictum id eloqui census 
foret, ob meritum profanae rods, neci datum. Inter an- 
tiquissimas sane relligiones sacellum editur Angerona?, 
cui sacrificetur ante diem duodecimum Calendarura 
Januariarum : qu» diva pnesul silentii istiua, prenexo 
obsignatoque ore simulacrum ha bet." (Cap. 1.) 

We can now talk with impunity, and no longer 
with any apprehension of thereby rendering as- 
sistance to Garibaldi or any other invader, of the 
ahernm Rom* nomen, the true and ineffable name 
of Home, which it is no longer any secret was 
Valentin, a Latinised form of 'PcW 

I must conclude these remarks with observing 
that the notion of a city being defended by its 
tutelary deities is finely applied by Silius Italicus 
in one of the most splendid passages of his poem, 
where he represents Annibal under the walls of 
Rome and ready to attack it, but restrained by 
Juno, who removes the mist from his eyes, and 
enables him to see the guardian deities armed in 
its defence : — 

" Ads pice, montis apex, vocitata Palatia, regi^ 
Parrhasio : plena, tenet et resonante pharetra, 
Intcnditque arcum, et pugnas meditatur Apollo ! 
At qui vicinis tollit se collibus alt© 
Molls Aventinus, viden' ut Latonia virgo 
Accensas quatiat Phlegethontis gurgite tredas, 
Exsertos avidfe pugnce nudata lacertos ? 
Parte aliA. ceme. ut iuevis Gradivus in armis 

• De Bello Judaico, vi. 5. 



[4* S. I. Feb. 1, '68. 

Implerit dictum proprio de nomine campum. 
Hinc Janus movet arma manu, movet inde Quirinus, 
Quisque suo de colle Deus ; sed enim aspice, quantus 
JEgida. commoveat nimbos flammasque vomentem 
Jupiter, et quantis pascat ferus ignibus iras ! 
Hue vultus flecte, atque aude spectare Tonantem : 
Quas hiemes, quantos concusso vertice, cernis 
Sub nutu tonitrus ! oculis qui fulguret ignis ! 
Cede Deis tandem, et Titania desine bella." 

Punicorum xii. 709. 

the value of the evidence adduced ; so that " sin- 
cere and enlightened Catholics " are quite at 
liberty to form their own opinions upon its iden- 
tity. But Bunsen was no Catholic at all ; and if 
the correspondent had read Cardinal Wiseman's 
u Remarks," he would have seen the strong evi- 
dence by which he arrived at his conclusion that 
u the chair is manifestly of Roman workmanship, 
a curule chair, such as might be occupied by the 

The biblical student will not fail to be reminded, head of the church, adorned with ivory and gold, 

by the preceding lines, of the invisible hosts 
which protected the "man of God" in Dothan.* 
And it seems no improbable conjecture, that the 
peculiar ceremonies used at the capture of Jericho, 
and continued in the sight of the inhabitants for 
six days, may have been considered as an evocatio 
numinunij and in the result have had no small 
share in putting the "fear and dread "t of the 
Israelites into the hearts of the people whom they 
were commissioned to subdue. Certainly we find 
at a much later period the Syrians acknowledging 
local gods — those of the "hills and of the val- 
lies," \ and that an immense number of them 


were slain in consequence, as a judgment. 


(4 lh S. i. 55.) 

Since a cutting, opposed to the genuineness of 
the above relic, has been admitted into <4 N. cS: Q.," 
it is but fair and just that its readers should be 
directed to evidence on the other side. Such will 
be found in the treatise, published by the late 
Cardinal Wiseman, under the following title, 
Remarks on Lady Morgans Observations on St. 
Peter's Chair (1832). In that treatise the learned 
writer carefully and minutely describes the chair, 
and gives a correct engraving of it. He clearly 
proves it not to have been of Mahometan origin, 
as Lady Morgan had the audacity to assert, and 
lays open the origin of her foolish tale. " The 
stone chair," he says, " called by the vulgar that 
of St. Peter, and kept in the patriarchal church of 
the apostle in Venice, has been confounded with 
the ivory throne of the Vatican basilic, by some 
blundering or malicious person ; the story has been 
repeated to her ladyship ; she deemed it too well 
suited to her purposes of misrepresentation to 
merit examination, and gave it to the public with 
all the assurance which points, and all the levitv 
which wings, the worst shafts of calumny." 

The correspondent of the Post is wrong in 
serting that " the church has declared it to be the 
chair actually used by St. Peter." The church 
has made no declaration or decision on the sub- 
ject, nor is she likely ever to make such. She leaves 
this, like every other relic, to stand or fall upon 

* 2 Kings vi. 15. f 35. J 1 Kings xx. 28. 

as might befit the house of a wealthy Roman 
senator ; while the exquisite finish of the sculp- 
ture forbids us to consider it more modern than 
the Augustan age, when the arts were in their 
greatest perfection." Whoever desires to form a 
fair judgment on the question should read the 
Cardinal's " Remarks" Defore he trusts to Lady 
Morgan or the Post correspondent. F. C. H. 


(4 lh S. i. 13.) 

In The Gentleman s Recreation, 3rd edit. 1086, 
p. 36, I read that 

44 The Grey-hound (called by the Latins Leporarius) 
hath his name from the word Gre % which word soundeth 
Gradus in Latine, in English Degree; because among 
all Dogs, these are the most principal, having the chiefest 
place, and being simply and absolutely the best of the 
gentle kind of Hounds.' 

This extract may do very well for an introduc- 
tion ; the attempt at derivation, I think, must be 
at once discarded. 

In Anglo-Saxon this dog is called Ren-hund 
(Cursorius cant's) from the verb rennan, to run, to 

From this we have at once a prefix denoting 
speed, and pointing to the remarkable and con- 
spicuous quality the greyhound is endowed with, 
viz. swiftness. 

We might say Swifthound,whichI think comes 
near to what may prove to be the true etymology 
of the word. Johnson, Bailey, and Webster quite 
agree : all they say about it is as follows : — 
" Greyhound, n. (Sax.) grighund," oflering no 
explanation of the prefix Grig. Herbert Cole- 
ridge, in his Dictionary of the first or oldest Words 
in the English Language, \wn the word Grifhotmd. 

Now what does " Grig " really mean ? Bos- 
worth, in his Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, simply 
savs "Grig-hund, a Greyhound," and refers you 
to* the Glossarii jElfrici, p. 173, A. 2 B.M., but 
says nothing whatever about Grig. 

The word evidently means something sprightly, 
brisk, or nimble. 

Dean Swift says, il Merry as a Grig.'' A lively 
little eel is also called " a Grig." In the " Irish- 
English Dictionary," found at the end of Ed. 
Lhuyd's ArcJueologia liritannica, we have u Grib- 
each, a hunting nag," and " Grib, quick," Here, 

4* S. I. Feb. 1, '68.] 



I think, we have a solution to the difficulty. 
Gribhound — grighound — grif hound — grey-hound 
= a swift hound. From the quotation given by 
your correspondent, I understand the author to 
mean that King Henry VII. slew his gres, grot, or 
great buck (a buck of the sixth year) " in three 

J. Harris Gibson. 

places in that shire/' 


I believe we must go to the Icelandic for the 
etymology of this word. In Haldorson's Dic- 
tionary, Hundr figures for the male dog, Greu- 
hundr for the female. It would be beyond the 
limits of a note to do more than allude to the 
prepossession in favour of the female, for all 
sporting purposes, amongst all the old authorities 
upon such subjects, from the younger Xenophon 
downwards, who always call their favourites she, 
as the sailor does his ship at the present day. 
Thus the name seems to have gradually attached 
itself, without distinction of sex, to the dog most 
in use at a certain period for sporting purposes — 
the Cants Gallicus, of which the modern grey- 
hound only represents one type. 

The preference of the Arab for the mare over 
the horse is well known; and in the familiar 
proverb in which the grey-mare figures as the 
wetter horse, our ancestors seem to have expressed 
a similar preference for the grey-march over the 
march — for the female over the male horse. 

E. William Robertson. 

Gres } a buck, has no connection with grcy- 
homul. A gres means a buck u in grease time," 
•. e. at the time when they are fatted ; and ares is 
thus merely short for gres buck, or gras buck, i. e. 
a fat buck. It is a well-known phrase ; see Hal- 
liwell's Dictionary. The etymology of greyhound 
is not quite clear, but it is known to be connected 
with A.-S. grighund and O. X. grey or grey-hxmdr, 
which Mr. Wedgwood translates by the word 
bitch. Observe that the singular of gres is gres, 
and not gre ; and this shows the suggestion to be 
untenable. Walter W. Skrat. 



(3* S.xii.436; 4* S. i. 1G.) 

Helius Eobanus Hessus, a contemporary ol 
ither and Melancthon, and esteemed in his day 
an ornament to the literary world of Germany, 
seems to have fared badly at the hands of some of 
his biographers. In Rees's Cyclopedia, for in- 
stance—a work still worth consulting for its bio- 
graphies, Eobanus is said to have <4 taken credit 
to himself for being a hard drinker, and to have 
challenged any man as to the quantitv of liquor 
which he would drink ; and in a contest of this 
kind his antagonist fell dead on the floor." 

The name of Moreri is given as the authority 
for this article ; but, on referring to Moreri, the 
story of the drinking-bout is very differently told. 
It is true that Moreri taxes Eobanus with a 
love of drinking, but the anecdote, misquoted by 
Rees, is to this effect A certain man challenged 
Eobanus to drink off a great quantity of beer. 
Eobanus told the challenger to drink first ; where- 
upon the latter, in the act of taking the monstrous 
draught, fell to the ground " ivre mort." Of 
course this story is not quite truly told, for a man 
would not become drunk while in the very act of 
drinking beer in this way. I have not seen the 
life of Eobanus bv his contemporary Camerarius ; 
nor that by Lossius (1797). I)o either of these 
writers confirm Moreri's account of Eobanus's in- 
temperance ? In his I^atin poem, Bona Valetudinis 
conservand/e pracepta, he inculcates moderation; 
and so far from singing the praises of beer, he 
expressly denounces it as hurtful. A hasty glance 
at the title-page of one edition of the above work 
misled me, as it may have misled others. The 
full title is as follows : — 

41 De tuendd bona Valettidine libellus Eobani Ilesai, 
commentariis doctissimis illustratua a Joanne Placotomo, 
in Academia Kegiomontana professore, Ac. Ejusdem de 
natura et viribus cerevisiarum et mulsarum opusculum. 
De causia, preservations et curatione Ebrietatis disser- 
tatio. (Francof. apud Chr. Kgenolphum, 1551.)" 

The u eiusdem " refers to Placotomus, who 
reprints Eobanus's poem, writing comments upon 
it as he goes on ; and when he comes to the pas- 
sage where Eobanus speaks disparagingly of beer, 
the Konigsberg professor fires up, and defends his 
favorite liquor, referring his reader to a prose 
essay immediately following the poem and its 
commentary. He there fully describes all the 
varieties of beer known in his day, and finishes 
with an essay on drunkenness. lie denounces the 
vice, but looks upon an occasional debauch as one 
of the misfortunes incidental to mixing in society, 
and is careful to explain how a man is to manage 
himself, or be managed by his friends, when he 
has been overtaken in drink. The u ejusdem" in 
the title-nage just quoted refers, as 1 have said, 
not to Eobanus, but to Placotomus; and I fancy 
that a hasty inspection of this title may have in- 
duced some readers to suppose the essay on Beer, 
and that on Drunkenness, to be bv Eobanus him- 
self, and hence may have arisen the story of his 

In the Xouvelle Biographie Gbi6rale } the poet's 
name is found under E, as Eobanus; but the Con- 
versations- Le.vikon has it under If, as Hessus. 
One knows that most literary men of that period 
Gnecised or Latinized their names, so that their 
real vernacular ones are never heard of. How 
few of those who talk familiarly of Melancthon and 
(Ecolampadius ever think of them as Schwarz- 
erde and Hausschein ! I suppose the parents of 



[4* S. I. Feb. 1, '68. 

Placotomus, who make so learned an appearance 
on his title-page, were really known in Komgs- 
berg by some such name as " Kuchenschneider." 

Haller cites, as the first edition of Eobanus Be 
bond Valetudine servanda, one printed at Erfurt in 
1524; but I have now before me a beautifully 
printed edition in small 8vo, which looks like an 
editio princeps ; "Parisiis, apud Simonem Coli- 
nceum, 1533." Jaydeb. 

January 3. 


(3 rd S. xii. 352, 451, 533.) 

I do not think that I have over-rated Telfer's 
ballad poetry, as Mr. Sidney GiLriN supposes. 
Tastes and ideas differ. I do not form my opinion 
from the Border Ballads. Telfer was a very young 
man when he published the book. It abounds 
with imperfections. Telfer's fame is not to be 
judged by that work. Who would test Byron 
and Moore by The Hours of Idleness and Littles 
Poems? I form my opinion of the Liddesdale 
schoolmaster from his revised Ballads, as we find 
them in Mr. J. S. Moore's Pictorial Book of 
Ballads, and in Richardson's Border Table-Book. 
In the first edition of my Ancient Poerns, BaUaiU, 
and Songs of the Peasantry of England (Percy 
Society's publications), I inserted a very excellent 
Border ballad, called "Parcy Reed." I omitted 
it in the second edition which I prepared for 
Mr. Bell's series (published by Parker & Son), 
because I had doubts as to its being a genuine old 
ballad. It turns out to be what I suspected — an 
ancient traditional ballad, improved and added to 
by James Telfer. The u cooking" is very cleverly 
done ; and even Walter Scott was imposed upon, 
and swallowed the bait as easily as he had done 
the u barbarous lay"* that he received from 
Surtees ! Not having seen the genuine relic, 1 
cannot say what are the additions of Telfer. I 
have no doubt, however, that the major portion 
of this fine ballad is from his pen. What princi- 

C shook my faith in the antiquity of u Parcy 
. . ... " was the following line — 

" It was the hour of gloamin gray," 

which is almost verbatim with what is found in 

an exquisite stanza which, like a Danish burden, 

is repeated two or three times in "The Gloamynge 
Bughte": — 

11 It might be glamourye or not — 
In sooth I cannot say ; 
It was the witching time o'night, 

The hour oHhe gloamynge gray. 

And she, that lay in her lover's arms, 
I wis was a weel-faured may." 

My friend and fellow balladist, Mr. Robert 
White, in a recent letter has cleared up all doubts 
about " Parcy Reed." I give his words :— 

* In Richardson's Table-Book will be found my re- 
marks on this ballad. 

" * Parcy Reed/ as you suspect, is not genuine, for it 
bears marks of our friend's improvements. I have a 
copy of the original somewhere, but may not be able to 
find it." 

I deem it right to make the above remarks. ^ I 
would not knowingly impose on the public. 
When an imitation is cleverly done, it is not 
always easy to detect. The late Mr. Robert Bell, 
and also Mr. Robert Chambers, were taken in as 
well as myself. Mr. Bell put « Parcy Reed" 
amongst his " Old Ballads " ; and Mr. Chambers, 
in his review of my first edition, quoted it as a 
fine old Border ballad ! 

Mr. Gilpin contrasts Telfer with Hogg, Sur- 
tees, and Allan Cunningham ! Sir Walter Scott 
once remarked to a visitor at Abbotsford : " Tel- 
fer's ballads are very good, but rather Hoggish" 
He probably meant nothing more than that both 
poets copied the ancient minstrels, and that 
Telfer was Hoggish because his career commenced 
long after Hogg's. Sir Walter could not mean 
that Telfer was a copyist or plagiarist. His sub- 
jects, fairy or otherwise, are founded on Liddes- 
dale legends, and do not at all resemble those of 
the Bard of Altrive. Telfer cannot be compared 
with Allan Cunningham, who was an elegant 
song writer, but a very poor ballad poet. The 
notorious " Nithsdale and Galloway" book was so 
poorly executed that the forgery was immedi- 
ately detected. I shall not turn critic on Telfer ; 
his fame is established. He has written what 


a clever peri- 

odical that was edited by a clever man, the late 
W. A. Mitchell of the Tyne Mercu>y—Yr*a the 
first to draw out the young minstrel. The Wed- 
minster Review spoke in very laudatory terms of 
the u Gloamynge Bughte." Mr. J. S. Moore 
deemed the ballad, " Our Ladve's Girdle," worthy 
of a reprint in his admirable selection : so did 
Richardson, who has also reprinted it and the 
" Gloamvnge Bughte " and u Parcy Reed." I could 
quote others, but it is unnecessary. James Telfer 
will always rank as one of England's best modern 
minstrels. J. H. Dixon. 


As an addendum to what has already appeared 
in your pages, will you please allow me to note 
that the biographical notice of Mr. James Telfer 
which appeared in the Border Advertiser of Jau- 
uary 24, 1862 — referred to by your correspondent 
Mr. White (p. 362)— is reprinted in the obituary 
in the Gentleman's Magazine for March of that 
year, p. 374. In connection with the subject it 
may be perused with interest. 

The second edition of " Barbara Gray " will be 



" Fair Lilias," originally known as " Our Lady's 
Girdle," but other productions from the same pen. 

If your correspondent Mr. Sydney Gilpin will 

4* S. I. Feb. 1, '68.] 



• ' 

furnish me with his address, I will gladly lend 
him this publication ; or send him, if it be suffi- 
cient, a copy of the ballad which he states he has 
not seen. J- Manuel. 



(3* S. xii 

As Nevison *?or many years after his death en- 
joyed a local fame, in the district over which his 
exploits extended, equal to that of Robin Hood in 
his own time, a few additional notes may be ac- 
ceptable. The memory of a man who is said to 
have been profusely generous to the poor, with 
the means taken from the rich, and who possessed 
a great deal of rude chivalrous feeling and carried 
on his depredations with great secrecy and ad- 
dress, will always be treasured by the vulvar ; 
but most of his actions, when looked at as main 
matters of fact, show him to have united with his 
courage and address a savage and merciless dis- 
position. All such men are capabl 

reckless gene 
their honour when their worst deeds are forgotten. 
Soon after my note appeared (3 r4 S. xii. 418), 
my friend Mr. John Quest, of Moorjrate Grange, 
author of a valuable work, which has been printed 
for private circulation, Relics and Records of the 
Parish of Rotherham, wrote me to claim for 
Wortley, a village in that neighbourhood, the 
honour (?) of being the birthplace of Nevison. I do 
not know whether the researches 

and these are 

and his friends went into that district 
transcribe some of the memoranda which Mr. Gue 
has supplied to me. First, as to the birthplace. 
Hunter, in his South Yorkshire, says, in relati< 
to Wortley : 

44 Among the miscellanea of this village may be noticed 
that it was the birthplace of John Nevison, whose name 
is still remembered while many better men are forgotten. 
But the perfection to which he had brought his system 
of depredation, the mystery in which his proceedings 
were clouded, and his address in escaping the punishment 
he so well deserved, were calculated to make a long and 
lasting impression on the common mind. With him 
appears to have ended, at least in the north of England, 
the race of highwaymen by profession. The most au- 
thentic notice of him is contained in an advertisement 
which appears in the Gazette of October 31, 1681. It is 
there said that he had been convicted of robbery and 
horse stealing at York assizes, 1676, but respited on a 
provision of discovering his accomplices. This he did not 
do, and remained long in prison, but at length was set at 
liberty, and placed in Captain Graham's company de- 
signed for Tangiers. From this he deserted, and is said 
to have subsisted ever since by stealing and highway rob- 
bery, especially in the counties of York, Derby, and 
Nottingham, and that he lately murdered one Fletcher, 
who had a warrant to apprehend him. Even after this 
proclamation, and a reward of 20/. offered for his appre- 
hension, such was the imperfect state of the police, he 
continued in his lawless course for two years and a half, 
though his person was well known. On Thursday, March 
6, 1683-4. he was apprehended at an alehouse near Sandal, 

e assizes 
former i 

Surtees Society 

consists of " depositions from York Castle, relating 
to offences committed in the northern counties in 
the seventeenth century," contains two most in- 
teresting accounts of Nevison and his accomplices, 
male and female, and their numerous exploits, but 
nothing is said of the origin of the man. 
Mr. Guest says : — 

44 Mv own impression is that Nevison camefrom Thorp, 
a villa'ge four miles from here [Rotherham], and which 
since the time of Nevison harboured one of the most 
audacious and desperate thieves this neighbourhood has 

ever known." 

The following are some of the extracts : 

" March 3, 1675-6. John Nevison and others for high- 
way robbery. This was a robbery at Wentbridge, and 
Nevison there goes by the name of Brace, or John Bracy. 

In a note it is said : 

" A deposition referring to John Nevison, the famous 
highwayman, who is commemorated in an old ballad, of 
which two stanzas may be taken as a sample. 

44 Did you ever hear tell of that hero, 
Bold Nevison that was his name; 
lie rode about like a bold hero, 
And with that he gained great fame. 

u He maintained himself like a gentleman, 
Besides he was good to the poor ; 
He rode about like a bold hero, 
And he gained himself favor therefore. 

Mr. Quest then adds 

" Nevison may be appropriately called the Claude 
Duval of the North. The story of his ride from London 
to York is too well known to be repeated; and even Lord 
Macaulay introduced him into his History of England. 
The depositions given are imperfect, so that we cannot 
well tell what the crime was for which Nevison was con- 
demned in 1675-6. He was however reprieved, together 
with a woman of the name of Jane Nelson, in the expec- 
tation that he would discover his accomplices. The hope 
would seem to be a vain one, and the pardoned culprit 
was draughted into a regiment destined for Tangiers. He 
soon deserted from it, and we shall meet with him again. 

44 It seems to have been a custom among the highway- 
men to have receiving-houses in different parts of the 
country. This put them at the mercy of the receivers, 
and they were obliged to conciliate them with gifts. 

44 A life of Nevison has been published, which is exces- 
sively scarce. There are several scarce pamphlets, de- 
scribing robberies and other crimes that took place about 
this time in Yorkshire, in some of which, perhaps, Nevi- 
son played his part : — 

44 4 Bloody News from Yorkshire, in the great robbery 
committedby twenty highwaymen upon fifteen butchers, 
as they were riding to Northallerton Fair. 4to, London, 

1674 '' * .11 A 

444 A full and true relation of a most barbarous and 
cruel robbery and murder by six men and one woman, 
near Wakefield, in Yorkshire. 4to, London, 1677.' " 

The extracts from the volume of the Surtees 
Society include several depositions of witnesses on 
the trial of Nevison, but nothing as to his birth- 
place. T. B. 

Short lands. 



[4* S. I. Feb. 1, *68. 

There are two kinds 


Jannock (4 th S. i. 28.) 

of cakes, and one of bread made of oatmeal, 
two former are respectively called " oat cake " 
and " haver bread." This latter is not unfrequently 
called "clapt cake" or " clapt bread." The 
common oatcake, chiefly eaten in South Lanca- 
shire and the adjoining parts of the West Riding 
of Yorkshire, is made of oatmeal and water, beaten 
up in a wooden bowl or barrel with the natural 
leaven, if I may be allowed to use the term, i. e. 
in a utensil containing some remains of the pre- 
vious mixture allowed to go sour, and then baked 
in thin cakes on a bakstone (bake-stone) over the 
fire, and are turned over during the baking. 
Whereas the haver-bread (from haver, the Dutch 
for oats ) is similarly made from oatmeal and water, 
but without any admixture of leaven of any de- 
scription, and after being rolled as thin as possible, 

Pershore : its Etymology (4 th S. i. 30.) — I 

am inclined to think that " Pershore " (not u Pre- 
shore," as it is misprinted), or "Pcrrsnore," may 
mean " ferry-shore," and that Per or Par is a relic 
of the Welsh porth, which signifies u gate " or 
u ferry." In olden times there was, probably, a 
ferry here over the Avon. 

At the same time it may be well to mention a 
case in which we seem to have tkft word per in 

and during that operation dusted with dry oat- 
meal, is baked and turned also on the bakstone. 
This kind is chiefly used in Cumberland, West- 
moreland, and in the North of Lancashire ; also 
in the North Riding of Yorkshire, &c, and is 
generally much preferred to the common oatcake. 
But to neither of these have I ever heard the 
word "jannock " applied. 

Except I am very much mistaken, " jannock " 
is the name given solely to the third kind, viz. to 
bread made simply of oatmeal and water, beaten 
up, not kneaded ; but also without any admixture 
of leaven, and which is baked not on the bakstone, 
but on the oven-bottom, just as the common oven- 
bottomed wheaten bread is baked. Jannock is 
seldom to be found now, even in South Lanca- 

It is from the circumstance of jannock's being 
made without leaven (see 1 Cor. v. 8) that the 
word u jannock " comes to be used in Lancashire 
as meaning u without deceit, no cringer, sincere, 
straightforward, independent, &c," and it well 
expresses the character of Lancashire men, who 
for the most part are blunt and homely, like their 
jannock, if you like, but straightforward, sincere, 
and independent — who scorn to call things except 
by their right names, and are not afraid of doing f a #aav ^ „_^_ MVW . *^~. 

1°: a^i? ^*^ Lancashire phrase, " Jle says as j its Vame'from the same origin, which I can hardiy 

think has anything to do with pear. 

The obsolete word u ripe " was usually applied 
to the banks of rivers, ratner than " shore." 

The creat Benedictine Monastery, like its 

the sense of " rampart," namely, u Perborough 
Castle," the present appellation of a round earth- 
work between East llsley and Streatley (Berk- 
shire). This is one of the numerous instances of 
that repetition in local names which arises from a 
word becoming obsolete and dead (perhaps I may 
venture to refer to my Western Woods and Waters, 
p. 188). In "Perborough Castle " we have three 
names of the same signification, indicating, re- 
spectively, three lingual strata. 

Or, in the per of iVrshore there may be, as in 
" Porchester ' (Hampshire) a vestige of the do- 
minion of Rome and of the Latin word porta. 
The per may come from a " port way," such as 
there is, for instance, east of Wantage. Compare 
u Port Meadow," near Oxford. 

Or, for aught I know (I have not visited either 
of these two places), it is not impossible that, 
either in u Pershore " or in "Ptvborough," or in 
both, per is the skeleton of perth } the Welsh for 
" a thorn-bush," or " brake." 

Nor, considering how many are the cases in 
which the image on the coin of language is well 
nigh obliterated, in process of time, by much 
tossing from mouth to mouth, am I prepared to 
assert that "Pershore" is not a corruption of 
" Priests' Shore " (compare u Preston " and 
" Prestwich "), or even of " Prior's Shore." 

JonN Hoskyns-Abrahall, Jfn. 

Combe, near Woodstock. 

Lambarde, in his Topographical Dictionary of 
England, calls Pershore Pyrorum* Regio. Nash, 
in his History of Worcestershire, and Styles, in his 
account of the Abbey church, gives a similar de- 

Pirie is a manor near Worcester, and may derive 

he thinks, and he does as he says," well expresses 
the sense in which they use the word "jannock." 

Mossley Hall, Congleton. 

James Brierley, Clerk. 

Position of Font in a Church (3 rd S. xii. 

483.)— There are two or three churches in Eng- 
land with fonts fixed in or near chancels; but 
this position is without doubt of post-Reformation 
date. In Puritan times a great number of old 
fonts were thrust out of the churches, the places 
of others altered in the church, and great irregu- 
larities introduced. It has not been an uncommon 
thing to have a small basin on the communion 
table when wanted ! P. E M 




neighbour at Evesham, probably 
adjacent town, and the name may have been 
given from some extraneous cause by the learned 
monks of the abbey. Tnos. E. Winnington. 

Soldrup (4 th S. i. 30.) — The late Rev. W. 
Monkhouse, in Etymologies of Bedfordshire (Bed- 
ford, 1867, 8vo, p. 52), derives the name of this 
village from two Danish words — Sol, dirty or 
miry, and drup, a village. lie states also that a 

4* S. I. Feb. 1, '68.] 



Danish origin was assigned to three Bedfordshire 
villages by Professor worsde of Copenhagen, and 
supposes this to have been one of them. 

Joseph Rix, M.D. 


Your correspondent may be assisted by refer- 
ence to the following : — Saltrop, otherwise Salthrop, 
near Swindon, Wilts ; Sausthorpe, near Spilsby, in 
Lincolnshire. His own place is also spelled Soul- 
drop, in Beds. Thorpe is clearly the terminal in 
all ; the prefix may be from the word Salt, or 
from some word indicating a southerly aspect 

A. H. 

Soldrup, or rather Soldrop ; also, SotUdrop and 
Southdrop, is certainly a curious name. But I 
believe the drop, or arup, is merely a corruption 
of thorp, which rejoices in such variations as 
thrup and trup (in pronunciation at least). The 
forms dorp, drop, and drup, are even nearer the 
continental pronunciation which prevails at this 
day ; though not alone, for we have dor/, torp % &c. 
I have no doubt that Soldrop is of Danish origin. 
Some years ago, I endeavoured to mark out the 
boundary of tne districts settled by the Danes. 
The line passes from Cheshire to Rugby, proceeds 
as far south as Aylesbury, and then turns east so 
as just to include Soldrop — the derivation of which 
I regard as certain, so far as its last syllable is 
concerned. Of the first I have no opinion. 

B. II. C. 

Shylock (4 ih S. i. 30 

" Shak- 

speare drew Shylock. I ask from what original ? 

I am surprised that L. R. W. should ask this 

question. Shylock was the product of that same 

officina whence came Julius Caesar, Oassius, Corio- 

lanus, and Cleopatra. When he could draw those 

with no better help than a poor translation of 

Plutarch's Lives, it is no mystery how he created 

But did not the profound soul of Shakspeare, 
while seeming in his delineation of Shylock to 
follow all the prejudices of his age, really mean 
to show the effects of wrongs, personal and in- 
herited, upon a strong, sensitive, and originally 
perhaps a noble nature ? Antonio is all that is 
amiable ; but consider his unprovoked insults on 
Shylock, confessed and unrepented. Was it pos- 
sible that Shylock should not be possessed with 
feelings of deep vengeance P His religion did not 
teach him to forgive. J. II. C. 

According to Mr. Knight, Shakspeare had for 
his guidance in composing the Merchant of Venict 
(D a ballad, " Gernutus," quoted by Warton ; 
2) // Pecorone, by Ser Giovanni, an Italian writer, 
ret published at Milan, 1558. 
The proscription of Jews, in England, was em- 
phatic. Rapin tells us that 15,GG0 were expelled 
in 1290 ; and they were not again encouraged to 

settle here till Cromwell's time, 1657. They 
were not then naturalised subjects, nor could they 
hold land in England till 1723. A. H. 

Degrees op Consanguinity (3 rd S. xii. 501 ; 
4 th S. i. 43.) — If my namesake Anglo-Scottjs (2) 
refers to the Liber Officialis Sancti Andree (Ab- 
botsford Club), 1845, preface, p. xxv., he will 
there see a table which will assist him (as it has 
myself on former occasions) in comprehending this 
abstruse subject. 

The parties referred to were certainly not first 
cousins, as Mr. Workard suggests. These, by 
the canon law, are in the second degree of con- 
sanguinity, while their grandchildren are in the 
fourth forbidden degree. This is clear from the 
table. Without knowing who the parties were 
it is impossible to say what their relationship was. 
Besides the issue of cousins germ an, there were 
three other lines counting upward* from the "pro- 
positus," and all more remote in blood, within 
which they may have been related in the fourth 
forbidden degree. But the Scottish ecclesiastical 
judges almost never stated the actual relationship 
in their sentences, merely the technical one bring- 
ing the parties within the canon law. 



400.) — Among the many authorities quoted by 
A. S. A. on this subject, and in the replies to his 
query, one appears to have been omitted whose 
testimony is such that it leaves little doubt as to 
the precise day and hour of the cardinal's decease. 
Monsignor Luigi Priuli, Pole's intimate friend, 
whom he made his executor, was with the car- 
dinal in his last hours, and writes that he was 
present when Pole was informed of Queen Mary's 
death. In a letter detailing the circumstances, 
he wrote thus to his brother, the Magnifico Messer 
Antonio, at Venice, dated London, November 27, 
1558: — 

44 On the 17th instant, seven hours after midnight, the 
Queen paved from this life, and my most reverend Lord 
followed her at seven o'clock on the evening of the same 

In another letter to Giberti, Priuli also repeats 
this statement. His words are 

" Both the one and the other grew worse daily, so 
that the Queen made her passage on the 17th instant 
about seven hours after midnight, and my most reverend 
Lord expired at seven o'clock after noon of the same 

These interesting letters of Priuli are printed in 
extenso in Mr. Hardy's recent report on the Vene- 
tian Archives. 


F. II. Arnold. 


Ged's Stereotypes (4 th S. i. 29.) — Ged's edi- 
tion of Sallust, 1739, is understood to have been 
the fir A book printed in Edinburgh from stereo- 
type plates. It was reprinted from the same plates 



[4* S. I. Feb. 1, '68. 

in 1744. Both editions are now rare. In that 
interesting collection entitled "Analecta Scotica. 
Edited by Mr. James Maidment, Advocate, Edin- 
burgh, 1837," there is printed " Extracts from the 
Records of the Faculty of Advocates, of date 
July 1G, 1740," in which it is recorded that — 

William Gedd, goldsmith in Edinburgh, having pre- 
sented to the Faculty a plate as a specimen of a new 
invention of his for printing, not with moveable types, as 
is commonly done, but whole pages of forms founded in 
one piece, together with a copy of J-allust printed from 
such plates, the Faculty did favourably receive his pre- 
sent withal, signifying that when their stock should 
be in good condition they intended to appoint him some 
suitable gratification for the same." 

T. G. S. 


See the Encyclopedia Britannica, article " Print- 
ing," 8th edition, vol. xviii. p. 450, for a full ac- 
count of the invention of stereotype printing and 
its history. Ged's plates are particularly alluded 

to. * G. 


William Ged was a x 
It is not clear who invented the art of stereotyp- 
ing; but it is certain that Ged was the person who 
first made it practically useful. For full informa- 
tion see Encyclop. Brit., last edit., art. " Print- 
ing," vol. xviii. p. 549. One of Ged's stereotype 
plates is preserved in the Advocates' Library at 
Edinburgh. K. P. I). E. 

H. E. observes that he has seen a copy of Sal- 
lust which appears to have been printed from 
stereotype plates in 1739. This is very probable, 
for it is said that Schaaf s Syriac New Testament 
was printed from stereotype plates in 1709 by 
J. Van der Mey and Muller, the latter of whom 
was a German minister at Leyden. See a paper 
by A. Tilloch in the Philosophical Magazine, vol. x., 
reprinted in Stower's Printer s Grammer, p. 476, 
&c. B. II. C. 

Botsford in America (3 rd S. xii. 300.) 


"N. & Q." it is stated that a few miles from Xew- 
haven is a place called Botsford. The object of 
the writer is to ascertain the origin of this name. 
At p. 447 is a reply saying that the respondent, 
J. W. Botsford, has " reason to believe that the 
above name was given to the place by my name- 
sakes who left the old country and settled in 
Connecticut more than two hundred years ago." 

For the information of the above and any others 
in England who may be interested in the subject, 
I state that the place Botsford, near New Haven 
(as we write it) in Connecticut, is not a town nor a 
village, but simply a railroad station on the Hou- 
satonic Railroad. It is thirty-three miles from 
New Haven, and eighty-four from New York. 
A friend writes me : — 

" Its name is due to the fact that a man by the name 
of Botsford kept the depot for a time ; perhaps does so 

now. There are families of this name in the neighbour- 
hood, and it is believed that the land on which the depot 
is built belonged to a Mr. Botsford." 

There is no town or village of this name in 
the United States, so far as I know. J. H. 

New York. 

Mr. for Lord (3 rd S. xii. 263.)— The following 

extract from Leaves from the Journal of our Tour 
in the Highlands, 1848-1801, edited by Arthur 
Helps (Smith, Elder, & Co.), is a case in point on 
the part of the highest personage in the realm of 
dropping and assuming a title. This incident 
does not, however, settle the question stated by 
W. W. as to the " power " to do so, as the Queen 
can do no wrong : 

44 A few seconds brought us over to the road, where 
there were two shabby vehicles, one a kind of barouche, 
into which Albert and I got, Lady Churchill and General 
Grey into the other — a break ; each with a pair of small 
and rather miserable horses, driven by a man from the 
box. Grant was on our carriage, and Brown on the 
other. We had gone so far forty miles, at least twenty 
on horseback. \Y r e had decided to call ourselves 4 Lord and 
Lady Churchill and party,' Lady Churchill passing as 
Miss Spencer, and General Grey as Dr. Grey! Brown 
once forgot this, and called me * Your Majesty ' as I was 
getting into the carriage ; and Grant on the box once 
called Albert 'Your Royal Highness,' which set us off 
laughing, but no one observed it." 

William Blood. 


England (4 th S. i. 27.) — Your correspondent's 
theory would almost convey a doubt as to the 
very existence of a people called Angles. The 
commonly received theory is that such a tribe or 
race derived their name from a village or district 
named Angelm in Schleswig-IIolstein, whom Taci- 
tus calls Angli 400 years before they reached 
England. Admitting that ing in Danish is meadow 
or pasture-land, it may very well account for the 
etymology of the place tney came from*; and 
with us, their descendants, the terminal ing often 
has that meaning. 

These Angli reached England at about the 
same period as the Saxons, out located them- 
selves chiefly in what we call Norfolk, i. e. North- 
folk, and Suffolk, i. e. South-folk, which mainly 
constituted the kingdom of East Anglia, which 
name existed in Britain be/ore it took the form of 

These designations were in contradis- 
tinction to the Saxons, whose possessions became 
Essex, i. e. East Saxons; Sussex, i. e. South 
Saxons ; and Wessex, L e. West Saxons, which 
latter division became dominant. All this is 

AVhen the all- conquering Egbert united the 


whole, it became the united nation of Angles and 
Saxons. We say Anglo-Saxon, and by consequence, 
the first syllable naturally formed the initial of its 
future name of England. Egbert united Kent with 
the three Saxon divisions of the Heptarchy before 

he dealt successfully with either of the three An- 

4* S. I. Feb, 1, '68.] 



glian divisions, which occupied by far the larger 
proportion of the whole. Egbert, I think, had 
peculiar claims. Cadwallader, 678-685, is re- 
puted the last British king : it is known that the 
Cymri retreated westward, and Wessex com- 
prised Wilts and Somerset, to which they had 
retreated. Among the West Saxon monarchs are 
several names of Celtic rather than of Teuton 
origin ; and though the Welsh princes may have 
preserved personal independence. I think they left 
the monarchical influence behind them, for Egbert 
seems to have acquired a right of succession from 
the original Celtic righ$ } or chieftains, who op- 
posed Caesar, and has transmitted that succession 
to our beloved Queen. If we can conceive him 
as supported by Celtic aboriginals in each of the 
provinces successively annexed by him, who re- 
cognised in him a prestige or prescriptive right 
which other Sassenach did not possess, we shall 
see a sufficient reason for his remarkable success. 

A. H. 
De la Mawe Family (3 rd S. xii. 503.)— I do 

not know the derivation of the surname Mawe, 
but perhaps the following note on the family in 
Mr. Peacock's Church Furniture (p. 76) may in- 
terest Cornub. The family of Maw have long 
been yeomen landowners ift the Isle of Axholme. 
The blood and name is now widely diffused 
through the country, but it is probable that all 
descend from the Maws of Epworth. A pedigree 
is recorded in the Suffolk Visitation Book of 1577, 
in which the descent of the Maws of Rendlesham 
is traced from John Maw of Epworth, gent. This 
John Maw was certainly a connection, most 
likelv a brother of William Maw, the church- 
warden. "Thoniap Mawe de Epworthe, yeom." 
probably the father of both the above, was re- 
turned as a freeholder there in 1561. A foolish 
fancy of the historian of the Isle of Axholme has 
led some persons ill versed in the history of 
family nomenclature to believe that the Maws 
were a junior branch of the family of Mosbray. 
In Rendlesham church, Suffolk, is (or was five-and- 
fortv vears ago), a mural monument thus in- 
scribed: "Here lyeth Simon Mawe, and Margery 
his wife, by whom he had five sons and six 
daughters. He was born at Epworth in Lin- 
colnshire, brought up in Suffolk, bore the office 
of Steward of the Liberty of St. Etheldred 
thirty-three years, lived in credit to the age of 

seventy-nine years, and died in peace November 
5, a.d. 1610." 

Simon Mawe's fourth son, Leonard, became suc- 
cessively Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
and Bishop of Bath and Wells. He was elected 
to the latter preferment July 24, 1628, and died 
at Chiswick in Middlesex the 2nd of September 
in the following year. lie was buried m Chis- 
wick church on the 16th of the same month. 

His arms were — (1) Mawe, azure two bars gules 
between six martlets, or; (2) Pinder of the Isle 
of Axholme, azure a chevron between three lions' 
heads erased, or ; (8) Pinder, argent on a chevron 
gules three fullgates or between three boars' 
heads couped sable, langued gules; (4) Wylde, 
argent a cnevron sable on a chief of the last three 
martlets of the first; (5) Jaye, argent three 
kings' heads proper crowned or. Crest, a camel 
couchant on a green hillock. 

John Piggot, Jttn. 

Hour-glasses in PuLrixs (3 rd S. xii. 516; 
4 th S. i. 35.) — If my memory serves me right, 
some twenty years ago the rusted frame of a 
preacher's hour-glass, similar to that described by 
your correspondent, Mr. P. Hutchinson, was 
to be seen affixed to the pulpit of the church 
of Marlborough, near Kincfsbriage, South Devon. 
Possibly some antiquary in that neighbourhood 
may be able to confirm this recollection, and say 
if the relic still exists. J. B. D. 

Religious Sects (3 rd S. xii. 343.) — The sects 

now, as in the primitive ages, vary in kind, but 
are about equal in number. Mr. King has put 
them in alphabetical order, which cannot ruffle 
the religious susceptibilities of any. How did 
Mr. Punch arrange the order of procession to the 
International Exhibition of 18Gz ? I remember 
reading it at the time of publication, but could 
not obtain a copv : if not trespassing too much on 
the space of " N. & Q." a reprint would be no 
doubt acceptable to the readers, especially to 

George Lloyd. 


Ealing School (4 th S. i. 13.)— This establish- 
ment, under the care of the first Dr. Nicholas, 
began about the years 1818 or 1819. He was 
succeeded by a son, also Dr. Nicholas, who died 
about 1801, leaving an only daughter and a widow, 
who was sister of Mr. Wilkins, surgeon, Ealing. 
The second-named gentleman lost his only son 
about 1858, aged twenty. I have seen in the 
hands of Mr. George Newman (for several years 
chief tutor to the last Dr. Nicholas) a book con- 
taining the receipts and expenditure of the school 
in its early years, amounting to nearly 18,000/. 
per annum. J. H. J. 


Family of Napoleon (3 rd S. xi. 507 j 4 th S. 
i. 38.) — Lord Howden will find information re- 
specting the origin of the Buonapartes from the 
Balearic Isles in a paper on that subject in the 
Gentleman's Magazine for February 1807, entitled 



Hampstead, N.W. 

A Cromlech (3 rd S. xii. 4 

ones lighted upon bv W 
cal antiquaries. Nothing 


The Druidical 




[4* S. I. Feb. 1, "08. 

cept that they are. With regard to the country- 
man's statement of their coming there recently, 
my father pointed them out to me ahout thirty- 
five years ago, and I have since frequently seen 



Scottish Local Histories (4 th S. i. 30.) 

Spalding Club books are the great repertorium of 
the materials for the local histories of the counties 

he seeks, 

Mr. Bonney, although the work is 
gives no sketch of the old castle. 


The Silent Woman (4 th S. i. 19.)— The quiet 
or silent, i. e. headless woman,* has existed in 
the fair old town of Leek from time immemorial ; 
and thereanent I may give you the rueful matri- 
monial experiences of a silkweaver, which I over- 
heard him divulging to a friend on the outside of 

mentioned by Mr. Leslie. I have a book with nea ™ «™ uivuipip w » i™«u u uu„ u» c u. 

S! ™™^.I± \L*\>* tw inhn J\ Vmii M.A.. * ™™ h between Macclesfield and the capital of 

the Moorlands, in the days of my golden youth, 
now, vie miserum ! long since flown by : " Lawks, 
mon, when oi furst married moy woife, oi cood 
a' hetten hur hupp; but oi had'na been sploiced 

a moonth afore oi shood a' poiked hur up agen." 


American "Notes and Queries " (3 rd S. xii. 

the title Buchan, bj the Rev. JohnB. Pratt, M.A., 
published by Lewis and James Smith, Aberdeen ; 
also by Blackwood and Sons,^ 1858.^ I am quite 
sensible how poor a contribution this is to the in- 
formation required by Mr. B. Leslie. CII. 

Fotheringhay (4 th S. i. 29.)— I cannot at 
this moment refer your correspondent to any en- 
gravings or illustrations of Fotheringhay Castle, 
but shall be able to do so at a future time. They 
are by no means scarce. I hasten to correct the 
impression under which he labours that the castle 
was demolished by the son of the unfortunate 
Queen Mary, James VI. of Scotland and I. of 
England. This is a mere fable. The castle was 
in existence after the death of this monarch. In 
a work by Rev. II. K. Bonney, M.A., author of a 
Life of Bishop Taylor —-Historic Notices in Refer- 
ence to Fotheringhay, Oundle, 1821, page 21), it is 
stated that, "on the third of April, 1025, the last 
year of the reign of King James, the castle was 
surveyed, and is thus described/' Then follows a 
description. After which, on page 30, the author 

says — 

" Soon after this survey the castle seems to have been 
consigned to ruin, for Sir Robert Cotton, who lived at 
that time, purchased the hall in which the Queen of 
Scots was beheaded, and removed it to Connington in 
Huntingdonshire. Mr. dough, in his edition of Camden, 
supposes that Sir Robert Cotton purchased only the in- 
terior of the room — the wainscot, &c., and not the room 
itself. The writer of these notices differs in opinion from 
that learned antiquary, and thinks that the arches and 
columns in the lower part of Connington Castle are 
those which divided the hall at Fotheringhay into three 
aisles; an arrangement adopted in many of the castle 
halls of large dimensions. Such is the case in the ancient 
hall of Oakham Castle, and such was undoubtedly the 
form of the Bishop's Hall at Lincoln. But whether so 
or not in the present instance, the sale of any part of it 
marks the time when the castle was first dismantled. 
The stone of other parts was purchased by Robert 
Kirkman, Esq. in order to build a chapel in this neigh- 
bourhood ; and the last remains of it were destroyed for 
the purpose of repairing the navigation of the Nen. Thus 
removed by degrees, it escaped the notice of the anti- 
quary, who probably had recorded its destruction, had it 
been less gradual. The tale of its having been destroyed 
by order of James, on account of its having been the scene 
of his mother's sufferings, is clearly disproved, and must 
be left to those only who are fond of seeing events clothed 
in the language of fiction." 

It would be well for your correspondent to con- 
sult the work from which the above is an extract. 
The notes and references may help him to what 

501, 531 ) 


md Queries concerning the Antiquities, History, 
and Biography of America, was established by 
John W. Dean, C. B. llichardson (the nublisher), 
and myself. The first number appeared in Janu- 
uary, 1857, and it has been issued monthly from 
that date, the volumes for each year containing 
some 400 pages each. 

The first volume, edited chiefly by Mr. Dean, 
was published in Boston. The next seven were 
published in New York, under the editorial care 
of George Folsom and John G. Shea. Vol. viii. 
Xo. 9, contains the announcement that Mr. Shea 
had become the publisher and editor. The first 
six numbers of vol. x. were edited by Dr. Henry 
It. Stiles ; and in July, 180G, the magazine passed 
into the hands of Henry B. Dawson of Mornsania, 
N. Y., who has since continued to edit and pub- 
lish it. 

The magazine was intended to be the organ of 
the various state Historical Societies,^ and is 
largely made up of reporte of their meetings, and 
of papers read before them. 

The American Notes and Queries was issued 
Jan. 1, 1857, by W. Brotherhead of Philadelphia. 
Four monthly l^arts appeared, making 100 pages, 
but it was then discontinued. 

W. II. Whitmobb. 

Boston, U.S.A. 

I think 

Poetic Hyperboles (4 th S. i. 42.) — 
that P. A. L. will be pleased with the following 
line from the Sabrince Corolla, which pithily and 
aptly describes the universal sway of Roma and 
Amor : — 

" Omnia vici olim ; si inverteris omnia vinco." 

It is given as an enigma in the above-named 
book— a book creditable alike to the scholarship 
of Shrewsbury and England. Oxoniensis. 

West Cowes, Isle of Wight 

* A similar sign " hings " in the village of Sterndale, 
in the adjoining county of Derby. 

4* S. I. Fed. 1, '68.] 



The mar- 

Mabriage License (4 th S. L 14.) 

riage license is certainly not returned to the Dio- 
cesan Probate Court, and I presume that the 
usual practice of the parochial clergyman would 
be to retain it for a certain time, as having been 
his authority for the performance of the ceremony, 
but by no means to preserve it with any peculiar 
care. My experience is, that it is generally left 
by the officiating minister in the vestry of the 
church where the ceremony took place. 

So many marriages are performed after banns, 
and not by license, that the registry of licenses 
would not be of very much avail ; though I suppose 
they could always be known, if necessary, by proper 
application to the Chancery of the Diocese from 
whence they are issued : or at any rate the dio- 
cesan registrar's account-books would contain evi- 

dence of them. 


Thud (4 th S. i. 34.)— I am not sorry that I 
penned a note (perhaps it would have been better 
in the form of a query) upon Thud, since it has 
elicited such ample response, especially from 
Mr. Skeat, who gives the genealogy of, what I 
must still call, this ungainly word. Nevertheless, 
it can hardly be said to be naturalised when it is 
not to be found in dictionaries in ordinary use — 
such as Nuttall's edition of Walker. Though 
Ogilvie and Jamieson extend their hospitality to 
it, it is excluded from Boag's Imperial Lexicon, 
also published in Scotland. With deference to 
Mr. Irving, I cannot see the euphony of Thud ; 
nor do I believe "its inventor' had any more 
cause to be proud of it than had Frankenstein of 
his new aud monstrous creation. 

William Gaspky. 


John Davidson of IIaltree (4 th S. i. 47.) — 

I hope that your valued correspondent J. M. 
will not object to the following corrections, trifling 
though some of them may appear : — 

1. Mr. Warrender of Bruntsfield's Christian 
name was Hugh, not Hew. 

2. It is incorrect to describe that gentleman's 
house as "adjoining Edinburgh Castle." It was 
fully several hundred yards from any part of the 
castle, and adjoined the lower end of the esplanade 
which lies to the east of the castle. 

3. Salisbury Crass and Arthur's Seat could not 
be seen from the house, the view to the south- 
east being intercepted by the buildings opposite 
which still exist. 

4. Mr. Davidson's will was very defective in 
accuracy of expression. He left Haltree to Wil- 
liam Miller, a younger son of Sir William (Lord 
Glenlee) and his, $'. e. the son's, heirs. The son 
was killed at Waterloo ; and as the will did not 
become operative till afterwards, a question arose 
whether an older brother took the estate as being 
what in Scotch law is termed " heir of conquest," 
or whether it went to a younger brother as " heir 

of line." The Court of Session decided in favour 
of the latter, and its decision was affirmed by the 
House of Lords on appeal. 

5. Mr. Davidson left another propertv — a valu- 



able farm near Edinburgh called Cairntows 
Henry Dundas Lord Melville. 


In addition to the various tractates printed and 
distributed by Mr. Davidson — a gentleman whose 
profound knowledge in the history and anti- 
quities of Scotland was very great — it is crene- 

rally understood that the 



edition of 

Lord llailes' Annals of Scotland was issued in 
1797 under his superintendence. The " Accounts 
of the Chamberlain of Scotland, 1771," forms the 
concluding portion of the third volume thereof. • 

T. G. S. 


Fksttjs (4 th S. i. 28.)— The Festus inquired for 
by Mr. Dixon is of course ltufus testus, or 
Sextus Rufus, who lived late in the fourth cen- 
tury and wrote the Breviarium de victoriis et pro* 
vinciis Populi JRomani ? This work was first printed 

in 1472. B. II. C. 

Shard (3 ,d S. xii. 434.) — Dr. Jamieson, in his 

Dictionary of the Scottish Language, gives the fol- 
lowing definition of shard : 

" Shard. A little despicable creature; used as a term 
of reproach. This term is often applied contemptuously 
to a child ; generally to one that is puny or deformed, 
Aberd.; q. * A mere fragment.' Either a figurative use 
of E. shard, A.-S. sceard, a fragment; or allied to Isl. 
skard-a, minuere ; Su. G. shard, tract ura." 

Sham, or shairn, is the Scottish word for cow- 
dung. It is also used in the form coic-shaim. 

D. Macpuail. 




The Life of Prince Henry of Portugal, sumamed The 
Navigator ; and its Result*. Comprising the Discovery, 
within one Century \ of half the World. With new Facts 
in the Discovery of the Atlantic Islands ; a Refutation 
of French Claims to Priority of Discovery ; Portuguese 
Knowledge {subsequently lost) of the Nile Lakes; and 
the History of the Naming of America. From authentic 

Contemjx>rary Documents. By Richard Henry Major, 
F.S.A., 4c. Illustrated with Portraits, Maps, frc. 

(Asher & Co.) 

This is a valuable addition to our stock of biographies 
of foreign worthies, and will be especially interesting to 
English readers — for whom the history of maritime dis- 
covery has at all times a peculiar fascination — since it 
furnishes the story of one who, having made up his mind 
to devote his life to Atlantic exploration, carried out the 
determination so persistently as to lead to the discovery 
of half the world. Prince Henry the Navigator was, it 
will be remembered, the son of King John the First 
of Portugal, and grandson of " old John of Gaunt, time- 
honoured Lancaster ; " and, as Mr. Major well remarks, 




[4* S. I. Feb. 1, '68. 

when we reflect bow the small population of the narrow 
strip of the Spanish peninsula, limited both in means and 
men, became, in an incredibly short space of time, a 
mighty maritime nation, who not only conquered the 
islands and western coast of Africa, and rounded its 
southern cape, but also created empires and founded 
capital cities two thousand leagues from their own home- 
steads ; and that these results were mainly effected by 
the patience, wisdom, and intellectual labour of one man ; 
when we reflect on this, we may well wonder that no 
Englishman has, up to the present time, been tempted to 
prepare a suitable biography of him. Perhaps it is fortunate 
that the task has been left to Mr. Major, whose peculiar 
studies especially fit him for it ; while his official position, 
as Keeper of the Department of Maps and Charts in the 
British Museum, furnishes him with peculiar facilities for 
* its execution. Mr. Major has also had all the assistance 
which the Portuguese Government could afford him ; and 
we venture to say that his book is destined to take a pro- 
minent place among our records of early maritime dis- 
covery. It is highly satisfactory to see a public officer 
taking advantage of his official position to turn the special 
knowledge which that position has supplied him with to 
the service of the public. There is a very unpleasant 
episode in the Preface, in which Mr. Major throws grave 
doubts as to the genuineness of a mysterious MS. brought 
forward in support of the asserted priority of the French 
in discoveries on the coast of Guinea. 

The Writings of Ircnccus. Translated by the Rev. Alex- 
ander Roberts, D.D., and Rev. W. 11. Rambaut, A.B. 

Vol. I. {Vol. V. of the Antc-Nieene Christian Library). 

(T. & T. Clark.) 

The Refutation of all Heresies by Hippolytus. Translated 
by the Rev. J.' II. Macmahon, M.A. With Fragments 
from his Commentaries on Various Books of Scripture, 

translated by the Rev. S. D. F. Salmon. (Vol VI. of 
the Ante-Nieene Christian Library.) (T. d: T. Clark.) 

As, on the appearance of the first volume of Messrs. 
Clark's A nte-Nicene Christian Library, we commended both 
the intention and its execution to our readers, we must now 
confine ourselves to calling their attention to its progress, 
which is very satisfactory, and quite as rapid, we have 
no doubt, as is consistent with due care in translating and 
editing books of this important character. 

The Chandos Poets. The Legendary Ballads of Enqland 
and Scotland. Compiled and edited by John S. Roberts. 
With Original Illustrations and Steel Portrait. (Warne 


If a nicely got-up volume containing some three hun- 
dred of the best legendary ballads of England and Scot- 
land is not sufficient to tempt all who like " a ballad, 
whether of doleful matter merrily set down, or a very 
pleasant thing indeed sung lamentably," to become pur- 
chasers, every thing we could sav in behalf of the present 
collection would prove vain. 1' here is no fear, however, 
of the popularity of the book before us. 

The Statutes of a curious Bury St. Edmund's Gild of 
a.d. 1471, now in the British Museum, are to be added to 
Mr. Toulmin Smith's English Gilds for the Early English 
Text Society. It seems that John Smythe, Esq. and 
Margaret Odam of Bury, being desirous, like Godiva, to 
free their town from the payment of dues, left their lands, 
instead of riding naked through the streets, for that pur- 
pose ; then a Gild was formed, each member of which 
swore to perform the trusts of the wills, and when one set 
of trustees or Gild-members had nearly died out, the 
lands of the old benefactor will-makers were conveyed 
over to a new set. This Gild performed other offices of 
mutual help, had a common hearse for burials, &c. 


[The following interesting communication from our 
learned correspondent at Amsterdam shows the interest 
which this Catalogue is exciting on the Continent. 

Ed. "X. &Q."J 

I think that I have found a capital method for bring- 
ing a large portion of the titles of books, composing the 
list being published, under the eyes of a still greater 
number of readers than is the case even now. 

1 copy the titles of all works published in this country, 
and send them to the Dutch Aotes and Queries for inser- 
tion, with a request to furnish additions and corrections. 
Many correspondents who do not take in " X. & Q." will 
thus* be enabled to supply useful information. If the 
same thing were done with the French, Spanish, and 
American " N. <fc Q.," it would have, I think, a striking 

Each country would give its own information, 
and the Catalogue would be sure to gain in completeness 
and correctness. At all events, it is worth trying, and I 
recommend the scheme to all those interested in it. 

II. Tied km ax. 




Particular! of Price, ftc, of the following Books, to be sent direct 
to the gentlemen by whom they are required, whose names and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose: — 

The Gentleman's Maoiuni for 1769. also for 1765 'January to June 
inclusive). Also the title-page for the year 1771, the last leaf ot 
Index of Names for 1766, the latter part of Index to Essays for 1770* 
and the Index of Names for the sume volume. 

Wanted by Mr. E. Walford, 27, Bouverie Street, E.C. 

Dr. Treqelle's Ohikk Tmtamint. First Part. 
J ii » Christian Annotator. Vol. III. 

Wanted by Rev. J. If awes, 1, Old Jewry, E.C 

An Din son's Book on Drafts. 

Wanted by Mr. W. Willey, Birmingham. 

fintitti ta Garveipantstntt. 

Unitrr4AL Catalooub of BooKi on Art. All Additions and Cor- 
rections should if addressed to the Kddor % South Kensington Museum, 
London, W. 

Among other Papers of interest, which will appear in our next, we 
may mention — 

Raphael's Madonna della Sedia, 
Mr. lla/liit ■ Handbook: Heliodorut. 
The Craven Descent and Titles. 


What becomes of Parish Registers f 

Emendations of Shelley. 

C. W. M. The nates have been already printed by ApoUonius Per- 
qcBus. Florence, 1661, pp. 414, and thence transcribed into a copy of the 

H. FrsawicK. Joh. 0. Stiernhdk De Jure Sveonum et Gothorum 
Vetu*to, 4to, 1672, is stated to be rare in Bohn"s Catalogue of 1841, and 
priced at 

A Reading Case for holding the weekly Nos. of "N. & Q." if now 
ready, and maybe had of all Booksellers and Newsmen, price Is. *d.\ 
or, free by post, direct from the publisher, for Is. %d. 

•«• Cases for binding the volumes of ** N. & Q." may be had of the 
Publisher, and of all Booksellers and Newsmen. 

"Noras and Queries" is published at noon on Friday, and is also 
issued in Monthlt Parts. The Subscription for Stamped Copies for 
six Months forwarded direct from the Publisher (including the Half- 
yearly Index) is lis. id., which may be paid by Post Office Orders 
payable at the Strand Post Office, in favour of Will iam G. Smith, 43, 
Wbllinoton Street, Strand, W.C., where also all Communication! 
■or the Editor should be addressed. 

Freedom from Couors in Ten Minutes after use is insured bv 

Dr. Locock's Pulmonic Wapbrs Read the following from Mr. R. 

Bagley, bookseller. Ironmonger Street, Stamford: "Many parties in 
and around Stamford have experienced the most beneficial effects from 
your excellent medicine in asthma, coughs, and difficulty of breath- 
ing" Dr. Locock's Wafersgive initant relief to asthma, consumption, 
coughs, colds, and all disorders of the breath and lungs. They are in- 
valuable for clearing and strengthening the voice, and they have a 
pleasant taste. Price Is. 1 J</. and 2s. 9d. per box. Sold by all Drug- 

M Notes & Queries •• is registered for transmission abroad. 

4* S. I. Feb. 8, '68.] 






NOTES: — Raphael's "Madonna della Scdia," 117 — Letter 
from Charles I. to Duko of Ormond, IIS — James Green- 
shields' Scottish Episcopal Cleiyy, 119- Will or the Rev. 
Vincent Warren, 120 — Anne Askcwe, 121 — The Right 
Hon. Sir Edmund Head, Bart.: Distance traversed by 
Sound — The Malstrom — The Jeddart Staff— Fragment 
of M Tristam " — M. Michel Charles and Euclid's Porisms 

— Giambcaux : Gimboes, 121. 

QUERIES:— The Antiphones in Lincoln Cathedral: But- 
tery Family, 122 — Anonvmous — "The Emigrant's Fare- 
well" -Clan Chattan — Sir Edward Coke's "Household 
Book for 15W-7" — The Dialects of North America — 
Dieulacres Abbey, co. Stanford — Archdeacon of Dunkeld 

— Esquire — Gravy — Green in Illuminations — Hogg: a 
Scotch Name in Ireland — Ancient Ironwork — Junius 
and the Secretary of State's Otti -e — Sir Richard Ketley— 
Local Words— Marino's '• Slaughter of the Inuocents " — 
Modern Invention of the Sanskrit Alphabet — Name of 
Early Printer wanted — Rabbit, Ac, 123. 

Queries with Answers: — Cockades and who may use 
them — Madame Tallien — Henry Purcell — Form of 
Prayer for Prisoners— Cardinal de Cheverus— Kensing- 
ton Gore — Can a Clergyman marry himself? — Sir John 
Powell, 126. 

REPLIES: -The Craven Descent and Titles, 128-Pcll- 
Mell, 129 -Lady Nairn's Songs, 130 — Cicinclela-, 131 — 
What becomes of Parish Registers? 132 — Bloody, lb. — 
Homeric Society: Royal Society of Literature — "The 
Quest of the Sancgreal —Christmas Carol — Every Thing 

— Cold Harbour— Rudec : Defaraeden : Bire — Smith, the 
Poker Artist — Walsh of Castle Hoel — Generosus — Dice 

— Battle at Wigan — Family of Napoleon — * 4 Martyrdom 
of the Macchabees," Ac., 134. 

Notes on Books Ac. 



Who has not seen a copy, an engraving, a 
photograph, a woodcut, of this much-admired 
u Madonna V ? It is, I have no doubt, the most 
-widely known of all Raphael's pictures ; for 
nearly every child has admired the two pretty 
little boys' faces, and has felt— like all or us — 
drawn by a deep sympathetic feeling towards 
this motherly face of the Madonna. It has been 
the theme of numerous famous engravers (see 
"N. & Q./' 4 th S. i. 11), and collectors esteem a 
fine specimen of Raphael Morghen's or Joh. 
Gotthard Muller's exquisite engraving after this 
u Madonna" a real treasure. 1 remember how a 
passage in Mrs. Gaskell's most delightful work, 
referring to the " Madonna della Sedia," has struck 
me when reading the work alluded to for the first 
time. For who has read Cranford but once ; or 
who has not regretted that he or she could read 

Cranford— u that 

Surest piece of humoristic description that has 
een added to British literature since Charles 

o — — ' 

it but once for the first time ? 

freshed her spirits by looking at this lovely pic- 
ture, and u took comfort ": 

4i From station to station, from Indian village to village, 
I went along, carrying my child. I had seen one of the 
officers' ladies with a little picture, Ma'am— done by a 
Catholic foreigner, Ma'am— -of the Virgin and the little 
Saviour, Ma'am. She had him on her arm, and her form 
was softlv curled round him, and their cheeks touched. 
Well, when I went to bid good-by to this ladv, for whom 
I had washed, she cried sadly ; for she, too, had lost her 
children, but she had not another to save, like me ; and I 
was bold enough to ask her, would she give me that 
print ? And she cried the more, and said her children 
were with that blessed Jesus ; and gave it me, and told 
me she had heard it had been painted on the bottom of a 
cask, which made it have that round shape. And when 
my body was very weary, and my heart was sick — (for 
there were times when I thought of my husband ; and one 
time when I thought my baby was dying) — I took out that 
picture and looked at it, till 1 could have thought the 
mother spoke to me, and comforted mc." — Cranford, ed. 
1806, p. 167. 

passage again lately, and 

reminded of a 

in Cranford itself, I have m 
pretty legendary story in German, describing the 
origin of this picture which " had been painted 
on the bottom of a cask.'* It was a favourite 
story of my younger years — a story which has 
made me love this picture almost more than any 
other. The author s name was, if I remember 
right, Ernst Houwald; but I can only remember 
the pith of the story. 

Not far from Rome, in a little wood near the 
river, there lived in times long gone by a good 
old hermit, who had built his little hut under the 
shelter of a wide-spreading venerable oak tree. 
The old man was very fond of this tree, and be- 
stowed many darling names upon it, which were 
linallv settled in one, viz. his vara figUa y his dear 

her dearly ; and the birds 
and squirrels, that made of her a home, enlivened 
his solitude. For he was not a grim old hermit, 
but loved nature and her beauties like all good 
men. This "daughter/' then, was a great trea- 
sure to him ; but there was another " daughter/' 
a little carissima he loved still more — a little 
maiden, a vintner's daughter of some seven or 
eight summers, who came to visit the old man 
now and then, with her little basket full of choice 
fruit or flowers for the Madonna; a kind of Italian 
Little Red Riding Hood, going on her holy errand 
through the wood, meeting no wolf, but lovely 
and sweet, like that dear friend of all of us. ller 
he called his daughter, too. Her he loved still 
more fondly than the stately green daughter of 
the forest. " When the little Maria adorned his 

daughter. He loved 

Lamb/' as the Pall Mall Gazette so truly re- picture of her great prototype of sweetness and 
marked. The authoress tells us in her sympa- purity, the old man would kneel down and bless 
thetic manner, which endeared her so much to all her, and in his pure heart would bless the stately 
her readers, how the, poor wife of " Signor Bru- 

alias Samuel Brown, toiling along with 


green daughter as well. 

Once, when the spring rains had carried the 
her baby under the burning sun of India, re- ! snow-water from the mountains, the river near 



[4 tb S. I. Feb. 8, 'C8. 

which our hermit lived overflowed, and the old 
man would have been drowned had he not been 
saved by his green daughter. Though old and 
infirm, he had been able to climb up the tree; 
but he was obliged to stay there without food for 
two days and two nights until the water subsided, 
and then he was too feeble and faint to get down. 



The accompanying newspaper, the Caledonian 
Mercury of October 25, 1819, contains on the 
fourth page a " Copy of a Letter from King Charles 
I. to the Marquess of Ormond/' which is, I think, 

NicnoLsox Mackik. 

27, St. Paul's Churchyard, E.C. 

Meanwhile the little Maria had heard of the wor thv a place in the columns of " N. & Q. M 

disaster, and her little heart was fluttering with 

the urgent desire of bringing help to her venerable 

old friend. It was almost impossible to get to 

his hut, but a trusty stout servant of her father's 

carried the little child on his shoulders through 

the water; and with his help, too, the old man 

was rescued from his perilous situation ; and out 

of her little basket his " younger" 

freshed him with food and wine. His frail dwell- 

daughter re- 

ing had been sadly damaged, and he was obliged 
to take up his abode in a monastery. But his gra- 
titude towards his two daughters was unbounded. 
"Both had saved his life — upon both he showered 
his blessings that their deed and remembrance 
would remain for ever and ever alive in people's 
•minds ! 

Years had passed away. The old man was 
quietly sleeping under the waving lime-trees in 
the little God's-acre of the monastery : the stately 
green daughter had been hewn down, and Maria's 
father had bought the tree, which had been con- 
verted into some large wine-casks ; and Maria 
herself had become the happy mother of two dear 
-children. She was sitting with them one after- 
noon in front of her father's house, whither the 
tvine-casks had been carried to dry in the sun. 


"For the vintage was near, and the happy young 
mother sat under two lofty elm?, which were 
tenderly embraced by a large vine. A stranger 
passed by, and saw the lovely picture, lie stood 
still, lost in wonder at the natural grace and 
beauty of the three ; and full of the glorious art 
that was so thoroughly his own, his first thought 
to fix the pose of that lovely group for ever 
on his mind. But how? He had no pencil, no 
paper, no colours. Looking round, he spied the 
.clean bright bottom of a wine-cask ; and with a 
piece of chalk he drew the outline of that de- 
lightful picture, the " Madonna della Sedia," on 
the wood. This stranger was Raphael! And 
thus the two daughters became united for ever : 
for it was one of the casks of the old hermit's 
oak tree; and, too pleased with the beautiful 
sketch, the great painter finished his picture on 
the wood itself — Maria and her boys being his 
models for several days, sitting in their lovely 
affectionate way on the chair (scdia) under the 
lofty elms. Thus the old hermit's blessing 
fulfilled; and thus it came to pass that the 
" Madonna della Sedia" comforted, amongst thou- 
sands, the lonely wandering woman under the 
hot sun of India. Hermann Kindt. 



"« Cardiff, 3 1 July, 1645. 

" ' Ormond, it hath pleased God, by many successive 
misfortunes to reduce my affaires of late, from a verry 
prosperous condition, to so low an eb, as to be a perfect 
try all of all men's integrities to me; and you being a 
person whom I consider as most en ty rely and generously 
resolved to stand & fall with your King, I doe principally 
rely upon you for your utermost assistance in my pre- 
sent hazards : 1 have com'anded Digby to acquaint you 
at large with all particulars of my condition ; what I have 
to hope, trust too, or fearc ; wherein you will fynde, that if 
my expectation of relief out of Ireland, be not in some 
good measure, and speedely answered, I am lykely to be 
reduced to great extremities. I hope some of those ex- 
presses I sent you since my misfortune, by the battaile 
of Nazeby, are come to you, and am therlbr confident, 
that vou ar in a good forwardness for the sending over to 
me a considerable supply of men, artillery, and ammuni- 
tion ; all that I have to add is, that the necessety of your 
speedy performing them is made much more pressing 
by new disasters ; so that 1 absolutely com'and you, 
(what hazard soever that Kingdome may run by it) per- 
sonally to bring me all the forces, of what sort soever you 
can draw from thence, and leave the Government there 
(during your absence) in the fittest hands, that you 
shall judge, to discharge it; for I may not want you 
heercto command those forces w ch will be brought from 
thence, and such, as from hence shall be joyned to 
them : But you must not understand this as a permis- 
sion for you to grant to the Irish (in case they will 
not otherwise have a peace) any thing more, in mat- 
ter of religion, than what I have allowed you alreddy: 
except only in some convenient parishes, where the much 
greater number ar papists, I give you power to permitt 
them to have some places, w ch they may use as chapelb 
for theire devotions, if there be no other impediment for 
obtaining a peace; but 1 will rather chuse to suffer all 
extremities, than ever to abandon my religion, and parti- 
cularly ether to English or Irish rebells; to w ch effect, I 
have com'anded Digby to wryt to theire agents that were 
imployed hither, giving you power to cause, deliver, or 
suppresse the letter, as you shall judge best for my ser- 
vice : To conclude, if the Irish shall so unworthily take 
advantage of my weake condition, as to press me to that 
w ch I cannot grant with a safe conscience, and without 
it to reject a peace, I com'and you, if you can, to procure 
a further cessation ; if not, to make what devisions you 
can among them ; and rather leave it to the chance of 
warr between them, and those forces, which you have not 
power to draw to my assistance, then to give my con- 
sent to any such allowance of Popery, as must evidently 
bring destruction to that profession, w ch , by the grace of 
God, I shall ever maintaine, through all extremities; I 
know, Ormond, that I impose a verry hard task upon you, 
•but if God prosper me, you will be a happy and glorious 

4* S. I. FtB, 8, 'C8.] 



&ubiect ; if otherwais, you will perish nobly, and gener- 
ously, with and for him, who is 

44 4 Your constant reall 

44 4 faithful frend, 

44 ' Charles R.' 

44 The above letter is addressed 4 For the Marquess of 
Ormond,' with two seals bearing the arms of Charles in a 
perfect state, on the envelope, with this memorandum, 
4 31 Julv, 1645, by Robt. Smith, from Cardiff/ the two last 

words apparently by a different ink. 
the letter are these words 

On a blank side of 

"< His Ma** 31 July I 1645 

Rec 18 August 

Bv Robt. Smith/ 

Probably bv the Marquis of Ormond. 

"The original of the above letter, which is evidently 
genuine, is now in the possession of Peter Oliver, Esq. of 
Italgrave, a gentleman upwards of eighty years of age, 
the father of my vicar, who very politely permitted me 
to copy it. Mr. Oliver received it from his father, who 
was about seventy-live when he died. I attest the above 
to te faithfully copied from it in avory minute particular, 

the mistake?, &c. 

44 John Bull, M.A. 

44 Curate of Belgrave, Leicestershire. 

-Jan. 15, 1810." 




do not suppose many of the readers of 
"' ever heard much about Mr. James 

( Jroenshields — a Scottish gentleman in episcopal 
orders, who, after having cure of souls for some 
years in Ireland, returned to his native country, 
a«d in or about the year 1709 performed the 
othees of his religion in Edinburgh, for which 
offence he was cast into gaol. The nature of his 
crime and its punishment may be found duly set 
forth in a small quarto pamphlet of sixty pages 
entitled — 

"The Case of Mr. Greenshields as it was printed in 
London, with Remarks upon the same ; and Copies of the 
original Papers relating to that affair. As also a List of 
the late Episcopal Ministers who enjoy Legal Benefices in 
Scotland. Edinburgh : Reprinted by the Heirs and Suc- 
cessors of Andrew Anderson, Printer to the Queen's Most 
Excellent Majesty, Anno Dom. 1710." 

It will perhaps be "startling news" now as it 
was in 1710 — 

" to many well-meaning numbers of the Church of Eng- 
land, to near that a minister episcopally ordain'd, who 
has taken the oaths, has lain above four months impri- 
soned at Edinburgh for reading the Book of Common 
Prayer in a congregation of persons, many of whom are 
strangers and sojourners in that part of Great Britain, 
Members of the Church of England, and all of 'em per- 
suaded in conscience of the validity of Episcopal, and at 
least doubtful of Presbyterian ordination." 

It is well to remember, when we think of the 
sad persecutions for religion that have disgraced 
our country, that all the sin was not on the side 
of the Episcopalians. Had Mr. Greenshields suf- 
fered under another rule and for another cause, it 
is not uncharitable to suppose his name would 
have been more prominent in history. 


I do not, however, wish to trouble the readers 
of "N. & Q." with a life of Mr. Greenshields, or 
an essay on religious hatreds, but to put before 
them the very curious catalogue of Scottish Epis- 
copal clergymen that is given on the last two 
ages of the pamphlet. If I mistake not it will 
o useful to many of your readers both 

" Over the border and over the 
In Scotland the cannv, and England the free ; 

ft *~ " 

In the lands where Scots wander — and where do they 

not? — 
Where money is jingling or blows to be got." 

*' A List of Episcopal Ministers who enjoy Churches or 

Benefices in Scotland, March, 1710. 

"Mr. Alexander Dunbar, at Iladdingtoun ; Thomas 

Wood, at Dunbar; Smith, at Dawick, N. J. ; Robert 

Smith, at Longformacus ; John Brown, at Ellum, N. J. ; 
Adam Waddel, at Whitsome, N. J. ; William Cuning- 
hatne, at Makerstoun ; Alexander Mackcalman, at Les- 
more; Eneas Mackdonald, at South list ; Donald Mack- 
queen, at Snisoit; Alan Morison, at Lewis; Kennith 
M orison, at Starnway; Mungo Murray, at Logirate; 
Alexander Comery, at Kendmore; Francis Pearson, at 
Straerdle; Robert Steuart, at Killen ; Alexander Robert- 
son, at Fortingel ; Robert Gordon, at Cluny, Intruder ; 
John Skinner, at Bothkcnner ; William Campbell, at 
Ralquidder ; Patrick Lyon, at Kinghorn ; John Blair, at 
Sci;ony ; David Paton, at Kitteness; Thomas Ogilvie, at 
Luntruthen ; William Rait, at Monikry ; Alexander 
Poedy, at Lunen, N. J.; Patrick Maul, at Pa n bride ; 
William Balvaird, at Kirkden ; James Guthry, at Guthry 
Intruder; James Small, at Forfar; Sylvester Lyon, at 
Kilimure; Hendry Lindsay, at Donighen ; George Lvon, 
at Tannadice ; John Miln, at Inneraritv, Intruder; John 
Lyon, at Kinetles ; John Balvaird, at (flames, Intruder ; 
David Lindsay, at Old Montrose, N. J.; Patrick Simson, 
at Logy- pert h ; John Murray, at Caraldstoun, N. J. ; 
Alexander Lindsay, ibid. X. J. ; Robert Thomson, at 
Lochly; John Auchterlony, at Fordoun, Intr. ; Alex- 
anderlrwing, at Glenbervy ; John Reid, at Dores, N. J.; 
George Middletoii, at Aberdeen, Principal of a College ; 
Dr. William Blair, at Aberdeen; Alexander Gray, at 
Foot of Dee ; Richard Maitland, at Nig ; James Gordon, 
at Banchory; George White, at Mary-coulter; Gilbert 
Ramsay, at t>ice ; John Alexander, at Coldstoun ; Patrick 
Leith, at Lumphanan; Alexander Idle, at Couts ; An- 
drew Jaflfrey, at Alford ; Robert Mill, at Forbes; Andrew 
Livingston,* at Kig; John Walker, at Tilinestle; John 
Alexander, at Kildrummie ; John Robertson, at Strath- 
don; William Alexander,atCalsamond; Alexander Lunen, 
at Daviot ; William Murray, at Inncrury; John Burnet, 
at Monymusk; Alexander Miln, at Udny ; Walter Steuart, 
at Ellon, N. J.; Alexander Robinson, at Longside; 
George Keith, at Old Deer; William Swan, at Pitsligo ; 
George Dalgarnoch, at Fivie ; Adam Hay, at Monwhitter; 
John Inncs, at Gomric; John Dunbar, at Forglan ; Alex- 
ander Gellv, at Fordice ; John Hay, at Rathon, Intrude 
X. J. ; Will. Dunbar, at Cruden, Intruder ; Alex. Hep- 
burn, at St. Fergus, Intrud.; David Hedderwick, In- 
truder, at Aberdeen, possesses a Church ; Hector Frazer, 
at Inverness; Hugh Frazer, at Kiltarlatie ; Michael 
Frazer, at Daviot ; Thomas Frazer, at Doors ; Robert 
Cuming, at Urquhart ; Alex. Denoon, at Pettee, Deposed; 
George Dunbar, at Nairn ; Alexander Fordice, at Raffard ; 
Patrick Grant, at Ardclath ; Adam Harper, at Boharm ; 
John Scot, at Diple ; George Cuming, at Essile; Georgo 
Chalmers, at Botriphny ; Alexander Ross, at Bottarie; 
William Hay, at Rothemay ; James Gordon, at Kenie ; 
Alexander Alexander, at Glass, Intr. ; Lewis Gordon, 



[4* S. I. Feb. 8, '68. 

in the church of Kinore ; Thomas Frazer, at Suddy ; 
Roderick Mackenzie, at Avail ; James Huison, at Culi- 
cuden; Kenneth Mackenzie, at Logic; William Macken- 
zie, at Rosquine; John Mackenzie, at Fittertie; Agnus 
Morison, at Contine ; Andrew Ross, at Urquhart : William 
Frazer, at Kilmarack ; Donald Maccraw, at Kintail ; 
John Mackenzie, at Lochbroom ; Roderick Mackenzie, at 
Garloch ; John Mackenzie, at Lockaish ; Walter Ross, at 
Rogart ; William Paip, at Loth in Southerland : Alexan- 
der Gray, at Assint ; Xcil Beatoun, at Lathern in Caith- 
ness. — In all 113. 

"Besides a great many others that preach in Meeting- 

Houses, where some of 'em Pray for the Pretender; 
others who do not, refuse to Pray for the Queen; and 
some Pray only for their Sovereign, without naming any 
Body, but it is generally thought they mean the Pre- 

Readers are informed on p. 58 that the persons three battle-axes 
•who have N. J. after their names i% are Nonjurors, 
■who don't pray for the Queen." 

The names of some of the places in the above 
catalogue are evidently corrupt, though on the 
whole it seems to have been corrected with con- 
siderable care. Where there are mistakes, a 
Southron like myself would make confusion worse 
confounded by trving to put matters right. 

K. P. I). E. 

Vincent "Warren, minister of Plymstock," died 
April 22, 1788, aged twenty-three years, and was 
buried in a vault within the chancel : where also 
is a monument erected by her father to her 
memory, and surmounted by these arms : — Or, a 
lion rampant, gules, debruised with a fess, argent 
(a crescent for difference) — Julian : impaling, 
Chequy, or and azure; on a canton, argent, a lion 

Warren. Cred: On a wreath, 
or and gules, a demi-lion rampant of 2nd. At the 
base of the monument is a coat quarterly, the 
marshalling of which looks to me very doubtful 
(tinctures much worn and faded) : — 

1. Julian, as above. 2. Jl'arrcn, bearing on an 
escutcheon of pretence; . . . a tower . . between 

rampant, gules 


Attached to the bequests known in the parishes 
of Plymstock and Egg-15uckland * as ^Warren's 
Charity" are some stipulations which, from their 
quaintness, afford an excuse for transcribing my 
notes. Apart from the directions laid down in 
the will, the story of a father, bereft of two only 
daughters in the Sower of their youth, and within 
a very few days of each other, is one to touch the 
universal human heart. At what datn Mr. Wai 

became incumbent of Plymstock,! is not clearly 
made out ; but his name, as officiating in baptisms, 
&c, first appears in the register for 1772. He 
was buried, June 25, 1701, } in Plymstock church- 
yard in a vault, of which the only visible sign is 
a grassy mound. No gravestone without the 
church, no tablet or memorial of the defunct in- 
cumbent within, save only the board stating the 
particulars of his bequest, and the incidental men- 
tion of his name on his daughter's monument 
which he erected. The testator foresaw the 
possibility of the board in either church being 
allowed to decay, and, by imposing the penalty 
of forfeiture in case of neglect, made one parish 
a check on the other for ever. 

Egg-Bucldand.—" Georgina, wife of Humphrey 
Julian, vicar of th is parish, and daughter of 

* Both in the immediate neighbourhood of Plvmouth. 

t A perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Dean and 
Chapter of Windsor.— Lysons' Devonshire, 1822. 

X From the register, Lysons (Devonshire) gives 180G 
as the date of the donation to Egg-Buckland. Under 
4 Plymstock," he correctly states that Mr. Warren " died 
in 1791." 

3. . . ., three chevronels, 
ermine. 4, as 1. 

On the north wall of the nave, and near the 

pulpit, is a wooden tablet, whereon appears the 

following memorandum : — 

"To Perpetuate the Memory (with Benefit to the Poor) 
of Georgina Julian and Maria Warren, their Father 
Vincent Warren, Minister of Plymstock, has by his Will 
given eight Hundred Pounds, three per Cent Stock at 
the Bank of England, to be vested in Trustees : of which 
the Vicar of this Parish for the Time being is to be one. 

" From the Interest of which, Eleven Pounds is to> 
he expended in Cloathing Five Poor Boys, and Eight 
Pounds and Ten Shillings in Cloathing Five Poor Girls, 
residing in this Parish : Annually. The Boys are to 
have Blue Cloth, Grey Hats; Stockings all of one colour, 
Shoes and Shirts. The Girls Blue Stuff, Grey Hats; 
Stockings all of one Colour, Shoes, Shifts and Linen 
Aprons. None of the Children are to be under the age 
of Five, nor above the Age of eight years. Five of them 
are to be Cloathed at Lady Day, and Five on Michaelmas 
Dav. in every year. Four of the Children are to be 
Nominated by the Vicar, and the other Six, by the other 
Trustees. A Sermon is to be Preached once in even' 
Year, by the Vicar : on the duty of Children to their 
Parents, in which Duty the said Georgina Julian and 
Maria Warren were Exemplar}' : on the Twenty-second 
Da} f of April, unless that Day shall be on a Sunday, and 
in that case the Sermon to be preached on that Day. 

" And one Shilling is to be then Paid, to each of 
Twenty Poor Children of the Parish of Plvmstock, who 
shall attend on that Occasion, and ten Shillings to the 
Clerk and Singers, who are to Sing with the Children the 
Hundredth Psalm : on or near the Vault of the said 
Georgina Julian. 

"In case the Parishioners should Permit this Memorial 

to be out of Repair for the Space of three Years; the 
Donation is to be Applied for the Benefit of Poor Children, 
in the Parish of Plymstock." 

Plymstock. — A similar tablet in this church, 
but the sum to be vested in trustees for the benefit 
of the poor was two thousand pounds 3 per cent. 
Bank Stock. From the interest, twenty-three 
pounds to be expended in clothing ten poor boys, 
and eighteen pounds in clothing ten poor girls, 
annually. Twelve pounds to be taken for the 
rent of a proper place to teach the children, and 
two pounds for providing them with books. 
Eight shillings yearly to the sexton for cutting 

4*8.1. Fkb.8,'68.] 



the grass, and opening the drains round the testa- 
tor's vault, as often as may be necessary. Direc- 
tions similar to those at Egg-Buckland, as to the 
age and dress of the children; for preaching a 
sermon every year, and singing the Hundredth 
Psalm near the testator's vault ; closing with a 
provision, in case of neglect of the tablet for three 
years, that the donation is to go to the parish of 
Egg-Buckland. Here is a monument to the me- 
mory of Maria Warren, who died April 5, 1788, 
aged twenty-one years i with a notice of Georgina 
Julian's death and burial in the other church. 
Mr. Warren's forte does not seem to have lain in 
heraldry, or he would not have put his own 
coat and crest on his daughter's monument, as 
follows : — 

Chequy, or and azure ; on a canton, argent, a 
lion rampant, gules ; bearing on an escutcheon of 
pretence — Argent, a tower, sable, between three 
battle-axes, azure. Crest: On a cap of mainten- 
ance a (nondescript-looking bird ; probably, as 
borne by several Warrens) wivern . . . with 
wings expanded, the inward parts chequy, or^and 


I am able to state, on the authority of each 
clergyman, that the various directions above given 
have been strictly carried out in his parish during 
his own incumbency; and that each has reason 
to believe in their literal observance annually, 
ever since the foundation of " Warren's Charity." 

John A. C. Vincent. 


I lately acquired a copy of that well-known 
rare volume, The Examinacyon of Anne As- 
kewe, first and second parts, " Imprented at Marp- 
burg in the lande of Ilessen, Anno 1546-7." It 
formed, I find, part of a clearance lot from the 
Bodleian, sold at Sotheby's or Puttick's within 
the last few years, of duplicate and imperfect 
works, to which latter category my book unfor- 
tunately belongs ; and, as " N. & Q." is the only 
medium by which book-fanciers can become ac- 
quainted with each other's wants, I beg to state 
my case, in the hope that by so doing I may not 
only be able to completo my "own book, but at the 
same time help somebody else who may be wail- 
ing over a defective copy of the same curious 

My copy, then, is perfect as far as the first part 
goes, and on to the finis of the second on p. 04 ; 
on the reverse of which is The Conclusyon, and 
then, instead of the remainder thereof, there fol- 
lows from p. 41 to the end ef the first part repeated : 
so that I have that much of somebody else's copy 
of the first, while somebody else has the conclud- 
ing part of my second. My copy is in beautiful 
condition, unbound ; and my proposition is to ex- 

change my eight duplicate leaves of the first for 
the six deficient ones of my second part, if it offers 
a temptation to any gentleman having a like con- 
ditioned exemplar, which would be improved 

Apropos of these clearances from public libraries, 
I may state that this copy of Bishop Bale's book 
bears the Bodleian stamp, without, as in the case 
of the British Museum, the cancel one of Dupli- 
cate for Sale, which gives it, in private hands, an 
unlawful look. 

In a copy of The Mirovr for Magistrates, 1610 
(having the rare dedication of the Winter's Night 
to the Earl of Nottingham), now lying before me, 
and bearing the British Museum stamp and cancel 
of 1831, I feel that I have a clearer property 
than appears on the face of The Examinacyon of 
Anne Asketve in this questionable shape. A. G. 

Tin; Right Hon. Sir Edmund Head, Bart. 
Distance traversed by Sound. — The sudden 

death, during the last few days, of this refined 
holar and able administrator, recalls 




to my 

memory a very remarkable fact which he related 
to me not long ago. lie told me that, on Sunday 

Juno 18, 1815, when he was a child of 
nine or ten years old, he walked to church at 
llythe, on the east coast of Kent, holding his 
father by the hand. To their surprise, they found 
the bulk of the congregation standing outside the 
church door, although it was 11 o'clock, and ser- 
vice was commencing within ; and 
anxiously listening to the faint reverberation of 
cannon, which came from the eastward. It will 

be remembered that the clock of the church at 
Nivelles struck eleven as the first gun was fired 
from the French centre at Waterloo on that 
momentous day. A drizzling rain had fallen in 
the early morning ; there was little wind, and I 
do not know its direction. On the map the dis- 
tance between Waterloo and Ilvthe would appear 
to be about 110 or 120 miles. Whether sound is 
susceptible of transmission over such a space is a 

question for consideration. 


Emerson Tennent. 

The Malstrom. — We have most of us read 
terrible stories connected with the malstrom, that 
of Edgar Poe for instance — " A Descent into the 
Maelstrom." Hear what a recent writer says 
about it : 

" The famous and undeservedly dreaded malstrom is 
so little thought of by the inhabitants, that they pass 
and repass it in their frail vessels at all states of the tide, 
except at certain times in the winter season ; and, far 
from drawing in whales and other things that come 
within its range, it appears to be a favourite resort of the 
fish of the country, and the fishermen reap a rich pisca- 
torial harvest from its bosom. The greatest rate of the 
tide in winter does not exceed six miles an hour." — See 



[4*3.1. Fkii.8,'6& 

Consul Gen. Crowe's Report on the Fisheries of Norway, 
in Commercial Reports, No. 2, of 18G7 ; presented to Par- 

liament, Feb. 1867. 

Pjiilip S. Kino. 

TnE Jeddart Staff. — I send the following 
extract from the KeUo Chronicle of Nov. 22. As 
it contains some historical information, it may be 
worthy of insertion in the pages of u N. & Q." : 

" In a recent lecture in connection with the Debating 
Society, Mr. Jeffrey, solicitor (the historian of Roxburgh- 
shire),* took occasion to refer to the Jeddart staff. The 
two weapons represented on the fia^ recently given to 
the bur#h by ex-Provost Deans were not, he said, Jed- 
dart staffs, but Lochabcr axes, the Jeddart staff being a 
far more formidable weapon, being described, by old au- 
thorities who saw it, as a staff * witli a steel hea*d four 
feet long.' We may state, however, that Mr. Deans 
took a drawing of one procured in the Tower of London, 
and it was similar to those shown on the flag which he 
presented to the burgh on the occasion of Her Majesty's 
recent visit to the Borders." 

J. Manuel. 


Fragment of " Tristam." — It mav interest 
some one who reads your valuable periodical to 
learn that I have a single leaf of a very old small 
folio in black letter, not paged, marked at the top 
u Book IV.," and the chapter headed 

"How Svr Palomvdes came to the Castell where Svr 
Trystam was, and of the quest that Syr Launcelot and 
or. Knights made for Syr Trystam. Ca. xxxvi." 

An imperfect copy, in consequence of wanting 
this leaf, may be somewhere. If so, I shall be 

glad to hand it to the owner. George Stuart. 

14, Albert Drive, Glasgow. 


I send you the enclosed cutting from the Man- 
chester Guardian, January 7, 18U8, and hope that 
your contributor, the Librarian of the Chetham 
Library, will be allowed to publish Mr. Wild- 
bore's letter in your columns. 

" Manchestku Literary and Philosophical So- 
ciety. — At the last meeting of this society— Mr. E. \V. 
Binney, vice-president, in the chair—a paper, by Mr. 
T. T. Wilkinson, corresponding member of the society, 
was read on some points in the restoration of Euclid's 
porisms. The writer quoted from works by M. Chasles, 
who is just now attracting attention by his connection 
with the Newton and Pascal forgeries, in which that 
gentleman claims to have been the first who fully under- 
stood the nature of those properties of numbers called 
'porisms' by Diophantus, and which are supposed to 
have been set forth in a lost work bv Euclid. Mr. Wil- 
kinson refuted this claim on the part of M. Chasles by 
quoting from a letter (the original of which is in the 
Chetham Library) from the Rev. Charles Wildbore, some 
time editor of the Gentleman* Mathematical Diary, to the 
Rev. J. Lawson, rector of Swanscombe, Kent, and brother 
of the head master of the Manchester Grammar School, 
m which Mr. Wildbore announced the same discovery. 
Mr. Wildbore had been en^a^ed on porisms before it be^ 
came known that Dr. Simson had restored them. Mr. 
Lawson announced to Mr. Wildbore Dr. Sanson's discovery 

in a letter dated August 10, 1775. Mr. Wildbore there- 
fore anticipated M. Chasles by more than sixty years." 

Hermann Kindt. 

Gluibeaux: (JiMi)OES. — This word, long ago 
obsolete, was .-trangely resuscitated in a most 
curious expression I heard the other day. A little 
girl was passing whom nature had endowed with 
a pretty stout and well-proportioned pair of legs. 
A person standing by said, u Look at that lassie's 
(/imbues: thev are quite yammy" Struck with the 
observation, 1 a.^ked what he meant? He said, 
" Her legs are well shaped and stout." In answer 
to further questions, ho said he had been accus- 
tomed to the expression from earliest recollection, 
and appeared to be merry at my ignorance on so 
(to him) unimportant a subject. 

To use the words of J. Payne Collier in hi* 

note on the lin 

" Deep in their flesh, quite through the yron walles, 
That a large purple *treame adown their giambcux 
fallc8. ,, 

Sponsor's Faerie Quccnc, vol. ii. p. 184, edit. 1862, 

the expression " is moro French than English" 
Giambeatw or yimboes, from jambc, the leg ; and 
yammu from the same word — bien jambS — well- 
leered. J. Harris Gibson. 



Tin: AxnrnoNEs in lixcoln cathedral.- 


The antiphoncs over the prebendal stalls, sixty- 
two in number, in Lincoln Cathedral, define tlie 
psalms which each prebendary was bound by 
statute to recite daily for benefactors in his pri- 
vate devotions — the entire psalter being tnua 
divided amongst the .chapter. What are those 
aflixed to the stalls of Marston, St. Lawrence, 
and Carlton-cum-Thurlby, and when was this 
statute instituted ? 

John Buttry was collated to the prebend of 
Carlton Thurlby, March 30, 1645. John Buttrie 
was also prebend of Botevant, in the archbishopric 
of York, collated Oct. 8, 1540. Wm. Tumour 
succeeded him, Feb. 12, 1549-50, on his death. 
(B. Willis' Survey of Cathedrals.) According to 
Hatcher's list of the scholars who came from 
Eton School by election to King's College, Cam- 
bridge, it appears that John Butterie went away 
scholar, and was master (precentor) of the cho- 
risters at Ramsie Abbie a.d. 1504. 

On March 10, 1514, D«. John Botreye, pbr. 
was presented to St. Mary, Wootton- Waven, War- 
wickshire, by the provost, fellows, and scholars of 
King's College, Cambridge, and left it Dec. 17, 
152:3. (See Dugdale.) At the time of his death 
he was rector of Newton Tonev, Wilts, also in 
the gift of Kings College. (B. Willis.) 

His will, dated Feb. 12, 1549, and signed " John 

4* 3. 1. Feb. 8, '68.] 



Buttrye," gives the advowson of a benefice called 
f larlington to his chaplain, " Sir Edmund." This 
I suppose to be the chapelry of that name in the 
North Riding of York, and gift of the archbishop. 
And to " Sir John Dale ,f a cloke which is at 
Fugglestone, Wilts. Also to his lord and master, 
the Erie of Southampton (Sir The*. Wrottesley) 
his best gray gelding. .1 Iolinshed, in his account 
of the tumults on the suppression of monasteries 
in the North Riding of York, says that Thos. 
Dale, parish clerk of Seymer, was a principal 
doer and raiser up thereof; also, that John Dale 
and Edmund Buttrie, busie stirrers in this sedi- 
tion, were executed at York, Sept. 21, 1549. J. 
Buttrye gives the rest of his estate to his cozen 
Christian Cornish, W w of London. Was she con- 
nected with Wm. Cornyshe the poet, musician, 
and master of the children of the chapel to 
Henry VII. and Henry VIII., and who conducted 
the disguisings and interludes in those reigns? 
His name occurs frequently in the Calendar of 
State Papers in conjunction with that of William 
Buttry or Botre, mercer to Henry VIII. and Car- 
dinal Wolsey. 

Wm. Buttry supplied "gowns and hoods for 
Cornish, " also advanced money to pay for Wolsey 's 
promotion at Rome ; is also mentioned in the will 
of John Dudley, Henry VII.'s favourite, as a cre- 
ditor. He was also godfather to William, eldest 
son of Sir John Gresham, April 25, 1622. (See 
the Too. and Gen. vol. ii. p. 512.) In 1547 he 
settled his manor of Borough, near Aylsham, on 
his wife Alice. Of what family was "she ? This 
manor was part of the possessions of Edmund de la 
Pole, Earl of Suffolk, and purchased of Hen. VIII. 
in 1510 by William Botery or Botre, his mercer. 
(Blomefield's Norfolk.) I am desirous of adding 
to Baker and Bridges' histories of Northampton- 
shire, as they begin their accounts of the family of 
Buttrye or Botry of Marston St. Lawrence rather 
abruptly, and shall be glad of any information. 

Albert Buttkrt. 

Anonymous.— Who was the author of 

" Nouveau Dictionnaire Historique des Sieges et Ba- 
tailles memorable* et des Combats maritime* lea plus 
Faraeux." Par M . . . M . . . Paris, 1809. 6 vol. 8vo. 

K. P. I). E. 

"The Emigrant's Farewell."— Wanted a 
reference to any book where I can find the follow- 
ing poem : 

44 Fast by the margin of a mossy rill 

That wander'd gurgling down a heath-clad hill, 
An ancient shepherd stood oppressed with woe, 
And eyed the ocean flood that gently foam'd below." 

The poem relates that of five sons, three had 
died in their country's cause. J. T. A P. 

Clan Chattan.— I beg to ask you, or your 
readers, a few questions on what has always 

been to me a confused subject in Scotch history. 
It seems to be now pretty generally admitted 
that the confederation of clans called Clan Chat- 
tan derives, at all events, its name from an old 
convert of St. Kattan. How much is known 
about the history of this St. Kattan ? 

Although particular names of clans and families 
have come from clerical sources, such as Macnab, 
Mactagart, Mac Vicar, &c, is there any other 
instance of a confederation of clans named after a 
saint ? What names undoubtedly belonged to the 
clan Chat tan? M. V. 

Sir Edward Coke's "Household Book for 

1590-7." — Sold at Mr. Craven Oid's sale to Mr. 
Madden, and resold by auction in London, within 
the last twenty years. Would any of the readers 
of " N. & Q." give information as to who is the 
present owner P Suffolk Rector. 

The Dialects of North Africa. — Would any 
reader of " N. & Q. ,f inform me where I could 
procure a vocabulary of the language spoken by 
the Berbers, or mountaineers of the Atlas in 
North Africa; also, one of the Targhee, or lan- 
guage of the Touarick tribes, who inhabit the 
Sahara? Richard R. Brash. 

Sundays Well, Cork. 


1. Richard, first Abbot. 

2. William, temp. Thomas, who was Abbot of Chester 


3. Adam, Abbot of Diculacres and Pulthun, in a deed 

pene$ Mr. Warburton of Arley. 

4. Robert, an. 1229 and 1238, in Rossall deeds, inter 

Palmer MSS., Chetham librarv. 

5. Stephen, 28 Hen. III. 

6. Hamon, an. 12GH and 

7. Robert, an. 1299, in deeds penes Marquis of West- 


8. Walter de Morton, temp. Matthew de Cranarch. 

9. Nicholas, an. 1318. 

10. Peter, an. 1330, in a deed penes Mr. Greaves, Q.C. 

11. Richard, 1 Hen. VI., an. 1422. 

12. John, 16 Hen. VI. 

13. Thomas, an. 1499. 

14. Adam de Whytmore, in a quit-claim in Ormcrod's 

Che sh ire. 

15. John Newton, 14 and 18 Hen. VII. 

16. William 

17. Thomas Whitney was the last abbot. In his will, 

dated 1557, he desires to be buried in Westmin- 
ster Abbey. The commissioners, Thomas Legh 
and William Cavendyshe, allow him 71. 

Can anyone help me to amend or extend this 
list ? The gaps are wide between 10 and 11, and 
between 12 and 13. John Sleigh. 

Thornbridge, Bakewell. 

Archdeacon op Dtjnkeld. — Any information 
relative to Ingram Kettins, or Caithness, Arch- 
deacon of Dunkeld, who died in 1380, or reference 
to any work in which such information would be 
found, would be much appreciated by E. C. 

rAlbon?], 11 Hen. VIII. 
A'hitnev was the last abl 



[4*S. 1.-Fkr.8,'68; 

. • Esquire. 


fordshire, written about 1569, states : " The title 
of Esquire was scarcely found in any deed before 
Richard II. , and then was obtained from esquires 
attending their lords with arms, as armigeri, scuti- 
feri." When was this title first applied to those 
in purely civil occupations, and how long has its 
almost universal application to every class, except- 
ing clergy, been in vogue ? 

Thomas E. Wixnixuton. 

Gravy.— What 


"gravy" ? 

is tne origin of the word 
Neither Johnson nor Webster make 

T. Heather, 

I shall be glad of a hint on the 

F. M. S. 

any attempt at its derivation. 

Green in Illuminations. — In attempting to 

copy some of the magnificent capital letters in 
Mr. S. Gibson's History of the Priory of Tyne- 
mouth — by far the finest imitations of ancient il- 
luminations which have been published in this 

country — I have totally failed to imitate the soft 
velvety green which appears in so many of them. 
Emerald green, shaded with blue, gives the tint, 
but works so badly that there is no use attempting 
to obtain the smoothness and softness of the ori- 
ginal by using it. 

Hogg : A Scotch Name in Ireland. — The 

writer is anxious to discover whether the surname 
Hogg in Ireland originated in one of the military 
settlers under Cromwell or in the time of William 
III. There used to be a Protestant family of this 
name, in moderately good circumstances, some 
fifty years or so past ; and they were either owners 
or tenants of a place called IJullock's Park, near 
Carlow. In the parish register of that town 
the name is frequently found, and in the late em- 
bodied local militia, three brothers, sons of the 
farmer above alluded to, held posts. One, named 
John, was a staff sergeant; Richard was quarter- 
master with the rank of ensign ; and John (sic) was 
paymaster's clerk and staff" sergeant. This latter 
married a certain Lucy Pichardson, daughter of a 
master painter, and had three daughters — Ann, 
Mary, and Lucy. The first named married at 
Waterford, about 1848, a person named Procter, 
and had an only child named Anastasia. 

It would be instructive to trace the gradual 
impoverishment and emigration of the smalle 
Cromwellian settlers. S 



Ancient Ironwork. 

Will any of your eccle- 

siological readers be kind enough to refer me to 
ancient examples of circular scutcheons, used as 
ornaments round the handle of church doors, or 
purely ornamental wheels for doors, measuring as 
much as two feet six inches in diameter? Is there 
an^ old example known of two such scutcheons 
being found on one door, one outside and one 
Wlthin ? W. IT. Sewell. 

Yaxley Vicarage, Suffolk. 

Junius and the Secretary of State's Of- 
fice. — Mr. Parkes says that the letters of Junius 
were written on paper similar to that tised in the 
War Office. Mr. I lay ward, in Fraser's Magazi 
for December, says that they are written on paper 
similar to that on which letters sent to the War 
OHice were written. Lucius (Misce/l. Letter 
iii.) says that ho was " better acquainted with 
the style of the Secretary of State's Office ■" than* 
Virginius imagines. Mr. llayward also says that 
there was intimate connection between the offices 
of the Secretary of State and the Secretary at 
War. Were the letters written on paper used in 
the Secretary of State's office ? Crito is supposed 
to be Junius. Crito, in his letters (Wood fall's 
edition, vol. i. pp. 88-80), says that Weston took. 
400/. out of the T>00/. that" was to be divided 
amongst thr clerks in the Secretary of State's 
Office. During what period was Weston Under-. 
Secretary of State? under what circumstances, 
and when was " the money " divisible ? 


Sir Richard Kktlkv. — It is thus that Shake- 
speare (Henry V. } Act IV. Sc. 8) names the only 
hnglish knight who fell at Agincourt. In the 
Chronicles of Hall and Holinshed — the latter of 
which wns the source of the plav — he is named 
Sir R. Kittely, while in the MSS. published by 
Sir Harris Nicolas he is named Sir R. do Kighly/ 
or Kyghle, a knight of Lancashire — as we learn 
from Mr. Hunters Aqincourt. Where then did 

Shakespearo get his Sir R. Ketlcy P I think it 
may have been in this way: — The knight derived 
his name, a*< I do my namo and arms — Argent, a 
fesse sable — from the town in the West Riding of : 
Yorkshire, which is written Keighley ; but in 
which / or th is invariably inserted in pronuncia- 
tion, just as the Icelanders write Jarl, but pro- 
nounce Jaiil. The ci, I may observe, is sounded 
as in eight, iceight, and this diphthong was com- 
mutablc with the vowel ?, whence sleight, slight, 
height, higlxt, &c. Spenser, by the way, has height 
for caught; and thence the orthography of the 
above-named authorities. Tradition, however, had 
probably preserved the names of those persons of 
any importance who fell in that famous battle, 
and hence the poet may have gotten the name 
which he wrote Ketley : he may, in fact, have 
written it correctly, and the printer have left out 
the vowel i, Tuos. Keiqhtley. 

Local Words. — A MS. book in my possession, 
entitled u A Drag," of all the lands, &c, in a 
parish in this county, Norfolk, made in the first 
year of King Henry VII., contains some words 
in the following extracts marked in italics — of 
which I am desirous of learning the derivation 
and meaning, as they are not in any glossary to 
which I have access. And here I may remark, 
that the term drag, often used in mediaeval times 

4*S. I. Feb. 8/68.] 



tor an extent or survey of the lands in a manor or 
parish, is not met with in the glossaries. 

At the period of this survey enclosures were 
very rare, and the lands lay in large open fields, 
divided into quarentines or furlongs ; and I ob- 
serve that neither the numbers of pieces of land, 
nor the quantities contained in any one quaren- 
tine, corresponded with each other — varying from 
two acres to twenty ; but that so many pieces of 
land, in which the furrows all ran in the same 
direction, constituted a separate f urlong — furrow- 
long. I despair of ever obtaining a satisfactory 
answer to my repeated question, why these fur- 
rows were always curved or serpentine (2 nd S. 
vii. 273 ; 8* S. in. 134) : 

1. ** Alia Quarentena juxta le Laumde drmre manerii 

jacet," etc f Probablv a grassy drove. (3 rd S. xii. 329, 
422). J 

2. " R. T. tenet ibidem, etc., et tenetur de dicto manerio 
per Remeshot" [This may mean realmshot, or the pay- 
ment of any general tax; but this wa* the only piece of 
land in the parish described as so held.] 

3. " Et domiuus dominii unum comuuem de chasseam 
jacentem inter— et le Launde — et e.-t iu latitudinc 

xxxviij flfoto per le polefotte, quod est liij unnas in lo:i- 


4. u R. \V. tenet libere ibidem vnatn acram et unam 
rodara temp cum j Crvndell in fine borcale," etc. 

5. " W.O. tenet ibidem unam acram terra — ct vocatur 
ijore acre cum una slada in tine borcale," etc. 

0. J. S. tenet, etc, dimidiam acram terra*, etc — ct est 
a yartland" [A goreland was probably in the shape of 
what is called a core or gusset in a doth garment— 
broader at one end than the other — where the furlong 
was not rectangular.] 

7. " Et abuttans super comunem $eitam." 

8. " T. R. tenet ibidem unam acram et dimidiam terra?, 
etc., et est plant' cum quarcis, furci* ct selmucis et aliis 
boscis." [ Oaks, furze, and sallows ? ] 

Ct. A. C 

Milfield, E. Dereham. 

Marino's " Slaughter of the Innocents." 

Who is the author of this version of Le Stragc 
degV Innocent i of Giambattista Marino (" Newly 
Englished/' London : Printed by Andrew Clerk, 
Ac, 12mo, 1075) ? As a translation, it possesses 
very considerable merits, and appears to me quite 
worthy of Richard Crashaw, to whom it is attri- 
buted, by the u lettering " of my copy. We know 
that Crashaw formed his style in jrreat measure 
upon that of Marino, whose Sotpetto (THerodc, 
included in Mr. Turnbull's edition, he did trans- 
late ; but I do not know any evidence to justifv 
the connection of his name with this other work 
of the great Italian poet, to which, as a religious 
poem, we had no fitting rival to oppose before the 
appearance of Paradise Lost, the author of which 
is indebted to the Adamo of his southern pre- 
cursor. The dedication of the Slaughter of the 


of York/ is signed f .* R. 

William Batks. 

[•A similar inquiry appeared in " X. *fc Q." 1«« S. xi. 
265.— Ed.] 

Modern Invention of the Sanskrit Alpha- 
bet. — Hammer s Ancient Alphabets and Hiero- 
glyphic Characters, London, 1806: — The work 
above referred to is the translation, by Joseph 
Hammer, secretary to the Legation at Constanti- 
nople, of an Arabic collection of eighty ancient 
alphabets aud hieroglyphics, by Ahmad, son of 
Bakar, son of Wahshi, a Nabathean, who lived 
during the reign of the Khalif Abdul Malik, son 
of Marwan, identifiable, apparently, with Bukker, 
son of Wahashi, properly llabshi/the Abyssinian 
slave, who killed llamza, the uncle of Muham- 

mad, at the battle of Ohud, a.d. 003.* 

into tho 


of languages 

This very 
profound inquiry 

contains many curious alphabets of which we have 
at present no knowledge ; and purporting, as it 
does, to give alphabets in use even before the 
Deluge, must bo accepted as an unreserved com- 
munication of all knowledge which existed at tho 
time of writing upon the subject. 

The alphabets correspond generally with a work 
of the same kind in the Armenian language which 
I had when in India,t especially in giving three 
variations of an alphabet called Hindi, as well as 
in omitting all notice whatever of the Sanskrit, 
Tumul, or other dialects of Southern India, tending 
thereby to show that these languages must have 
been invented subsequent to its compilation. 

1. Can the Sanskrit character in which tho 
Vedas are written be derived from any of the 
three Hindi alphabets given by Ahmad son of 

2. Can they be identified as bearing any affinity 
to the Pali, the nail-headed, or other characters 
found in ancient Indian grants and inscriptions? 

It. R. W. Ellis. 

Starcross, near Exeter. 

Name of Early Printer wanted. — I recently 
came across a Life of St. Jerome, printed in 
the Italian tongue, and partially rubricated. Its 
exact title is, Comincia la J'ittt e la fine del glorioso 
Sancto Hicronymo, Doctore Excellentissimo. It is 
printed at Venice, the date being 1475. Can any 
of your correspondents, from these data, furnish 
me with the name of the printer? 

William (J 



Rabbit. — What is the sense of this expression, 

so often used by mothers in the south of England ? 
You often hear them exclaiming u Rabbit the 


The latter 

child," or " Drabbit the gin. uie latter expres- 
sion is, of course, a u bad word''; but is the former 
necessarily so? W. (J. 

Salway Ash, near Bridport.— Can any Dor- 
setshire antiquary tell me the origin of the name 
of this place ? Is it noticed in any history of 
Dorsetshire ? T. Salwky. 

• Major Price's Muhummadan History, vol. i. p. 47 
t Col. Tod's Amt'th of Rtijunthnn, vol. i. p. 797. 



[ I"' S. I. V i,n. 8, T18. 


lately purelmaod a work of eonsidernblo historical 
and political interest, which had formerly be- 
longed to u distinguished member of tho Chancery 

liar, ami found in it inanv notes in shorthand, 1 

» , ■ i • i t i «♦ 



m reminded o( a query which I have lor sonic 
time desired to nut before your readers, viz.: 1 low- 
far is shorthand available for literary purposes, 
more especially for making transcripts Y It is 
written with so much more rapidity, that on aucl 
occasions as making transcripts in a library far 
from home, where time is tne one thing to be 
considered, 1 can well understand how it might 
be more convenient to make transcripts in short- 
hand, even though they should have to bo written 
out again for the printer, than to spend two or 
throe additional days away from London. Have 
any of your readers ever used shorthand for the 
purpose of making transcripts Y and if so, with 
what result Y S. 1\ 

hi ink vor Kinim \. 



curious use oi me 
adverb n kindly M has always seemed tome a pro- 
vincialism, but it has been adopted either seriously 
or sarcastieally in the recent " allocntion " of Mr. 
Punch. Is tin* phrase very common ? Where is 
it ehietly used Y How far back can it be traced Y 
Wherever 1 have heard it used (for 1 have never 
noon it in print before) it has always meant 
41 thank you for your kindness in," &o., \e. ; the 
very opposite of the usual meaning of •• kindly." 


Watku-Mahks \nd Tin: '• Muvmuii: V&- 

LKSTK". — An* all vourscientitieo-historico renders 


aware that the water-mark of the paper on which 
tho first edition of the Mtoini</u<* (V/r.«fe is printed 
consists of the words Mf^tn't/tw (V/<><V, in capitals h 
This is a remarkable instance of the prevision of 
Laplace. Can any other example of tlie kind b 


pie oi me kuui ue 

W. HvuuKrr Dams. 

Dr. Woi.cor, — Can any correspondent direct 

me to persons retaining a rccolleetion of l>r. Wol- 
cot (Peter Pindar) during the latter part of his 
career after he came to reside in London ? 11. K. 

tfhirrtrtf tottb Snitornf. 


of cockades in servants' hats seems to have much 
increased. Do they indicate any particular rank, 
and what is their origin, and who are entitled 

to use them ? 

An Old Srnst kuikk. 

| No amall social question has been mere fully discussed 
In M N. & t>. ,% than the origin of cockade*, ami, as a con- 
sequence, who arc entitled to place them in the lints of 
their servants. Some twentj communications on the 
subject will ho found in our I" ami 2»<» Series/ Neither 

• 1* S. iii. 7, A2 % 71, 1%, 892; vll 33H % m % 618; U. 
IM>, Ml ; *«* S, viu leS, 240, 804, 4*1. 16* Mi; viii.37: 

question has yet been fully answered. The name appears 
to be of French origin. Roquefort defines "Coi'kahw, 

touffv tie ruhnHs ijur sou$ Louis A" / // on jxtrtait $ur if 
feutre % et qui imitait la crfte tlu e»x/ ;*• though, in an in 
tcrcsting paper by the late Mr. John Wilson Croker 
(l ,! S. iii. 392), he says the cockade was merely the knot 
of the riband that served to cocA the broad flipped hat 
worn bv mllitarv men in the seventeenth century, 
and derives its name from that circumstance. The 
bailee, favour, or cockade of Charles 1. was scarlet : 
but upon the restoration of Charles II., white was as- 
sumed, derived from the white rose, the badge of the 
house of Stuart ; and that being also the badge of Po- 
land, it became doublv Identified with the Stuarts from 
the marriage of tho OM Pretender with the Princes* 
Sobicski. We believe a >\ hito rose is still worn on the 

10th of June bv some enthusiastic admirers of the fallen 
dynasty. An orange cockade was the badge of the house 
of Orange, and the black cockade that of the house of 
Hanover. The black and white cockades, it will bo re- 
membered, are contrasted in Warerley ; and an old Scotch 

song, speaking of the battle of Sherra-Muir, describe* the 
Knglish soldiery a* 

M The red-coat lads wi' black cockades. 


The black cockade being recognised as the badge of the 
bouse of Hanover, it will be seen at once how it came to 
be worn by the servants of the officers of the army and 
navy. Thus much for the origin of the black cockade. 
The next question — who are entitled to place them in the 
hats of their servants? — seems involved in considerable 
obscuritv. It was formerly understood to be limited to 

« • 

the servants of all gentlemen holding the rank of field 
officers, mid as their servants were, for tho most part, 
soldiers, the cockade preserve*! its military character; but 
it is clearly not so limited in practice at the present 
time. We may here .state, on the best authority, that no 
order* regulating the use of cockades are known to exist. 
With reference to the question as to the right of Volun- 
teer officers to give cockades to their servants, now fre- 
quently agitated, precedent is against it, as it is recorded 
l M N. i Q." *** S. ix. 129) that the servants of the 
officers of the old City Light Horse did not wear them ; 
but, 011 the other hand, it i> stated that the manner in 
which Volunteer officers arc recognised in recent Acts of 
Pari iament gives them the same privileges in this re- 
spect as officers o\ the regulars. In a curious article by 
Miu Maci.kan (2* d S. vii. 421), from which we have 
taken some o^his epitome, the reader will find an account 
of the various coloured cockades worn by the servants of 
foreign ambassadors in this country.] 

Maiumv. Tai.ukx. — In a very racy and well- 
written article in the January number of *Sf. PanT* 
Mat/oziHt is the following: 

••They danced, toes those three loving friends, Madame 
Tallien, ltcauharuais, and Kccamier, Attic dances after 
tho majestic and classical manner, performing evolutions 
with (ircck chlamyde* ' high and disposed ly,' to the 
delight of the 'golden youths 1 and the generals and 

4"" 8. I. Pitii. *, '68.] 




utatcsmen, who all regretted even the scanty chlamydes, 
so much were thev otherwise attired by the * grace of 
CJod/ 8ome one has called this ' the Age of Muslin,' ami 
it is well named.'* 

Can any of your readers inform me from^whouee 
the quotations in the above paragraph arc taken, 
and where I can obtain some further information 
respecting Madame Tallien ? K. S. I. 

4« f Victoria Place, Belfast, 

[In the contemporary memoirs of Chateaubriand, Re- 
tain tar. Do Steel, and other notabilities of the French happen to fall/*! 
Republic and Empire, our correspondent will And inci- 
dental notices of Madame Tallien, afterwards known a-* 

Dr. Mant'sAxiA of Common /Vtiy«r, Oxford, 1820, 4to, 
pp. 857-863. This Form, with the sanction of the bishop 
of the diocese, we havo every reason to believe, may be 
used in other parts of the United Kingdom. For, as Dr. 
Maui remarks, M recommended as it is by its own merits, 
a** well as by the distinguished sanction specified in the 
Introduction, it will probably be considered a valuable 
manual for the purpose for which it is downed, by those 
of the English, no less than of the Irish clergy, into whose 
hands this edition of the Book of Common Prayer may m; Cuk\ krus. 

In the works of 

the Princess do Chimay of Belgium, from one of which Dr. Channiug, whom, as ho says 4l no one will 

no doubt the above passage has been extracted. The lady 
died in 1835. We are not aware that any set memoir 
of her has been written; but K. S. T. will find a full 
account of her in the last edition of the Bioortif^ie U*i- 
tvnelle (•. r. " Chimay "), and in an autobiographical 

sketch of her daughter, the Countess dc Brunetictc Tal- 
linn, prefixed to an •' Essay on Female Education,*' and 
translated by Lord Brougham (for private circulation), a 
brief notice of the celebrated trial respecting her mother's 
marriage with M. Tallien, one of the foremost agents in 
the French Revolution.] 

Hi \u\ Purckll. — 1. Is there any record of 
when and where Purct dl's opera of Dido and 
*4\ncas was performed with the name of lieliuda 
instead of Auna for the attendant, &c. ? 

2. Is any copy known divided into acts ? 1 
have a MS. copy so divided, and with a pood deal 
of extra instrumental music. 

8. Were Spenser's Sonnets set to music by M. 
(irccno ever printed f J. C. J. 

[1. One of the air* in Dido and -fJW<tts, quoted in Pur- 
cells Orpheus Britannica*, 1G«J8, has " Ah ! Belinda." In 
the original opera the initial words are •* Ah ! my Anna. 

2. In the edition of Ditto ami .Ehcm edited by (i. 
Alexander Macfarren, 18 10, fol. the opera, prefixed to 
the music, is divided into three acts. 

8. There are at least two editions of Spenser's Amoretli 
(consisting of twenty-five sonnets), set to music by Dr. 
Maurice Greene, (I.) " Printed for John Walsh in Cathe- 
rine Street, Strand" [1739] 5 (2.) " Printed for Harrison 
and Co, 18, Paternoster Row, 1776 "J 

Form of Prayer for Prisoners. — Can you 

inform me what Act of Parliament allows prison 

chaplains to adapt the Morning Service to the 

supposed peculiar circumstances of their charge? 

S. L. 

[There is an authorised service entitled •• The Form of 
Prayer for the Visitation of Prisoners, treated upon by the 
Archbishops and Bishops, and the rest of the Clergy of 
Ireland, and agreed u|H)ii by Her Majesty's License in 
their Synod, holdcn at Dublin in the year 1711.*' It is 
printed in 7a. J?ooA of Common Prayer according to the 
of the Church of Ireland, 1740, folio, as well a* in 

panegyric of Archbishop Cheverua, 


Can any of 

m — - - — w — * - — w 

your readers give me any further information 
a bruit him? The passage is worth remembering, 

coming from whence it does. 


It occurs in the 
" Essay on the Character and Writings of Fdnd- 
Ion." * R.I1.A.B. 

[John Louis Anne Magdalen Lefobvre de Chcvorus, 
Archbishop of Bordeaux, was born at Maycnce, the 
capital of the ancient province of Lower Maine, on Jan. *28, 
17«;s, and died at Bordeaux on July 1 1, 18:10. There is a 
Life of this excellent prelate, from the pen of tho Rev. J. 
Huen Doubourg, Kx- Professor of Theology, translated 
from the French by Robert M. Walsh (Philadelphia 
1830, 8vo), and also an extended account of him in the 
new edition of the Biographie Unirertelle, viii. 113-120.] 

Kensington flour..— The old aspect of Ken- 
sington " flore " is fast changing. Can you throw 
anv light on the origin of the term P '• Cnighto- 
bnga in loco qui Gam appellatur" appears in a 
document of Edward the Confessor's time : and in 
the fifty-third year of Henry III. it is alluded to 
as M two acres of land with* appurtenances called 
Kinggesgor," lving between knightsbridge and 
Kensington. As " Kensington ( Jon* " it extended 
from Noel House at Kensington to Kent House at 
Knightsbridge, and. at the end of the last cen- 
tury, parties, of not less than six, formed at 4| The 
King s Arms," Kensington, to cross this hill (the 
highest point of land between Hyde Park Corner 
and Windsor Castle) into London. 

An Old Kensingtonian. 

[According to Kennett's Glotmry, Gore is a small 
narrow slip of ground. M Duic rodw jaeent juxta viam sci- 
licet le Gores super Shoteforlang." " Una aera et dimidia 
jaeent simul ibidem, et voeantur quinque Gortt." ••Una 
acra cum uno Gort" The word Gore is also in common 
use amongst the fanners of arable land in various parts 
of England, and signifies a ridge of a triangular or wedge 
shape. J 

Can a Clergyman harry himself P — Will 

you oblige me by sayinjr if a clergyman, in the 
unavoidable absence of all other clergymen, would 



[4*S. I. Feb. 8, '68. 

be allowed to read the marriage service for him- 

se lf p A Recent Subscriber. 

[A clergyman cannot legally marry himself. The 
Court of Queen's Bench, Dublin, decided in the case of 
Beamish v. Beamish, that he could. But on an appeal 
against that decision to the House of Lord?, it was re- 
versed, and the decision in the case of the Queen v. 
Millis, " that to constitute a valid marriage by the 
common law of England, it must have been celebrated in 
the presence of a clergyman in holy orders, but the fact 
that the bridegroom is himself in holy orders, there being 
no other clergyman present, "will not make the marriage 

that the remainders were not variable, as Mr. 
Whitmore terms them, but merely supplied the 
succession rendered vacant by deaths during the life 
of the first Lord. It is true that Thomas Craven 
(who is styled Sir Thomas by Collins, but esquire 
only in Nicolas's Historic Peerage, edit. Court- 
hope), was passed over in favour of his vounger 
brother Sir Anthony. Nor was he introduced in 
1G65 (although he survived till 1685), but his son 
was then made the contingent successor of Sir 

Anthony (who had no son), 
in consequence of some 
Thomas now forgotten. 

This was probably 

personal disability in 

When the death of the 

valid," was confirmed. See Clark's House of Lords Jh- j ()W ^ ftt length occurred in 10i>7, at the great 

ports, ix. 274, ct seq."] 

Sir John Powell (1* S. vii. '2&2, 350.) — I 

age of 

any portrait known to exist of this upright judge 
and Welshman:' If so, where; and from whom 

can photographs he obtained ? 

(iEO. E. Frere. 

■Roy don 1 1 all, Diss. 

[There is a portrait of Sir John Powell, Knt., engraved 
by William Sherwin in 1711, large folio; also one in 
mezzotint. Vide Noble's Bioq. History of England, i. 

eighty-nine, and'more than seventy years 
ai'ter the first creation of the Barony, Sir Williani 
Craven, the son of Thomas, was also deceased (in 

William his 

son (born 1008) suc- 
lle was, in fact, the repre- 
sentative of the elder line of the family (as his 

of Lenchwick, 

UK>5), and 
ceeded to the title. 

great-uncle, Sir William Crave 
had been) ; being the lineal descendant of Henry 
Craven of Apletreewick, elder brother of William, 
grandfather of the old earl ; i. e., son of Sir Wil- 
168, and Walpole's Anecdote of Painting, ed. 1819, iii. liam, son of Thomas, son of liobert, son of Henry. 

908. SherwiiTs portrait is priced at 5*. in Evans's Cata- 
logue of Portraits, i. 278.] 



(4 lh S. i. 52.) 

Mr. Whitmore has correctly detailed from 
Collins's Peerage the genealogy of the Craven 
family, but has not so accurately reported the 
several patents of peerage, which are described by 
Collins as follows: — Sir William Craven was 
created a Baron, by the title of Lord Craven of 
Harnpsted-Marshal, in 1020, with remainder, for 
want of issue male of his body, to his brothers 
John (afterwards Lord Craven of Iiyton,) and 

Thomas, and their heirs male successively. In 
March 1005 he was advanced to the dignities of 
Viscount Craven of Uffington, co. Berks, and Earl 
of Craven of Craven, co. York, without any special 
remainder ; but, because his brothers were then 
dead without issue, the remainder of the baron v 
{not the earldom) was at the same time enlarged 
to Sir William Craven of Lenchwick, co. Wore, 
and the heirs male of his body, and, in default of 
such, to Sir Anthony Craven,* knt., brother to the 
same Sir William, and the issue male of his body. 
Again, Sir William Craven of Lenchwick having 
died without issue before the end of the same year, 
a further remainder of the same dignitv of Lord 
Craven of Hampsted-Mjirshal was granted to Sir 
William Craven, knt., son of Thomas Craven 


„ 4t _ ;ne old 

the issue of his uncle Anthony, as remarked by 

Mr. W hum ore. 

Now, with regard to the question with which 

Mr. Whitmore commences his remarks : " Who 
was Sir Anthony Craven of Spersholt, co. Berks, 
created Baronet June 4, 1001 P" Was he Sir 
Anthony, brother to Sir William of Lenchwick, 
or was "he brother to Sir William of Win wick, 
and Sir Robert, sometime master of the horse to 
Elizabeth Queen of Bohemia ? Collins has styled 
the former " of Spersholt," but does not designate 
him as a Baronet. He states twice that he died in 
1070. Burke also, in his Extinct Baronets, states 
that the Baronet died in 1070 ; but Courthope, in 
his Extinct Baronetage, says he died in 1718. 
Collins states that the first Sir Anthony left no 
issue by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of the Baron 
Pelnetz of Mark in Germany. Courthope states 
that the Baronet married Theodosia, daughter of 
Sir Williani Wiseman of Canfield Hall, co. Essex, 
Bart., and died s. p. m. 1713. Ashmole, in his 
Antiquities of Berkshire, under Spersholt, does not 
notice the Cravens. Lysons, in his Magna Bri- 
tannia, i. 370, merely states that "Anthony 
Craven, esq., described as of Spersholt, was 
created a Baronet in 1G01, but died without issue 
in 1070 ; " which is followed by Clarke, in his 

Parochial Topograph)/ of the Hundred of Wanting. 

I think, however, that this statement must be 
rejected, as well as that in Burke's Extinct Ba- 
ronets, in favour of the fuller information given 
by Courthope : and this decision is confirmed by 

esquire, brother to the said Sir Anthony. So the fact that' Sir Anthony, the brother of Sir 

4*8.1. Feb. 8, '68.] 



William Craven of Lenchwick, is styled il knight " 
only in the remainder to the peerage granted in 
1665, whereas the baronetcy had been conferred 
in 1661. Consequently Collins is wrong in styling 
that Sir Anthony " of Spersholt." Lysons, Clarke, 
and Burke are wrong in placing the Baronet's 
death in 1670; and we may identify the par- 
ticulars given of the Baronet by Courthope with 
the second Sir Anthony mentioned in Bryd^es's 

Collins, v. 465, who, by " his wife [whose 

name Courthope supplies], left several daughters, 
and [had] a son, William, who died L before him] 
without issue/' T ri v 

J. G. X. 

From all I can make out after close research, I 
believe that Sir Anthony -Craven, Bart., was sixth 
son of Robert Craven, who was third sou of 
Henry Craven, elder brother of William, who by 
his wife Beatrix, daughter of John Hunter, was 
the father of Sir William Craven, Knt , Sheriff of 
London in the time of Queen Elizabeth, and 
afterwards Lord Mayor in tho reign of James I. 
This Sir William Craven married a daughter of 
William Whitmore of London, by whom he had 
issue three sons and two daughters. William, his 
eldest son, was created baron in 1626 by tho title 
of Baron Craven of Hampsted-Marshall, co. Berks, 
and was afterwards successively created Viscount of 
Uffington, co. Berks, and Karl of Craven, of Craven, 
co. York. These honours were accorded to him for 
his eminent abilities and gallantry in the field, 
and as some compensation for the great injuries 
he had suffered at the hands of the Parliament, 
in consequence of his known attachment to the 
house of Stuart On the Kestoration he returned 
to England, after 
became so much 
readily to obtain 

an exile of twenty years, and 
\n favour with Charles II. ns 
from him almost anything lie 
Hence, as both his brothers, John and 
Thomas, had died childless, and he himself having 
no issue, he obtained that the barony should be 
entailed on his cousin Sir William Craven of Lench- 
wike, and in default of issue male of him, upon 
another cousin, and brother of the said William, 
namely, Sir Anthony Craven, Knt., of Spersholt. 
But Sir William dying without issue, he obtained 
a further grant, that the barony of Craven should 
remain unto Sir William Craven, Knt., son of 
Sir Thomas Craven, brother of Sir Anthony be- 
fore mentioned. This Sir William, together with 
his uncle Sir Anthony, dying before Sir William 
the first nobleman — the former in 1695, the latter 
in 1670 — the title accordingly devolved on the 
son of the last- mentioned Sir William, who was 
grandson of Sir Thomas, and grand-nephew of 
ir Anthony of Spersholt. 
I think that Collins is clearly in error in saying 
that Sir Anthony Craven of Spersholt had issue, 
I find all the old Baronetages affirming the 

have one by Peter 

Heylyn, published in 1709, which speaks of the 
title as then extinct in consequence of Anthony 
having died without male issue. And as his death 
took place so many years previous to that of 
William the first peer, and as his brother Sir 
William Craven of Lenchwike had before died 
without male issue, it can be no matter of sur- 
prise that Lord Craven should have sought to 
secure permanence to the title through their 
brother Sir Thomas, who also died fifteen years 
before Lord Craven, and his eldest son Sir Wil- 
liam, designed of Combe Abbey two years before 
him — that is, Lord ( 'raven causes the title to 
devolve on his eldest son Sir William, who con- 
sequently became the second Lord Craven. The 
first nobleman died in 1097, aged eighty-eight 
years and ten months. It hence appears that the 
present family of Craven is a collateral branch 
through Henry Craven, brother to William, who 
was the father of Sir William tho Lord Mayor of 
London, father of William Lord Craven of Hamp- 
sted-Marshall, and of his second brother John, 
created Baron of Kvton in 1042 : which last, 
doubtless, was the person who founded the well- 
known scholarship bearing his name in tho re- 
spective universities of Oxford and Cambridge. 

Edmund Tkw. 


(3 rd S. xii. 483, 538.) 

There are, I believe, only three senses in which 
the word pell-mell, so written or so pronounced, is to 
be found in the English language — the adverbial, 
corresponding to promiscuously ', confusedly ; the 
name of a game now obsolete; and a street of 
some celebrity in our metropolis. And with none 
of these senses lias the word quoted by A. A. from 
Minsheu's Dictionary any bond of relationship 
that I am able to discover. Indeed Minsheu's 
own definition of the word referred to — " such a 
box as our London 'prentices beg to put money 
into before Christmas " — is itself irreconcileable 
with the sense assigned to the elements of which 
it is stated to consist. How can pillc-maille be 
taken to mean a box of any description, when the 
first syllable is explained with reference to the 
French piller, to " pill or nolle," and the second as 
signifying a u halfpenny ? A. A. indeed alleges, 
in avoidance of this anomaly, that maiUe " gene- 
rally signifies a portmanteau or budget " ; for maille 
evidently reading malic, which does indeed signify 
a box, but not one answerable to the require- 
ments of this explanation, being exclusively ap- 



among which I 

plicable to a trunk or box of large dimensions. 

This, however, has nothing to do with the de- 
rivation of the word pell-mell; the origin of which, 
in the adverbial sense, is obviously to be found in 
the corresponding French term pele-mele y anciently 
written vcsfc-viesle. of which the former syllable 



[4* S. I. Fkb. 8, '68. 

answers (see CotgTcive) to the modern poele, a fry- 
ing-pan (though Nicot assigns it a more elaborate 
signification), the latter to the participle of the 
verb meler, to mix; apparently expressive of a 
thorough intermixture, as conformably implied in 
its English representative, promiscuously. With 
n^ard to the second of the above senses the word 
is equally obviously derived from its counterpart 
in the French palmail, itself constructed of the me- 
diaeval Latin palla, a ball, and malleus, a mallet ; or 
(without going to the remoter original), the French 
bal and mail respectively of the same meaning : 
a game in which a ball is driven by an instru- 
mentof the shape of a mallet through an iron ring 
fixed in the ground, very like the modern croquet. 
And as the game required for its performance a 
piece of nicely levelled ground, to which descrip- 
tion the terraces or alleys belonging to the higher 
class of residences in France especially responded, 
the terrace or allev itself became distinguished 
by the same name : a fact, indeed, overlooked by 
all the lexicographers, but of which the evidence 
will be found in the descriptions subjoined to 
engravings of the views of palaces and chateaux 
in France, published about the latter end of the 
seventeenth century — as, for example, u Chasteau 
de Richelieu, du coste qui regarde sur le . . . . 
Palmail (pi. 4 in Faucheux, Catalogue tie FiKuvre 
de Silvestre, p. 271 ): thus aflording the explanation 
of the term in the la>t of the three senses above 
adverted to: our Pall Mall formerly, it may be 
supposed, bearing the same relation to either of 
the palaces of Whitehall or St. James, and ac- 
quiring its name at the time of their occupation 
by the later Stuarts — most probably < 1 harles II. — 
whose connection with France and addiction to 
French fashions is well known. A conclusion, this, 
confirm atively illustrated by the analogous case of 
another feature of the same royal domain, now 
known by the name of the " Birdcage " Walk, 
of which term the original, I have no doubt, is to 
be found in the French bocage. The above 
mark, as to the omission from the dictionaries of 
the word in question in the latter sense, is, how- 
ever, to be understood only of the word in it* 
entirety; the second syllable ultimately supersed- 
ing the original expression in that sense both in 
French and English, and in that form, Fr. mail, 
Eng. mall, is to be found in all the respectable 
vocabularies of either language. 

A. A. asks whether there is any authority for 
the use of the word tnaille in the sense of u a half- 
penny " ? He will find the answer to his inquiry 
affirmatively, as also a description of the game in 
question as above described, in Menage, Origines 
de la Lang ue, under the words "inaille" 
and "mail" respectively. The proverb referred 
to by Lydiard (p. 538)/" ni sou ni muffle," is in 
the same sense of the word maille, which is strictly 
a base coin of the value of half a denier. T. M. M. % 


(3 rd S. xii. 634.) 

I am glad that the Rev. Dr. Rogers has fore- 
stalled me in taking up the subject of Lady Nairn 
as a song-writer, for it must ultimately become a 
lasting reproach to Scottish song-literature if 
allowed to remain in its present confused state. She 
has been known to me for many years as the author 
of u The Land o' the Leal," ""The Laird o' Cock- 
pen," and "Caller Herrin" — three songs which 
fairly entitle her to take a place in the front rank of 
lyrical writers. As yet there has nothing like full 
justice been done to her memory or genius. Her 
name is seldom attached to any of her songs, and 
through the carelessness of editors they have been 
at various times attributed to Burns, Sir Walter 
Scott, Joanna Baillie, Miss Ferrier, and indeed to 
all sorts and conditions of people, likely and un- 

Could not some competent person undertake to 
collect and issue her legitimate sonprs in a neat 

volume, and at the same time gather up whatev 
can now be gathered relative to her life and writ- 
ings 'r As time passes on, the difficulties of such 
an undertaking will naturally become greater and 
greater. Perhaps Dr. Rogers will supply a brief 
outline of the memoir he contributed to the Scot- 
fish Minstrel as a first instalment ? Can it be 
ascertained whether she has made reference to any 
of her songs in letters or other papers which she has 
left behind her ? Or can any one furnish us with 
personal recollections or anecdotes, or say at 
what period of her life the greater portion of her 
songs was produced ? I feel certain that any in- 
formation which may be contributed to " N.& Q." 
will interest a large circle of readers. 

And now a word or two about the songs which 
Dr. Rogers has attributed to Lady Nairn's pen. 
Certainly a more curious mixture of Scotch 

hotch-potch was never before tumbled together 
into one dish ! What are we to understand, for 
instance, when he boldly asserts that she is the 
author of "Cauld kail in Aberdeen," "Kind 
Robin lo'es me," and " Saw ye nae my Peggy," 
all of which appeared in Herd's Collection in 
1770? Then again he makes the same startling 
assertion respecting " There grows a bonny brier 
bush/' which, as altered by Burns, appeared in 
Johnson's Museum about 1788; and while Sir 
Alexander Boswell's "Gudo nicht and joy be wi' 
ye a'," retains its popularity, some comment was 
necessary in including in the list of her songs one 
with exactly the same title. I am fully aware 
that there are half a dozen versions extant of 
i " Cauld kail," and at least three different ones of 
" The bonnie brier bush " ; but if any of these be 
; claimed as Lady Nairn's, by all means let us 
; know which are her versions, and on what grounds 
I the claim rests. I should like to see a clear 

4*8. 1. Feb. 8/68. J 



statement of her right to the popular version of 
"The Lass o' Cowrie," as I was not aware that 
her name had been associated with it in any way; 
and, in addition, I must also remark that "John 
Todd" seems to me to be very unlike the style 
of her best-known songs. 

Thus, the question of which are and which t 
not Lady Nairn's songs appears, upon its^ surface 
at least, to be a somewhat difficult and intricate 
one ; nevertheless, with patient investigation and 
careful sifting, I have a lively hope that it will 
yet be satisfactorily elucidated in these columns. 

Sidhky Gilpin. 

The niost complete collection of this 

to be found 




songs — numbering eighty-live 
Lay* from Sfrathearn, new edit. Loud. : It. Addi- 
son & Co. Forty-four songs are given with the 
music; the rest, words only, in an appendix. 
The preface contains a valuable memoir of Lady 
Nairn, and the songs in the appendix have occa- 
sional notes. The literary editor (no name is 
given) says : 

"Aware, latterlv, that a desire had been expressed 
that her contributions to The Scottish Minstrel, as well 
as her single songs, should be collected and published 
together, Lady Nairnk, for this purpose, added several 
before unpublished, still with no intention of revealing 
her name. But, now that she is departed hence, her 
nearest surviving relations have given their attention to 
these Lays appearing in their present form, a> the Legacy 
of a true-hearted Scotswoman to her * ain countric.' " 

J. M. is at fault about the song " Cauld kail in 
Aberdeen " not " being attributable to any lady" 
It is not pretended that Lady Nairn wrote the frag- 
ment inserted in Herd's Collection, and in Scottish 
Ballads and SongK, Edin. 1850 ; but she was cer- 
tainly the author of a much improved and com- 
pleted version. The original fragment consists of 
sixteen lines, but the latter is extended to forty. 
It is full of spirit and humour, and is altogether a 
capital specimen of this gifted lady's talent in 

song-writing. Edward F. Rimbault. 

J. M. is quite right. The song commencing 
" There's cauld kail in Aberdeen " was composed 
considerably before the period of Lady Nairn. In 
my former note I ought to have stated that Lady 
Nairn composed the modern and popular version 
of the song. A previous version was written by 
Alexander, fourth Duke of Gordon, a patron of 
Burns, who was born in 1743 and died in 1827. 
This is set forth in the Modern Scottish Minstrel, 
vol. i. p. 46, where a version of the song by Wil- 
liam Reid of Glasgow is also mentioned, and older 
versions referred to. I am glad to learn from J. M. 
that an old MS. of the original version is deposited 
in the Advocates' Library. 

Charles Rogers, LL.l). 

2, Heath Terrace. Lewi*ham, S.E. 


(4 th S.i. 12, 01.) 

Looking back to an old journal of 1833, I tind 
the following entry on May 19: 

"It was quite dark before we regained our hotel and 
dinner (at Terni) ; the way homeward from the Cascade 
being enlivened by hosts of lire-flies, with whose lovely 
flashing light 1 first became acquainted on the night we 
last reached Rcm« from Naples (the 15th). It is of about 
the same quality as the light of our -low-worm ; but its 
intermittent appearance, and the devious and rapid flight 
of the insect, invest it with a different kind of attrac- 

revious summer and aut 

id never seen it 

Though I had boon in Italy throughout the 

before. Pliny's u stellantis volatus " does, indeed, 
most accurately represent the appearauce of the 



various allusions made to 

thorn by poets of all nations— though not, as far 
as I can recollect, and if not, strangely enough, by 
the classic writers — I know of none moro complete 
than the brief description in Rogers's Italy: 

'•On he wheels 
Blazing by fits as from excess of joy. 
Each gush of light a gu>h of ccstacy ; 
Nor unaccompanied ; thousands that fling 
A radiance all their own, not of the day, 
Thousands as bright as he, from dusk to dawn, 

Soaring, descend in 

This dance-like descent, and the extinction of 
the flash as the insect touches the ground, might 
account for the provincial name of baticesola or 

Dante refers to them in a passage of grout beauty, 
Inferno, Canto xxvi. vv. 25, et seq. : 

44 Quante il villan, ch'al poggio si riposa, 

Nel tempo, che colui, che il mendo sclii ira, 
La faccia sua a noi tien meno ascosa, 

Come la mo-ea cede alia zan/ara, 
Vede lueciole giu per la vallea, 
Forse cola, dove vendemmia ed ara : 

Di tante fiamme tutta resplendea 
L* ottava bolgin," Ac. 


The Italian name is lueciole (sing, lucciola), 
not luciole. Mr. It am age would appear to be 
correct in saying that the luminous insects which 
Italians (from the time of Dante to our own) term 
lueciole are the same that Pliny named cicin- 
dehe ; in modern entomology, cicindehe are, if I 
am not much mistaken, insects of a very different 
kind. I have held a lucciola in my hand, and 
seen its lovely intermittent light deliberately. It 
is (I speak subject to much correction) a coleop- 
terous insect, and of the genus lampyris, and 
named fire-fly in English. Our own glow-worm 
belongs to the same genus, but not the same 
species. 1 have seen lueciole in various parts of 
Italy, north and midland, especially Bergamo and 
Naples, towards the end of June, and Kadico- 
fani (on the Tuscan-Papal frontier), one evening 

l :Y2 


[4<" S. I. Feb. 8, '68. 

religious guilds connected with our churches 


towards the end of July, incomparably more nu- ancient accounts of the churchwardens and of the 
merous at this last place than elsewhere. I fancy 
they are known all over Italy, and elsewhere too : 
but, as far as my limited experience goes, it cor- 
responds with Mr. Ramage's. One may see many elsewhere. 

to the Reformation is a lamentable example of 
what has doubtless been no unusual occurrence 

one evening, and none for days before or after. 
The name baticesola is unknown to me, and to the 

When Nichols and Throsby compiled their his- 
tories of Leicestershire, in the latter part of the 
best Italian dictionary with which I am acquainted, last century, they quoted largely from the parochial 

accounts of St. Mary's, St. Martin's, and St. Mar- 
garet's, and from the books of the guild of the 
Holy Trinity in St. Mary's church. It is not 
known how or when, but the whole of these 
documents have long since disappeared from the 
parish chests ; and it appears that most of these 
records, and numerous others relating to other 
parishes in the county, and filling several boxes, 
were sold by auction in London some time be- 
tween 1^25 and 1830, and respecting which sale 
and the purchaser of the MSS. a query from me was 
inserted in « N. & Q." 1" S. iii. 352, but which, 
up to the present time, has elicited no information 
respecting them. 

A large volume of 773 pages, contai 
churchwardens' accounts of St. Martin's from 

My impression is that it is hardly quite correct. 
Fire-flies (or I suspect they ought rather to be 
designated as lantern-flies) are known also in 
Japan, and I have heard that two of them 
afford plenty of light whereby to read a book. 1 
possess a Japanese fire-fly cage, the first (as the 
vendor informed me) ever imported into England ; 
and one may see the insects represented in Ja- 
panese engravings, showing as large li blobs" of 
light against the sky. W. M. Rossetti. 

In answer to the enquiry whether other corre- 
spondents have seen these fire-flies in other parts 
of Italy, I wish to mention that, when I travelled 
in Italy many years ago, 1 arrived one evening in 
the middle of June, at Vogogna in Piedmont, near 
Domod'Ossola, and on that evening 1 these fire-flies 
were very numerous and brilliant. We attempted 
to catch them, but never succeeded. F. ( \ II. 




(3 rd S. xii. 500; 4 th S. i. 38.) 

The following extract from Archdeacon Mus- 
grave's charge to his clergy in .May, 18(55, will be 
read with painful interest : 

" In the exercise of my duty I had to assist in recover- 
ing some registers carried off to a far distant part of the 
country by a late incumbent, and long detained, to the 
great uneasiness and apprehension of the parish. I might 
tell also of a missing register— the one in use immediately 
before the present Marriage Act— which, at the cost of 
much anxious inquiry, I traced to another riding, and 
eventually found among the books and papers of "a de- 
ceased incumbent. Or I might advert to a mass of 
neglected, mutilated sheets, with no cover, incidentally 
discovered by myself in an outhouse of a parsonage in 
Craven ; or, to add but one other instance, which, if it 
were not too irreparable a mischief, might provoke a 
smile. I have seen the entries of half a century cut 
away in shreds from a parchment register by a sacrile- 
gious parish-clerk, to subserve the purposes of his ordinary 
occupation as a tailor." 

Comment is needless, but a good suggestion 
might be useful for such Goths and Vandals, and 
that w— even at the risk of violating the charitable 
maxim, de mortuis nil nisi bonum— to print the 
names of such offenders in a black list, as a warn- 
ing to -future generations. George Lloyd. 


All the parochial registers of this town are, I 
believe, m existence, and are now well cared for ; 
but the fate which has befallen the whole of the 

1544 to 1G46, was a year or two ago obtained by 
Mr. T. North of this town from ite former pos- 
sessor (a son-in-law of Mr. Throsby), who stated 
that he picked it up at a book-stall. This volume 
will eventually be placed in a safe and permanent 
repository ; and many who, like myself, are locally 
interested in the subject, would be thankful could 
any information be supplied as to the present 
possessor of the other missing documents, with 
the hone that at some future time they may be 
restored, and permanently preserved in our Town 
Museum Library. "William Kelly, 


[If additional proof of the necessity for some further 
legislation on the subject of parish registers and the pre- 
servation of duplicate copies were required, it might be 
found in a recent occurrence at St. Bees, where, on Sun- 
day morning, the UUh ult., a fire broke out in the vestry 
and church, and the organ (which was a new one) and 
some of the registers were burned. Fortunately the oldest 
register, commencing in 1538, was not in the iron chest, 
and so escaped. — Ed. "N. & Q." ) 


(4 th S. i. 41, $8.) 

Bloody (in Dutch bloedig } in German btutig) 
must be, of course, derived from blood; there 
cannot be any doubt about that. The question is 
solely : How did the word get the bad significa- 
tion it has in the mouth of a cockney of the 
lower classes ? I must say that the German 
blutig is sometimes used in the same manner as 
the London bloody. While living in Dresden, I 
heard many times uttered such phrases as 

" Ich babe keinen blntigen Heller mehr," 
[I have no bloody penny more], 

4* S. I. Fed. 8, '68.] 



for u I have not a single penny left/' &C. Was, 
then, the Dresden blutig introduced to the London 
mob in the shape of bloody ? 

The Dutch bloedig may be used figuratively, 
just as the French sanglant. We would translate 
11 une injure sanglante" by il een bloedige belee- 
diging." It might, and it is in fact, sometimes 
used to qualify an adjective. To sav "bloedig 
school (literally, "bloody beautiful"), would 
be perfectly correct, but then it has not the sense 
of exceedingly; it keeps its origiual meaning. 
"Bloedig schoon" could not be rendered other- 
wise than bv sanguinary and beau 


• ? 



Undoubtedly this word, as generally used, is 
very coarse and offensive. But, in the mouth of 
a master of style, it becomes one of the most 
emphatic and eloquent adjectives in the English 
language. Take Coleridge, for example, in the 

Ancient Marine* 

• • 

" All in a hot and copper sky, 
The bloody snn at noon 
Rose up above the mast on high, 
No bigger than the moon." 

And Shakspeare again : 

" The bloody house of life." 


(4 th S. i. 18, 79.) 

*>IA'0MHP02 is hardly justified in recording 
u our own Royal Society of Literature " as a 
failure, " because its noble and magnificent de- 
sign was almost utterly ignored in its proceed- 
ings." Its munificent endowment by George IV. 
was most fitly administered; the annual gold 
medal, worth fifty guineas, adjudged with uni- 
versal approbation, and the selection of ten asso- 
ciates to receive each a hundred guineas per 
annum given bv the king acknowledged as most 
impartial and judicious. Thus the genius and 
learning of the country were stimulated and 
honoured, as far as the means could extend. 
But when William IV. ascended the throne, the 
claims upon the royal purse were too great and 
urgent to admit of the continuance of the grant, 
and the society was left to its own subscriptions 
and private contributions, and these were liberal. 
Lord Melbourne sought information from the 
writer of this notice (one of the council), and 
conferred an equal pension on the civil list on 
several of the distinguished men who could least 
afford the loss of the royal bounty ; and the pre- 
sent suitable house was built by subscription. Of 
the proceedings, I shall only observe that volumes 

Beaumont and Fletcher have written a play I of valuable papers and transactions have been 

called The Bloody Brother, and Mr. Swinburne a 
poem entitled The Bloody Son. The tremendous 
power and significance which the adjective can 
assume is shown in " Bloody Queen Mary." 

Among the vulgar, at the present day, " bloody " 
simply qualifies • the superlative and excessive. 
Admiral Gambier, who is said to have introduced 

published, and several works of historical im- 
portance and interest given to the world, which 
would otherwise never have seen the light. It is 
easy to censure ; but where, for many years, the 
learning of a Bishop Burgess and the talent of a 
Ilallam presided, it is scarcely to be credited that 
th«v and their congenial associates in the direc- 

"tea and piety" into the navy, very properly dis- tion did not do as much, or nearly as much, as 

countenanced the practice so long common to 

naval officers of d g the sailors' eyes while 

they were reefing topsails. His tars, scarcely 
grateful, nicknamed the admiral " Old Bloody 
Politeful." The lower classes use "bloody" in- 
differently as a term of depreciation or apprecia- 
tion. Thus, "it's a bloody shame" ; and;wr contra 
in a flash song, the poet (supposed to be languish- 
ing in prison) recounts that the chaplain dis- 
coursed to the inmates — 

" How Jonah lived inside of a whale, 
*Twas a bloody sight better than county gaol." 

G. A. Sala. 



There is an error of the press or of the pen in 
the above article, which, though only of a single 
letter, destroys the sense of the whole passage in 
which it occurs, and that, one of the most im- 

JBIoody= excessively. I find this word, as early 
as 1076, in the following passage : 

11 T)or. Give him half-a-crown. 

" Med. Not without he will promise to be bloody drunk/ 1 

Sir G. Etheredge, Man of Mode (Act 1. Sc. 1), 

p. 186, ed. 1728. 

Corns. Paine. \ kindred subj 


portant in the whole paper. I shall, therefore, 
be much obliged by your allowing me to cor- 
rect it. 

The sentence is the last of the first column of 

p. 79, and the error is, the substitution of the 
word "than" for "that." The sentence thu» 
amended, and with the addition of a comma after 
"information" in the penultimate line for the 
sake of greater clearness, will run thus : "... . 
accurate information, of that kind that can be 
got," &c ; the meaning and point of which is at 
once obvious. 

The same No. (p. 83) contains an article on a 

ie Cyclic poets, in which the 
writer mentions with just praise the work of 



[4» S. I. Fkb. 8, '68. 

Bouchaud, the only one, he says, with which he 
is acquainted. That work, however, is nothing but 
a translation from the Latin dissertation of 
Schwartz, published in 1714, without a word of 
acknowledgment, and only altered in being less 
accurate and less methodically divided. 

Schwartz's work is incomparably the best that 
had ever appeared up to his time, and better than 
many that followed it. Since then there have 
appeared at least a score of works in Germany 
treating the subject either generally or partially : 
of which by far the most complete and interesting 
is Welcker's Epiache Cyclus, in two vols., 1835 and 
1849. This has been largely used by Col. Mure, 
a diligent writer, but a very inferior genius, who 
would have done much better to hr 

given us a 

translation of that most original and truly poetical 
work with judicious selection and com pre 
and many needed corrections and additions, than 
used it merely as materials for his own rather 
commonplace though learned and well-written 

Of the minor works on the subject, perhaps the 
most complete, though one of the feeblest in point 
of ability, is C. W. Muller's De cyclo Gracorum 
epico et Poetis cyclicis, 1829. 

To a skilful compiler, familiar with the German 
language, it would be easy to produce from the 
mass of works on this subject, taking Welcker as 
the basis, a complete and satisfactory work, if it 
could only iind a reading public to patronise it in 
England. <t> I A'om h P02. 

"The Quest of the Sancgreal" (4 th S. i. 
73.)— The justice of the Rev. R. S. Hawker's 
claim to priority of publication is self-evident and 
unquestionable. The title we have both adopted 
is less a question of precedence, the legend having 
been so designated from time immemorial. The 
rallying cry, "Ho! for the Sancgreal!" is also 
of older invention, and common property. These 
identities apart, I believe I may aver that neither 
in style, treatment, nor incident have I interfered 
with Mr. Hawker's noble and vigorous fragment, 
which has my sincere admiration, and which, I 
trust, he will not only reprint, but complete. 

T. Westwood. 


The follow- 

ing version of the carol mentioned by your corre- 
spondent 0. F. S. is given in the Church and State 
Review for Oct. 12, 18G0, with a query respecting 
its origin and date. The writer found it printed 
and hung up in a college in 1850 : — 



" As it fell out one May morning, 
And on a bright holiday, 
Sweet Jesus asked of His dear mother 
That He might go to play. 

" ' To play, to play, sweet Jesus shall go t 
And to play now get you gone ; 

And let me hear of no complaint 
At night when you come home/ 

" Sweet Jesus went down to yonder town 
As far as Holy Well, 
And there did see as fine children 
As any tongue can tell. 

" He said * God bless you every one, 
May Christ your portion be : 
Little children, shall I play with you ? 
And you shall play with me.' 

" But they jointly answered — ' No.' 
They were lords* and ladies' sons ; 
And lie, the meanest of them all, 
Was born in an ox's stall. 

" Sweet Jesus turned Him around, 

And He neither laughed nor smiled; 
But the tears came trickling from His eyes. 
Like water from the skies, 

" Sweet Jesus turned Him about. 

To His mother's dear home went He ; 
And said, * I have been in yonder town, 
As after you may sec. 

" * I have been in yonder town, 

As far as Holy Well ; 
There I did meet as fine children 

As any tongue can tell. 

" i I bid God bless them every one, 

And their bodies Christ save and see : 
Little children shall I play with you, 
And you shall play with me. 


" * But they answered me — " No." 

Thev were lords' and ladies' sons ; 
And I, the meanest of them all, 
Was born in an ox's stall/ 

4 'Though you are but a maiden's child, 
Born in an ox's stall, 
Thou art the Christ, the King of Heaven, 
And the Saviour of them all. 

" * Sweet Jesus, go down to yonder town 
As far as Holy Well, 
And take away those sinful souls, 
And dip them deep in hell.' 

" * Nav, nay,' sweet Jesus mildly said, 
' 5* ay /nay, that must not be ; 
For there are too many sinful souls 
Crying out for the help of Me.' " 

Hone, in his Ancient Mysteries Described, 1823, 
mentions the above carol under the head " Christ- 
mas Carols now annually printed," but he only 
gives the first line. Jonx Piggot, Juir. 

Every Thing (4 th S. i. 13.) — Some of these 
changes occur in printers' offices. I can certify 
that I write any one as tico words, but I find 
great difficulty in getting them so printed. The 
same remark applies to most other words of this 
kind ; and I think that these, if they be mistakes, 
are not always to be charged upon the writer. 
At the same time, writers differ, and it is no doubt 
found to be perfectly necessary to adopt in print- 
ing a uniform and invariable standard. Some- 
times the standard is a curious one. For instance. 

4* 8. 1. Fkb. 8, '68,] 



if D #t K* # B will write a letter to The Times con- 
taining the word diocese, he will find it printed as 
diocess. The reason is, I believe, that it is so 
spelt in Johnson, and that Johnson's Dictionary is 
a common and convenient standard of reference. 

Walter W. Skeat. 

Cold Harbour (3 rd S. vii. 482.)— Now that 
a letter can be taken across the water at the 
less unreasonable charge of twelve cents, I 
am tempted by the pleasant novelty to observe, 
with reference to your many notes on the subject 
of "Cold Harbour," that the city of New \ork 
has also had a "Cold Harbour," which our ety- 
mologists have been as much puzzled to account 
for as ytmr own, over the way. But the explana- 
tion has no great difficulty in it. The site of 
Canal Street, in New York, was once a creek, 
running from the Hud3on river eastward and in- 
ward to the place where the Tombs prison now 
stands. This creek — which probably ran all the 
way round to the East River a long time ago, 
making the u down town " region a little island in 
itself— was called the Colch } or Colcht, or Collect : 
a Dutch term which in London and a hundred 
other places in England, and also in Lower Ger- 
many and round the Baltic (a name which is the 
exact synonym of Celtic) , was written Kalt, or 
Cold. This term is simply the Irish Coladh or 
Golaid=-a. bay or creek; being derived from the 
Hebrew, the Chaldean, the Celtic, the Shemitic, 
and almost universal old word for u mouth or 
opening,'" — eel, or ceal, or hoi or chol ; a term, in 
the same languages, synonymous with be, in which 
we see our bag plainly enough. The syllable aid 
or ad, which completes the word, is a variation of 
id, gild, aud, oth, coth, &c, which, in almost all 
the Shemitic and Celtic languages, means " coast " 
or " shore." The light of this last little word 
throws a curious elucidation over the historic 
namesof the Alaudae and the Bagaudse of the old 
Gallic annals. 

This easy explanation of u Cold Harbour M may 
be of interest if it lead the etymologists to the 
true conclusion — that the Dutch and the Anglo- 
Saxon are only modifications of the mother- 
tongue of the West— the original and key of the 
nomenclature, the folk-lore, and fairy romance, 
and many of the archaisms and black-letter curi- 
osities of our literature. 

New York. 

W. D. 

Rudbk: Defameden 
Addis should 



buy the " Wicliffite Glossaries" 
belonging to Sir F. Madden's edition of Wicliffe. 

k, not dear, and can be had 
iors say that rudee is only 
another spelling of reude or n«fe=raw, rough, 
new. Defameden is an inferior spelling of diffa- 
meden— dispersed the fame of. The examples of 

, ,«♦— ~* rp^ e or jgj na j meaning is 

here are interesting. 

taken from the sound of wind rushing with vio- 
lence ; hence, it means a violent wind, and lastly, 
violence or impetuosity in general. It is also 
spelt bene, bir, birr, bur. Compare the word buzz. 
It is also applied to the violent barking of a 

Bi that time 
hounde," &c. 


was the barn • for here of that 
William and the Werwolf, 1. 43. 

Walter W. Skeat. 



Smith, the Poker Artist (3 rd S. xii. 524.) 

I am indebted for th-3 few particulars given below 

to an aged clergyman, eighty-three years of age, 
who spent the earlier years of his life in the 
neighbourhood of Skipton, and was in the begin- 
ning of the present century an undergraduate of 
University College, Oxford. He believes that 
Smith kept a shop in Skipton, but of what cha- 
racter he does not remember. My informant adds 
that Smith styled himself a pyrotechnic artist. 
He also told me that on one occasion he was sur- 
prised to see in the Common Room at University 
College a poker-painting, and on inquiry he was 
informed that this picture was the work of the 
then master of the college, Dr. Griffiths. Griffiths 
claimed to be the inventor of the process, and 
asserted that he had taught Smith. Is the poker- 
painting mentioned above still to be seen in the 
Common Room of University College ? 

Johnson Baily. 

Walsh of Castle Hoel (3 rd S. xii. 14, 57.) 
The heraldic ordinaries were no doubt of Norman 
introduction, nevertheless they make their ap- 
pearance in the arms of ancient Welsh families. 
Thus, the arms of Adam ap Jorwerth, called 
Adam of Gwent, the progenitor of many Mon- 
mouthshire families, were argent on a bend sable, 
three pheons argent. This personage was the 
hereditary seneschal of the Welsh lords of Caer- 
leon at the time when that lordship was made 
over by its last Welsh lord, who died without male 
issue, to Marshal Earl of Pembroke in the reign 
of Henry III. Adam, the seneschal, received 
from Henry a grant or confirmation of all his 
father's and grandfather's lands (see Charter Roll, 
30 Hen. 111. m. 7), and probably the Norman 
ordinary was then introduced into the arms. 

C. H. W. 

Generosus (3 rd S. xii. 228.)— In illustration of 
the difference or no difference between generosus 
and armiger, I send an extract from an Elizabe- 
than Survey of the Lordship of Abergavenny : 

" Coed morgan — Matheus Jones generosus tenet a 1 
feodo-firmam Manerium ibm vocat Uan^attock Coed- 
mo rgan nuper Thome Jones* armigeri, et antea Johfs 
Thomas ap John et quondam VVillielmi Clifford et Willmi 
ap Henric. (Clifford), et reddit," &c. 

Mathew and Thomas were brothers, the sons 

of John Thomas ap John, from whom, in Welsh 



[4«» S. I. Feb. 8, '68. 

fashion, they took the surname of Jones ; t. e. 
sons of John. There was, therefore, no reason, as 
regards descent, why one should be styled genero- 
stls and the other armiger. C. II. Williams. 


Dice (4 th S. i. 28.)— I have amongst my collec- 
tion of ancient dice a Roman one of the peculiar 

others a French translation by Prince Napoleon- 
Louis-Bonaparte (brother to the emperor), which 
was published at Florence in 1830 of 

" Ragguaglio Storico di tutto V occorsogiorno per giorno 
nel Sacco di Roma dell' anno 1527, scritto da Jacopo 
Bonaparte, gentiluomo Samminiatere,* che vi si trovo 

According to the learned author of u Le Anti- 

*7" - , — . , t „ ,„^v*™ri™* mn,iA r.r ivccoruin^ 10 me leiirauu auiuor oi - jli© 211111- 

kind mentioned by your correspondent, made oi Bonanarte " Mr Stefani the first of the 

• 4 rt ;.^,i i k WL< Thn Wtors nrp. arranged on cnua atl -uonaparit, lur. oieiani, iiieuraioi uie 

ivory, stained black. The letters are arranged on 
the facets in precisely the same manner as the 
circular rings on ordinary dice— that is to say, 
the upper and lower facets together make up the 
number of seven. I know of no other specimen 
to which I can refer him, nor can I quote the 
authority he desires. I have indeed hitherto been 
unable to satisfy myself as to the true meaning 
of the letters so marked ; and in the hope that 
some of your learned contributors may enlighten 
me on the subject, I subjoin a copy of them. 
Thus for one, is substituted the vowel ; 

V three, EST; four, K T I : five, ^ ; 



family was found at Treviso as far back as 1123. 

P. A. L. 

"Martyrdom of the Macchabees" (4 th S. i. 
54.) — Mr. Jonx A. C. Vincent expresses surprise 
that the proprietress of the waxwork which ex- 
hibited the tortures of the Macchabees "was 
allowed to spread such inexact information" as 
that these seven brothers are venerated at our 
altars ; and he exclaims in amazement, " The seven 
sons of Eleazar canonized ! " One might be 
tempted to wonder how this gentleman could 
"spread such inexact information/' He ought 
surely to have known that these seven martyrs 
were not the sons of Eleazar, but of an heroic 
mother who was martyred with them, and is 
honoured with them in the Catholic church. He 
need not have wondered at these holy persons be- 


35 LI 

Consequent upon the damage to the dice from 
age, I am not quite certain whether on the facet 
five the first letter is a C or a G, or whether the 
middle letter on the lower line really is an I. 

Henry F. Holt. 

King's Road, Clapham Park. 

Battle at Wigan (3 rd S. xii. 65, 525.)— In addi- be seen by very ancientf calendars, especially that 
tion to the information given, Subscriber will 
find some account of Sir Thomas Tyldesley in The 
Stanley Papers, edited by the Rev. F. R. Raines 
for the Chetham Society, 1867 ; and t 

ing honoured as saints and martvrs. Alban Butler 
assures us that u the feast of the seven Maccha- 
bees and their mother was celebrated on the first 
of August in the first ages of the church, as may 

of Carthago 

at p. cccxxxin. 
of those papers will be found a correct copy of 
the inscription placed on the monument erected 
near Wigan to perpetuate his memory, which, in 
Baines's History of Lancashire, is given only to 
the end of "Tyldesleys," omitting the three con- 

cluding lines 

" To follow the noble example 

of their 
Loyal Ancestor." 

There is also another error in Baines's copy of 
the inscription in the fourth line, " Who saved 
Kin°" Charles " ^~" xxru* o M ^*,i K\r>c piiorioa " * 


Who served King Charles. 

This county historian abounds in errors. 

William Harrison. 

Rock Mount, Isle of Man. 

Family of Napoleon (3 rd S. xi. 507 ; 4 th S. i. 

38.) — In the Moniteur Universal of Monday, May 
17, 1858, appeared an interesting article by Mr. 
Rapetti on " Le Antichita dei Bonaparte/' be- 
ginning with a very curious extract from the Moni- 
teur of 26 Messidor, an xiii (July 14, 1805), and 
mentioning several other works of note, amongst 

The year should be 1651, not 1G50. 


. Also by those of the Svrians, Arabi- 
ans, and other Orientals." {Lives o/SS. Aug. i.) ' 
But if Mr. Vincent would know upon what 
grounds the Macchabees are so honoured, he may 
see these eloquently set forth in the oration in 
praise of the Macchabees by St. Gregory Nazian- 
zen : — 

" Who were the Macchabees ? For the present assembly 
is in honour of their festival day. By many indeed they 
are not celebrated, because their combat did not take place 
after Christ : but thev are worthy to be honoured by all, 
because they heroically contended for the institutions of 
their country : and they who suffered martyrdom before 
Christ's passion, what would they have done if they had 
suffered after Christ, and had had his death before them 

for their imitation ? And it is a mystical and 

hidden argument, highly probable to me, and to all who 
love God, that none of those who were martyred before 
the coming of Christ, arrived at this without the faith of 

Christ, (jitfiiva rcov irpb rr)s XpiffTov irapovcrlas TfA.€ia>- 

&*VTO)V } 5lX& T/)S €«$ Xpi<TTUV TrlffTCWS rovrov tv\uv). 

For the Word, though he was promulgated in his own 
time, was made known before to pure minds, as is evident 
from many who are honoured before him. Therefore 
these (Macchabees) are not to be undervalued as having 
been anterior to the cross ; but to be extolled by the cross, 
and worthy of honourable celebration." — 5. Greg, Nazian- 
zeni Orat. 22. 

F. C. II. 

* From San Miniato, near Florence. 

4* S. I. Feb. 8, '68.1 




Passage in St. Jerome (3 rd S. xii. 330, 399.) 

It is almost hopeless to look for a passage which 
has eluded the search of your learned correspond- 
ent F. C. H., but it may be some help to sav, that 
while I have met with nothing like the first part 
of the quotation, I have found the words " Semper 
tuba ilia terribilis vestris perstrepat auribus : Sur- 
gite mortui, venite ad judicium, which occur in 
Regtda Monachonun, c. xxx. amongst the supposi- 
titious works of St. Jerome, vol. xi. p. 520, edit. 
Vallais. Venet. mdcclxxi. r% ~ 


there is also a town called Wcdncsbury still ex- 
isting. 1 add the names of the other davs of the 

week in their old form: 1. 



7. Soeternes- 

Monan-daeg. 3. Tiwes-da^. 

5. Thunres-doeg. G. Frige"-t._ . .. „ ma - 

d»3g. The name of the sixth day is a goodTx- 
ample of the feminine genitive in -e. See Thorpe's 
A.-S. gospels, paw'm. Walter W. Skeat. 




Roman Bronze (4 th S. i. 20, 103.) 

A fragment of 

French, used as we now use boy to* signify a servant, 
because foot soldiers were formerly the attendants 
or servants of their leaders. Skinner says : 

u The Infantry, Fr. G. Infanterie, It. Fanteria, Peditatus, 
Fante y Pedes & Famulus, quia sc. olim Pedites Equitum 
Famuli k quasi Pedissequi fuerunt Fante autem a Lat. 
Jnfans manifest e ortum ducit, <fc nos Boy, non tantum pro 
Puero sed pro Famulo secundario sensu usurpamus."— 
Etymologicon Lingua Anglica, sub voc. Cf. Richardson's 

Diet sub. " Infant." 

K. R I). E. 

Shekel (3' d S. xii. 1)2.) — A modern forgery, 
with Hebrew characters. Cf. Akerman's Numis- 
matic Manual, p. 10, note 3. 

Probably infantry = an ancient hand-mirror, found with other articles 

o{ R onian workmanship in an excavation anions 
the debris of the old city of Corinium, lias been 


St. Xeots. 

Joseph Rix, M.D. 


Forrester o uha^i y*±— o. i. oz. ) — ine re- 
sponde _ 

la there not a Hebrew book 


named the Tamil or Tamul, of authority com- 
parable to that of the Talmud ? and may not the 


w ^ „ u Scotch 

Covenanters laying stress upon their Covenant 
such as certain Jews do upon their Tamil " ? 


No mention is made of the Covenanting Ta- 
milists in A. Ross's or W. Turner's History of 
Religions, 1G72-1G95. May not this sect, then, 
have been a remote fraternity, deriving its name 
from the Tumul district, on the Madras coast : to 
which the Italian Jesuit, Father Beschi '—styled 
Vira Maha Muni, or the Great Champion Mbnk, 
the celebrated Tamul author, who died in 1742— 
would appear to have belonged ? 

Starcross, near Exeter. 

R. R. W. Ellis. 

j.^ . _ v- - - — v There is no doubt 
or difficulty about the derivation of Wednesday. 

nodnesiQ the A.-S. mm' fi ™ nf ll r *j M * ~~a nr i 



cultural College, Cirencester. The metal was 
brittle, the fracture beiug resinous. The specific 
gravity was about 877. Qualitative tests showed 
the absence of zinc and lead, and the presence of 
a trace of iron. Submitted to careful quantita- 
tive analysis, the following per centages were ob- 
tained : copper 70-29, tin 2991. These numbers 
are not very far from those previously found in 
the analysis of other old Roman mirrors. In a 
note upon this analysis, contributed to the short- 
lived scientific journal The Laboratory, in Sep- 
tember last, Professor Church writes : 

" My attention lias long been directed to the chemical 
composition of Celtic and Romano-British bronze All 
the specimens which I have analysed were found in the 
11 ritish Isles, and were most probably of home manufac- 
ture. The proportion of copper in them is usually nearly 
constant, but the white metal which has been introduced 
into them is never pure tin. In some of the most golden 
and beautiful of the so-called bronzes, zinc is present to a 
greater extent than tin, and in some cases even 5 per 
cent, of lead has been found. It would almost seem as if 
the three white metals, tin, lead, and zinc, had been used 
indiscriminately as ingredients in the alloy." 

J. C. B. 

Paniot (4" S. i. 28.)— Pagnotto (pronounced 
panyotto), in Italian, means to this day a roll (as 
distinguished from an ordinary loaf) of bread. The 
extract given by K. P. D. E. hardly enables me 
to guess whether his paniot can have any con- 
nection with pagnotto : perhaps not. 

W. M. Rossetti. 

Festtjs (4* S. i. 28.)— The statement of Canon 
lioccard is taken from Johannes von Miiller, 
Gcschichten schweizerischer Eidgenosscnschaft, ed! 
1800, book i. chap, v., where it reads : "" Man 

weiss von den Tylangiern, den Temenern, den 
Chabilkonen, den Daliternen nur Namen." In a 

m± -m rffc mL mm. ^L mm. * \ 9 \ 1 ft 1 - 

net-dag for Wednesday is the regular A.-S. form, , - ~ ™.™. iU a 

and is very common. In Thorpe's A.-S. gospels I note to this passage Miiller adds : "Diese Volker- 

it occurs, printed in large capitals, twenty times "~ w * ^—- - 

in the first_ 92 pages. So also, in the Saxon 

• mm. _ _ _ 

Chronicle, Wodnes-beorh, 

i. e. Woden's- bury, is 

j). 24? F ' Babin « ton : WUson's Mackenzie Collection, vol i. 

schaften nennt Festus, Ora Maritima." 

It is evident that this work can have nothing to 
do with the treatise De Siv,niJicationc Verborum, 
whose author is stated in" Smith's Class. Diet. 
to have lived in the fourth century. I am not 
prepared, however, to fix the identity of the Festus 



[1* S. I. Feb. 8, '68 

i * nfiu„ TP flip work. Ora Maritima, 

Sown authorities on Swiss history. As Muller 
wrote his history exclusively from original sources 
H n ay he presumed that he possessed a copy of 
Fe 21 whfch in that case must still exist m the 
ahove-named library. An inquiry addressed to 
the'ltSt-lUhliothekar in Schatthausen ^ would 
soon clear up the point. 0. A. 1 edebee. 

SOLVITUB AM.ULANBO (4'" 8. L 31).-1)0M .not 

the origin of this phrase pertain to an anecdote 
somewhat to the following ellect i—1. hat, in a 
mPtatihvsical discussion concerning motion,— what 
rSt essentially he, and whether it could be 
, aided as a real fact in nature or only a mode 
S considering phenomena,-* philosopher who 
?ook part in the debate said that the question 
Mtl ambulando is solved by walking : , e the 
very fact that I and you can walk fro spot to 
root Proves the reality of motion. rhere is a 
Sila'r modern anecdote of which £.**«£» 

,, , \\ . 31. KOS.-ihTU. 

the hero. 

\ldrich's first answer to the ancient sophism of 
Achilles and the Tortoise but objected to by 
Whately, Loyie, Append, n. .»7. • V- 

Joseph Addison ( l ,h 8. i. 53.) 

rhe bare snp- 

ber of the 


position that Addison was a member of tl 
S Hell- fire Club " is enough to raise the poet fro 
his grave ! The simple answer, however, is, hat 
the diabolical association which assumed that 
name was not formed until many years after his 
death, when John Wilkes of « '45 » renown, Paul 
Whitehead the poet, and other kindred spirits, 
founded that blasphemous club. Their orgies 
were usuallv celebrated at Medmenham Abbey 
the seat of "Sir Francis Dash wood, Bart., one of 
its chief supporters, and hence their Resignation, 
« The Monks of Medmenham Abbey. 

In bygone days the sign of the " Devil, for a 
tavern; was not unusual. It had its origin from 
the old legend of St. Dunstan and the Devil, in 
which the saint had the best of the encounter. 
The chief tavern of that name was , n Fleet Street, 
and stood on the site of Child's Place, near 1 emple 
Bar. The " Young Devil " was opposite. 

It is true that Hell Corner was the name given 
to a corner of Love Dane leading into Hogmore 
Lane now the f Jloster Road— a lane that led down 
to a 'famous old house known in the seventeenth 
century as Hale House, and subsequently as Crom- 
well House. The name Hale in time became cor- 
rupted into Hell, and so we find it written in 
Uoque's Map of London, 1740, and thencefor- 
ward it is probable that Hale Corner became 
known as Hell Corner, which also, under that 

well, or his son Henry, having ever resided in 
Hale House, believing it cannot be traced to any 
authentic source ; but, to come nearer to our own 
times, Richard Burke, the only son of the great 
Edmund, died here, in his father's arms, on Au- 

gust 2, 1704. 

The old house is now taken down. 

J. II. W. 

'Vie CoRxun." (3 r,1 S.xii. 9, 170.) -On referring 
to Fuller's Worthies, vol. i. p. 224, I find that F. 
Edgecombe was sheriff of Cornwall in the 11th 
Elizabeth. The word vir should be read vie, and 

is an abbreviation of rice comes, or sheriff". 

1). G. 

Laurence Beyeelinck: "Magnum Thea- ; 

tium Yit.k IIumanvk," eight vols, folio (4* S. l. 
45.)— A copy of this curious work is in the library 
of the Tavlor Institution, among the books pre- 
sented to *the University bv the lato Rev. Robert 
Finch, of Balliol College. J. Macrat. 

K. P. D. E. has been rather too severe in de- 
nouncing the shortcomings of the compilers of 
biographical dictionaries. I have on my table 
two books of this kind, which, although very 
small, are most carefully and conscientiously 
written works. Gates's editiou (1800) of Maun- 
der's Iiioff. Treasury has notices of all the persons - 
mentioned by K. P. I). E.,— Taylor, Dodsworth, 
Madox, and Hearne. They are also duly recorded 
in that most modest and yet instructive little 
work bv Mr. Holo which he terms A Brief lliogra- 
phieal 'Dictionary (1800). Brief it is, but very 
useful to any one who wishes at once to ascertain 
the dates of birth and death of some eminent per- 
son. While naming so many really celebrated . 
men, Mr. Hole does not disdain to mention the 
merely eccentric and odd characters of history ; 
and Daniel Lambert finds due mention as the 
« Fat Man." Perhaps I should find the " Living 
Skeleton '* named also if I could recal his name. 
I well remember his lean person. Jaydee. 


seen an inquiry some months ago in 
N. & Q." relative to an individual of this 


name, puts in an appearance in the same map. 
I dismiss entirely the tradition of Oliver Crom- 

family, I am induced to send the following passage, 
which I have just extracted from Hardy s Life of 
Charlemont, in the hope that it may lead your in- 
quiring correspondent to the knowledge he seeks. 
See vol. ii. p. 243, note : 

" The House of Lords, many years ago, committed one 
La Boissiere to prison, who 'very innocently printed a 
list of the Irish peerage, without permission. An epigram 
was written on this occasion by Arthur Dawson, one of 
the Barons of the Exchequer in Ireland. It was nearly 
as follows : — 

" * The Lords have to prison sent La Boissiere, 
For printing the rank and the name of each Peer ; 
And there he must stay, till he is not worth a souse, ^ ^ 
For, to tell who the Peers are, reflects on the House ! 

4*8.1 Fkb. 8, *68.] 



Is the family of Sarsfield, with whom the De 
la Boissieres intermarried, so u perished out of the 
land" in Ireland that nothing can be ascertained 
through it of the lady whose likeness has been 
met with in a remote county ? S. D. 

Bryan Edwards' Portrait (4 th S. i. 50.) - 

In reference to an extract from your paper, under 
the head of " Portrait for Identification/' I may 
bo allowed to say that the words on the two 
papers evidently have no reference to England, 
tut most likely to America or the West Indies. 
Then, again, Bryan Edwards had lived in this 
town several years previous to his death in 1800, 
and was a candidate for its representation in 1794. 
His daughter tells me that he was sixty-one when 
he died, having been born in 1730. 

The portrait by Abbott could easily be compared 
with the one in your correspondent's possession, 
which would settle the question. J. W. D. 


Marriage of Women to Men (3 rd S. xii. 500.) 
Real gentlewomen (all females are " ladies," you 
know, now) do not approve of this silly compli- 
ment to the bride. 1 believe the bridesmaids 
are as often entrusted with the announcement as 
anybody else, but whoever does it means to pay 
a polite though ill-judged attention to the bride. 
There is another absurdity which " X. 

& or 

would do well to cry down, namely, inserting 
what the Chinese wisely call the " milk name " 
in an obituary. For instance, u Henry James 
(Trotty), aged two years;" or " Elizabeth Ann 
(Biddy), aged three;'' or" Jane Mary (Minnie), 
the dearly loved/' &c. &c. Surely a* little self- 

respect might prevent this sort of thing. P. P. 

u NON EST MORTALE QUOD OPTO " (4 th S. i. 75.) 

This motto, by whomsoever used, was an am- 
bitious statement. It is adapted from Metam. 

Phrcbus dissuading Phaethon from his 
wish to guide the currus patemos — a wish ex- 

ii. 50. 


"£iKOvBASiLiKE' 9 (3 rd S.iii. 128, 179,220,254, Passed in consequence of the rash promise of 
9.)— I have a very clean copy of the 1(548 edi- lWbus to grant whatever he asked, says 

t ion described (p. 179) containing "the Embleme/' 
u the Contents in four pages, and the book con- 
sisting of twenty-eight essays in 209 pages ; but al- 
though the text follows very regularly all through, 
the numbers of the pages do not. They are cor- 
rect as far as 80, then follow 91, 82, 83, 94, 95, 
«<}, 87, 98, 99, 90, 91, 102, 103, 94, 95, 109, 97, 
98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 100, 107, 
801, 109, 110, 111, 112; the remainder are all 
right. The portrait of Prince Charles (p. 232) is 
wanting. My edition has the vrord ferall with 

two &, which Mr. W. Lee (3 rd S. v. 485) sup- 

foses to be among the first six editions of 1018. 
t has also u Cyclapick " (p. 91), and the mis- 
{>rint of even for men. I enclose copy of the first 
eaf of my book, on which, under the word il Pour- 
traicture," are the names of several persons to 
whom it has belonged; the first of which, Rj 
Lewis, appears to be in a handwriting of the 

E. B. A. (3 rd S. iii. 254) asks, Has it been 
shown who engraved "the Embleme"? Does 
not Guil. Marshall sculpsit at the bottom answer 
the query? although it may have been "invented 
and designed " by Gauden, as attested by him. 

P. A. L. 

" Sors tua mortalis; nun est mortalc quod optas." 

Stuarts Lodge, Malvern Wells. 

I). P. 

Commoners untitled to Supporters (4 th S. i. 

73.) — Dundas of Dundas, N. 15 , may be added to 
the list. Other instances are given in my County 

E. Walfohd, M.A. 

Hampstead, NWV. 


* •• 




Sir T. Chaloner (3 rd S. x. 28; 4 th S. 

l. a 


" Quae pereunt iroi vivuntque simillima fumo." 

The letters iroi only require transposition and 
an r for an t, and we nave rori f reminding us of 
the verse in Ilosea xiii. 3 : — 

44 Therefore shall they be as the morning cloud, and as 
the early dew that p asset h awav, as the chaff that is 
driven with the whirlwind out of the floor, and as the 
smoke out of the chimney/ 1 

A. B. C. 


Puree the Ploughman s Crede (about 1394 \.\y.), transcribed 
and edited from 3188. in Trinity College, Cambridge, 
and collated with 3ISS. in the British Museum, and 
with the old Printed Text of 1553. To which is ap- 
pended God Spede the Plough (about 1500 A.D.J, from 

MS. Lansdowne 762. By the He v. Walter \V. Skcat. 
(Printed for the Early English Text Society.) 

Instructions for Parish Priests, by John Mvrc. Edited 
from the Cotton 31S. Claudius A. 11. 'By Edward 

Peacock, F.S.A. (Printed for the Early English Text 
Society. ) 

The Babees Book ; Aristotle s A. B. C. ; Urbanitatis ; 
Stans Puer ad Mensam ; The Lytille Children's Lytil 
Soke; The Bokes of Nurture of Hugh Rhodes and John 
Russell; IVynkyn de Worde's Boke of Kervynge ; The 
Jiooke of Demeanour ; The Boke of Curtasye ; Stagers 
Schools of Vcrtue, §v., with some French and Latin 
Poems on like Subjects ; and some Forewords on Educa- 
tion in Early English. By F. J. Furnivall, M.A. 
(Printed fur the Early English Text Society.) 

The Book of the Knight of La Tour- Landry, compiled fur 
the Instruction of his Daughters. Translated from the 
Original French into English in the Reign if Henry VI., 
and edited fr tJte First Time from the Vnique 31 S. in 
the British 3Inseum ; witli an Introduction and Notes. 
By Thomas Wright, M.A. (Printed for the Early 
English Text Society.) 

It will be seen by the titles (which we have advisedly 
copied at length) of the four books just issued by the 



[4* S.I. Feb. 8/68. 

Early English Text Society, that these books are of 
varied interest, but equal any which the Society have 
yet issued. Of Pierce the Ploughman's Crede, the pre- 
sent edition is by far the most correct and interesting 
which has yet appeared, as a glance at Mr. Skeat's pre- 
face will convince the reader. The Instructions for Parish 
Priests bv the worthy Canon of Lilleshall, in Shropshire, 
John Myrc, is, as he tells us, a translation from the Latin, 
and presents a curious picture of what were then held to 
be the priest's duties, and of the manners of the times. 
The third volume, which is edited by Mr. Furnivall, 
contains, as will be seen by its ample title-page, medie- 
val tracts on the nurture and education of children; on 
their behaviour and conduct ; and, as gentle youths en- 
tered the service of men of rank to learn courtesy and 
good manners, the book contains much that is illustrative 
of the management of great households. It is full of 
interest and full of curious pictures of the so-called good 
old times. Mr. Wright's Book of the Knight of La Tour- 
Landry, compiled for the instruction of his daughters, 
forms a curious and useful supplement to Mr. Furnivall's 
volume, and has, besides, its own special interest as a 
picture of what was considered the excellencies and vir- 
tues which maidens of noble worth were enjoined to strive 

Books Received. 

The Quest of the Sana/real, the Stcord of Kingship, and 

other Poems. By T.' West wood. (Russell Smith.) 
A little volume of true poetry. 

Wholesome Fare, or the Doctor and the Cook. A Manual of 
the Laws of Food and the practice of Cookery, embodying 
the best Receipts in British and ContinenUd Cookery ; 
with Hints and Receipts for the Sedentary, the Sick, and 
the Convalescent. By Edmund S. and Ellen J. Dela- 
ine re. (Lock wood.) 

To prepare our food in a way which .shall be at once 
wholesome and grateful to the palate is an object so ob- 
viously desirable, that this book commends itself to the 
attention of all who eat to live. 

The Herald and Genealogist. Edited by .1. (i. Nichols. 

Part XXV. 

Mr. Nichols's most useful periodical exhibits increased 
rather than diminished interest. The two articles, 
" Doubtful Pedigrees" and " Doubtful Baronetcies," must 
direct attention to a rapidly increasing evil. 

The Student and Intellectual Observer of Science, Litera- 
ture and Art. No. I. (Groom bridge.) 

This is a new and enlarged series of the Intellectual 
Observer, but which is not increased in price. It com- 
mences well, and Mr. T. W right's series of papers, 
" Womankind in all Ages of Western Europe," is sure to 
be amusing, and full of information. 

The Bookworm : an illustrated Literary and Bibliographic(d 
Review. Pa rts XXIII. a nd XXI J r . 

These two parts conclude the second volume of this, 
the only exclusively bibliographical journal published in 
this country. Certain modifications and improvements 
are promised for the third volume now about to appear. 

Hie London Diocese Book for 18G8. (Rivingtons.) 

The fourth year of issue of a year-book indispensable 
to the clergy of the diocese, and very useful to the laity. 

Mr. Christie Miller has been good enough to place 
at the disposal of Dr. Hall, for completing his edition of 
Lauder's Works for the Early English Text Society, two 
of that poet's unique pieces; first, " Ane Godlie Trac- 
tate or Mirrour, Quhairintill may be easilie perceeuit 
quho thay be that ar Ingraftit in to Christ, and quho ar 

nocht Compyld In Metre, be William Lauder, 

Minister of the Wourd of God " ; and secondly, " Ane 
prettie Mirrour Or Conference, betuix the Faithfull 
Protestant and the Dissemblit false Hypocreit." To this 
is added a poem against covetousness and reverence for 
the mere rich of the day, — "Ane trewe and breue Sen- 
teneius Discriptioun of the nature of Scotland Twiching 
the Intertainment of virtewus men that lacketh Ryches." 
Another short poem ends the volume, entitled " Ane gude 
Kxempil lie the buttcrflie, Instructing men to hait al 
Harlottrie." Mr. Miller has also lent Dr. Hall, for the 
Earl}' English Text Society's edition of Lyndcsay, one 
of the three existing copies of Sir David Lindesay's 
44 Satvre," 1002. 

Kightley's Shakespeare Expositor. 

Mr. Keightley has printed four supplemental pages, 
which purchasers mav procure upon application to Mr. 
Russell Smith. 



Particular! of Price, Jke.« of the following Bookfl,to be tent direct 
to the gentlemen by whom they are required, whose names and ad- 
'lrc-iue. are given for that purpose: — 

Clarendon's History of tuk Grand Rem llio.v. Vol. VI. Oxford 

I7»*» 8 vo. 
Scientia Biblica: a Copious and Original Collection of Parallel Pm- 

snges for the Illustration of the New Testament. Vol. I. ftvo. 

1. mii Ion : Booth, 32, Duke Street, 1825. 

Wanted by Rev. W. H. Bums* 7*, Grosvenor Street, Chorlton-on- 

Medlock, Manchester. 

HooTn's Interest Tarlfs, published about 1*18. 

Witsics on thi Cried. 2 Vols. Good copy. 

IUrtsch. Le Pkintrk Gravecr. 21 Vols. Fine set. 

Nichols's Collectanea Topooraphica. 8 Vols. imp. 8vo. Bound 

Journal «-k thi Koyal Geographical Socifty. Complete set. 

Wanted by Mr. Thomas Beet. Bookseller. 15, Conduit Street, 

Bond Street, London, W. 

fiatitti to Carrrip0irtrenW. 

Universal Catalogue of Books ow Art. All Additions and Cor- 
rations should be addressed to the Editor, South Kensington Museum, 
London, \Y. 

Ri'fus. " The two Kings of Brentford" are characters in the farce of 
The Rehearsal, written by Villiers. l>uice of Buckingham. In Act 11. 
Sc. 2. they* enter hand-in hand," and probably "smelling at one nose- 
gay" though the stage directions are siLnt on that point. 

C. J. or C. T. (Manchester). Asa recommendation not a law. But 
what objection can our Correspondent have to it t 

Aikkn Irvine. Xo more published of the Sarum Offices. 

W. E. Harland Oxlrt. The first coffee house in England tras kept 
is by a Jew nam id Jacobs in Oxford in lb50. One was opened at London 
in 1K52. and the Jlainbow Coffee- /louse near Temple Bar teas in 1657 con - 
^de red a nuisance to the locality. 

M. Y. L. The following explanation of the phrase" Biding bodkin " 
is by thut learned antiquary, the late //. T. Payne. Archdeacon of St. 
David's :— " Bodkin is bodykin Uittle body), as manikin (little man), and 
was a littU person to whose company no objection could be miule on ac- 
count of room occupied by the two persons accommodated in the corners 
of the carriage." 

K. J j. has not carefully read the rubrics of the Marriage Service in the 
Book of Common l*rayer : one of which directs the persons to be married 
to come into the bo-ly of the church. Anoth»r, afUr the blessing is pro- 
nounced, directs the ministers and clerks to go to the Lord • Table. 

where the service is concluded. The first edition of Charles Wheatly's 

useful work on the Book of Common Prayer was published in 1710. Most 
biographical dictionaries con'ain a notice of him. 

L. E. B. The words of the song. *' Farewell Manchester" have 
already been inquired after in ** N. *t O." Mr. Chappell states that the 
song, in all probability, is irrccoverab'u lost. Popular Music of the Olden 
Time, ii. 683. 

A Reading Case for holding the weekly Nos. of *'N. & Q." is now 
ready, and maybe had of all Booksellers and Newsmen, price \s.c>d.; 
or, free by post, direct from the publisher, for Is. 8rf. 

•*• Cases for binding the volumes of " N. & Q." may be had of the 
Publisher, and of all Booksellers and Newsmen. 

M Notkb and Queries" is published at noon on Friday, and is also 
is sued in Monthly Parts. The Subscription for Stamped Copies for 
six Months forwarded direct from the Publisher {including the Half- 
yearly Index) is Us. Ad., which may be paid by Post Office Orders 
payable at the Strand Post Office, in favour of Will i am G. Smith, 43, 
Wellington Street, Strand, W.C., where also all Communications 
for the Editor should be addressed. 

*' Notes ft Queries " is registered for transmission abroad. 

4*8.1. Feb. 15/68. j 





NOTES : — The Drama at Hereford, 141 — Personal Vanity 
of Queen Elizabeth, 142 — Mr. Hazlitt's Handbook : Helio- 
dorus Ac., lb. — 8hips in Mourninjr, \W — Book-plate by 
8ir R. Stramre — Inscription over Raphael's Door at Ur- 
bino — Ovid's " Metamorphoses" —Robinson Crusoe — 
The Twentv-ninth of February on a Saturday — Junius 
Jitters — Charles Cotton the Angler, and Sir Richard 
Fanshawe — Tresham's Head at Northampton, 111. 

QUERIES : — Abyssinian Dates — Altar Lights at All Hal- 
lows', Thames Street — Articles of the Church — Passage 
in Be>anj?er — Edward Cock, M.D. — Curious old Custom 

— Dinham : Lord Dinhara — Gilderoy : Captain Alexander 
Smith - Griff, or Grijef (A.), a Flemish Painter — Ago of 
Irish MSS. — Lennock — Jean de Logis — Manslaughter 
and Cold Iron — Pakenham Family — Painter wanted — 
Petition of Rijrht — Philo — Psalms in the Order for 
Morning and Evening Prayer — Philosophy and Atheism 

— Robin and Marian, Ac, 1 \* 

Queries with Answers-. — "Epistolae Obscurorum Viro- 
rum M — Ecclesia>tical Rhyme — Lord George 8ackville — 
Marriagi^ Banna— Fleet — Rabelais - The Battle of the 
Forty-Test for Wells-Pickering's Cup-" Efficacity," 140. 

REPLIES : — Emendations of Shelley, 151— Centcnarianism, 
152 — The Law of Arms, 153 — The Introduction of Fruits 
and Culinary Vegetables into England, 154 — Sir Anthony 
Ashler's Monument : the Cabbage, 15ft — The Word u Fe- 
nian occurring in Ancient Irish Literature, 76. — Sir 
Edward Coke's' " Household Book for 15M-7 " — The 
Homeric Society — No Love Lost — Gillray's " French In • 
vasion" — "Cast rum Rot ho magi " — Costly Entertain- 
ments — German-English Dictionary — " The Alliterative 
Romance of Alexander," Ac, 158. 

Notes on Books Ac. 



It is a blot in the history of the city of Here- 
ford that in the present day the birthplace of 
Nell G wynne and David Garrick should be with- 
out a theatre. The little temple, once no mean 
school of the histrionic art, where Powell and 
Betterton performed, and subsequently many ex- 
cellent actors adorned its stage, was demolished 
about a dozen years since. The fate of the drama 
within the city of the Wye may be attributed to 
the influence of the evangelical clergy when 
the late Rev. Henry Gipps, about thirty years 
ago, became incumbent of the united parishes of 
St. Peter and St. Owen. He was succeeded by 
their present respected pastor, the Rev. John 
Venn, who was appointed by the Simeon Trustees, 
patrons of the advowson. 

My recollections of the theatre go back nearly 
half a century, when Mr. Watson was proprietor 
and manager. Upon his death Mr. John Crisp, 
an eminent actor, succeeded, good in comedy and 
tragedy. One of his favourite characters was 
Somnp in The Sleep-walker. His brother, Mr. 
Charles Crisp, followed, no less respected as an artist 
and a gentleman, being the lessee for many years 
of the theatres at Gloucester, Cheltenham, Leo- 
minster, Bridgnorth, and Ludlow. Mr. George 
Crisp (another brother) was in his day unsur- 

passed in low comedy, competing with George 
Shuter. Mr. Charles Crisp married a niece of the 
late Sir Astley Cooper, Bart., M.D., and had two 
daughters, both accomplished actresses ; but the 
youngest (Miss Cecilia Crisp) left the profession 
soon, and married a medical practitioner at Chel- 
tenham. During Mr. Charles Crisp's rule, Mr. 
Henry Vining was stage manager, and his wife 
(late Miss Quantrel) shone in melodrama. I re- 
collect seeing at Hereford the elder Mathews 
(father of Mr. Charles Mathews) in his original 
entertainment, entitled " Mathews at Home," a 
precursor of the kind of performances now given 
by Mr. Woodin, Mr. and Mrs. German Reed, and 
Mr. and Mrs. Howard Paul. 

Amongst the (i London stars " under Mr. Crisp's 
management was Miss Foote, who played " Tne 
Little Jockey " and Rosalind. This was about 
the year 1822. Madame Vestris and her sister, 
MissBartolozzi, with Miss Ellen Tree (now Mrs. 
Charles Kean), also graced the Hereford stage. I 
must not omit Miss Clara Fisher, and Young 
Burke, the Infant Prodigy; and, in later days, 
Mrs. Humby, who was accompanied in her pro- 
vincial tours by the Earl of Lichfield. 

Upon the decease of Mr. Charles Crisp, the 
theatre at Hereford, and at several of the other 
places named, was under the direction of Mr. 
Mc Gibbon, whose wife (late Miss Woodfall) had 
been prima-donna at the Theatre Royal Drury 
Lane, great in comedy and tragedy, taking the 
characters of Lady Macbeth, Portia, and Her- 
mione, with others requiring equal ability. 

Few provincial actors excelled Mr. Charles Crisp 
in his portraiture of Richard HI., Macbeth, the 
Ghost inlfa?nlet; no mean second to Liston in 
Paul Pry, and capital as Doctor Panglos?, Shy- 
lock, and Rambler in the comedy of Wild Oats. 
Mr. Crisp died in the prime of life, aud his widow 
and eldest daughter afterwards resided and de- 
ceased at Hereford. 

In its palmy days the theatre, there, was well 
patronised by the most distinguished families in 
the city and county. I recollect with pleasure 
many a delightful evening so spent. A kind but 
very eccentric lady (Mrs. Whitmore) made it a 
point to have no private engagement on the nights 
of performance, and rarely omitted to fill her ac- 
customed place in the boxes. At the moment of 
her entry the curtain was raised, and the National 
Anthem was given by the whole dramatic corps, 
in which she heartily and artistically joined. 

Connecting the literature of the city with the 
theatre, I must add that Mr. William Horton, a 
member of Mr. Charles Crisp's company, about 
forty years since, produced a three-act piece 
written by himself, entitled Nell Owynne; or, 
the Bed Lands of Herefordshire ; the former re- 
ferring to the celebrated courtezan, and the latter 
to the deep clay soil of a large portion of the 



[4*S. 1. Feb. 15, ? 68. 

county. I may also mention that the two 
Ivembles (John and Charles) appeared in early 
years at Hereford. Amongst the actors in Mr. 
Crisp's and Mr. McGibbon s time, the names of 
Mr. Waldron (a good tragedian) Mr. Thomp- 
son, and Mr. Gill ought to be chronicled ; the 
first an excellent representative of old men, and 
the last really unctuous in low comedy. Mr. Gill's 
personation of Autolycus in the Winter a Tale, and 
of the Clown in Twelfth XigfU, was as racy as it 

could be. 

I well recollect (on the occasion of a benefit), 
being present at a representation of a play called 
the Siege of Bridgnorth, very interesting and 
nicely got up. I am, however, ignorant who was 

the author of it. Alpha. 



In a note (p. 281 ) to a production reprinted 
very recently by Mr. Lilly (in his volume of 
Black-letter Ballads and Broadside*) we read as 
follows : — 

" In the State Paper Office is an inflated draft of a 
proclamation in the handwriting of Cecil, prohibiting all 
* pay n tor?, prvntors and grnvors ' from drawing (Juecii 
Elizabeth's picture, until ' some conning person mete 
therefor shall make a naturall representation of her Ma- 
jesty's person, favour, or grace,' as a pattern for other per- 
sons to copy. This proclamation was most likely never 
published, £-c. 

If the writer of the above had had an oppor- 
tunity of consulting the Registers of the Privy 
Council, he might have found there a clue to the 
date of the proclamation in the subsequent entry, 
to which I called attention nearly forty years ago 
in the History of our Early English Dramatic 
Poetry and the Stage. 

"80 July, 15%. 
"A Warrant to her Majesties Sergeant Painter, and to 
all pnbliokc ofiieers, to yielde him their assistance touch- 
ing the abuse committed bv divers unskilful! artisans, in 
unseemly and improperly paintinge, gravinge, and print- 
ing of hir Majesties person and vysage, to her Majesties 
great offence, and disgrace of that beautifull and mag- 
nanimous majesty wherewith <5od hath blessed her. Re- 
quiring them to cause all suche to be defaced, and none 
to be allowed, but such as her Majesties Sergeant Pay li- 
ter shall first have sight of. The mvnute remavning in 
the Counsell Chest." 

The undated proclamation 
this sol 


proceeding of the 

robablv grew out of 

Privy C 

Council for the 

concealment of the queen's increasing wrinkles at 
the age of sixty-four ; and in connection with it, 
we may quote the following passage from the 
preface to Sir Walter Raleigh's History of the 

World, first published in 1014, where he is ap- 
plauding King James : — 

11 I could say much more of the King's Majestey, with- 
out flatterie, did I not feare the imputation of presumption: 
and withall suspect, that it might befall these papers of 
mine (though the losse were little) as it did the pictures 
of Queene Elizabeth, made bv un«ki]full and common 

Painters, which by her owne commandement were knockt 
in peaces and cast into the tire." 

Upon this subject we are to recollect also that 
it is from Sir W. Raleigh we learn that the Earl 
of Essex would not have been executed, but for 

is "Dialogue betweene a Counsel- 

his imprudent personal abuse of the queen, which 
in some way reached her majesty's ears. We 
quote from h 
lour of State and a Justice of Peace/' the precise 
date of which, between 1028 and 1042, I am not 
at this moment able to ascertain, but in which Sir 
Walter savs: 

44 Yea, the late Earle of Essex told Queene Elizabeth 

that her conditions iretc as crooked as her carcassc ; but it 

cost him his head, which his insurrection had not cost 
him, but for that speech." 

Here we see that Raleigh asserts that Essex 
actually spoke the offensive words to Elizabeth's 
withered face, which, with all that nobleman's 
recklessness, was not likely to have been the fact. 
Essex would surely not have so grossly offended, 
not merely against the laws of good breeding, but 

of common decency. J. Payne Collier. 




" Inexactitude scrupulous? est le premier mirite, 
com me le premier devoir (Tan bibliograj)he. v — 

Charles Magnix, 1840. 

In a comment on the assertions which Mr, Haz- 
litt had the temerity to advance as evidence of 
the surpassing character of his own bibliographic 
doings I had occasion to point out two serious 
errors relative to a translation of Ileliodorus, and 
I more than intimated the existence of others in 

the same article. 

To attirm the existence of errors without ad- 
ducing proofs or rectifications was a breach of one 
of my cherished rules of criticism ; and as the ex- 
pected answer hangs Jire, it now behoves me to 
prove that I did not censure at random. 

Three impressions of the Aethiopian historie of 

Ileliodorus, as translated by Thomas Underdowne, 
were published in the .sixteenth century. Of the 
impression of 1500, to which Mr. Uazlitt had 
called attention as supposed to be lost, I pointed 
out a description in the Hodleian catalogue of 
1843 ; and of the impression of 1577, omitted as 
one which never had being, I proved the existence 
by the testimony of bishop Tanner and others. 
The connection of the impressions of the sixteenth 
century with others of later date must be ac- 
cepted as my apology for this repetition. 

The impressions of the next century, as reported 
in the Hand-book, are four of the above-described 
translation by Underdowne, and two of a metrical 
version by William L'Isle. On those six entries 

* '• N. iv Q/' 3' d S. xii. 1*3, 234, 252. 

4*8.1. Feb. 15, '08.] 



I shall now pen such remarks as the interests ot 
literature seem to require. 

Mr. Hazlitt briefly indicates an impression ot 
1C05 and another of 1606. The existence of two 

and on comparing 
1005. as given in 




but cannot 


affirm it In the Hand-book the imprints vary : 
now, if we except the date, they are precisely the 


The impression of 1022, which comes next in 

the order of time, seems to have been held in 

estimation. A copy of that date was in the 

Harley library and also in the Fairfax library. 

The copy which is now before me has the auto- 

. 1L Lister. As this volume contains a 

non-entity. I produce evidence which no one can 
rej ect : 

(i.) London, printed bv Iolm Hnviland for William 

Barret. 1023. 
(n.) London, printed by Iohu Haviland for llanna 

Barret. 1C23. 

The first of the above imprints is from A tree 

relation etc. The second is from The essayes of 

the viscount St. Alban. 

I must add. not censoriously, but as a curiosity 
in bibliographic literature, that Mr. Hazlitt 

mis-spells the name of the publisher of the real 
edition of 1022 and gives it correctly as a part of 

the imprint of ajietice edition ! 

William Lisle was one of our earliest Saxon 



He was also a translator from the Greek, 
French languages. His career needs 

text, it calls for a precise description 

I shall therefore re- 

fresh inquiry, and I shall pass over the items in 
which he is named. The two impressions above- 

graph /. H. Lister. 

new dedication, and is said , - 

which it noticed are dated in lull and 10-18 respectively. 

Wood says he died in 1637. 

When" Mil. Hazlitt issued the first prospectus 

of the Hand-book, he stated his intention to give 
a note of the public repositories in which rare and 

This recom- 

certainly has not received. 

peat the item as it appears in the Hand-book, and 

propose a substitute : 

(An Ethiopian historic, A-c.) " Done out of Greeke, 
and compared with other translations in divers languages. 
Printed by Felix Kingston, 1022. 4to. 

44 Undcrdown's translation revised and collated by XV. 

Barret."— W. C. H. 

"Hkuodokvs his ^Ethiopian history: Done out of 
iireeke, and compared with other translations in diuers 
languages. The arguments and contents of euery seuerall 
booke, are prefixed to the beginning of the same, for the 
better vnderstauding of the storie. Ixmdon, printed by 
Felix Kyngston, for William Itarrat. 1022." 4° Title -r 
Ded. + pp. 328. [ Recte 348. ] 

This impression is dedicated to 
of Aylesford, by the stationer William liarrvt. It 
is the translation of Underdo wne, but he is not 
named. Barret states that he had " taken care to 
see it cleered from the barbarismes of antiquity." 
To test the veracity of the man, I collated the first 
six lines of the prose text, and the first specimen 
of verse, with some earlier impression of which I 
omitted to note the date, without discovering any 
proofs of revision. Whatever may have been the 
amount of revision, it was not the work of William 
Barret A credulous bibliographer is a contributor 
to the diffusion of error. 

(An /Ethiopian liistorie; etc.) " London, Printed bv 
Felix Kyngston, for William Barret. 1627. 4to." — 

W. C. H. 

This is one of the unrecorded impressions which 
Mr, Hazlitt has been enabled to incorporate with 


the others. 

It is now my turn to question. 

insert it ? But I shall 

what authority did he 
spare him the task of deviling an answer — On the 
authority of a mis-read date. The advice which 
I gave on the expunction of recorded impressions 
was a tacit admission that it might sometimes be 
justified by an appeal to names and dates — and 
here is an instance. The Heliodora* of 1027 is a 

important volumes are preserved, 
mendation he afterwards omitted. It is, however, 
a most desirable feature in all works of the same 
class. A specimen of that sort of information 
was riven by O.-F. I)e Bure in 1703-8. It was 

the Bibliotheque du Uoi, and comprises 

more than four thousand works. 

The utility of such information being incontes- 
tible, we have to decide on the class of works to 
which it is to be applied, and on the mode in 
which it can be made to unite precision and bre- 
vity. On those points there may be much variety 
of opinion. I submit two specimens : 


Bodlctj (Cat. 18-13). 
Vide Cat. J. Hutton, 1701. 
No. 7< .**. 

Brit* M u scum. + Bottle y 

(Douce). + T. V. Camb. 
No. 3*98. 

Brit. Museum, 

Brit. Museum. 

N o \ v h c re reco r d etl . 

Brit. Museum, + B<ulh y 

( Donee). 
Brit. Museum (Granville). 
+ Bodley (Cat. 1*13). 

The mode of expressing the result of collations 
would call for queries, but there is no sufficient 
scope for criticism on that head without passing 
the bounds of the article which had been chosen 






W.C. II. 

Bodleiun (Burton). 

Br. Museum, Bod- 
leian S' Capell Coll. 

[No note,] 

Br. Museum. 

[No note.] 
No note. J 
No note. J 

1G3«S Br. Museum. 




Mu. Hazlitt closes it with an enigma. nc» 
refers to Fraunce — but in the article on Frounce 

(Ab. ) he had omitted to notice the version from 
I leliodorus. 



[4* S. I. Feb. 15, '68. 

As bibliographic works contain many names 
and dates, and many deviations from modern 
orthography, errors and oversights on the part of 
the authors are scarcely avoidable — but as the 
errors and oversights above-described occur in that 
part of the Hand-book to which Mr. IIazlitt had 
drawn particular attention as evidence of his claims 
to distinction, and come within the space of one 
column of a volume which extends to fourteen 
hundred columns, it is surely desirable that the 
public should be enabled to form a due estimate 
of the censures and the vauntings by which the 
work was recommended to their notice, and is 
now pronounced by its author to be a " consider- 
able advance on anything which lias been yet 
done in our country in the same direction." 

Bolton Count: v. 

Barnes, S.W. 



The custom of 

sails as 

a sign 



mourning seems to ha\e been observed in very 
old times. Everybody remembers the legend of 
Theseus, who agreed with his father .Kgsrus that 
he would exchange the black sails of his ship 
with white, or, according to Simonides, with 
crimson sails, in case he should return victorious 
from his expedition to Crete. (Cf. Euripides, 
HippoL v. 752, who describes also white sails as 
a sign of joy : 

The Romans probably imitated the Greek cus- 
tom, for Catullus says in one of his poems : 

" Ut simul ac nostros invisent lumina colics, 
Funestam antennae deponant undique restetn, 
Candiduque intorti sustollant vela rudentes." 

We may compare with this the following lines 
of the lioman de Tristan. Ysolt is sailing to 
Britanny, where Tristan awaits her : during the 


voyage she meets with very severe weather, 
when u chet li venz e belz tens fait/' — 

" Le blanc sigle unt amunt trait, 
E siglent amunt grand esplcit 
Que Kaherdin Brctainc veit. 
Dune sunt joius e le e bait, 
E traient le sigle ben bait 
Que luin se puisse apereever 
Quel si seit, le blanc u le weir." 

Mr. A. J<il, in his Archeohgic Xavale (vol. ii. 
p. 481), quotes the following passage from a 
manuscript, which furnishes another instance of 


nps in mourning 



Franca ab los palaments (oars), ban de res (flags), e tendals 

(tilts or awnings) negres tn senyal de dol y tristicia, per 

quant los dits s ri capitans porta ven presa la persona del 
Key de Franca en la galera capitana, que fou pres en la 
batalla de Lombardia per lo Imp* 1 exercit del Emperador 
N rc S or sagons atras en Jornada de vi de marc es feta 
mencio. K les dites sis galeras franceses axi senyaladas 
de llur dolor fosen acid) ides de gracia en senyal de acom- 
panyar la persona del dit Key presoner. E axi totes les 
dites xxi galeres molt be arregladas (in order) seguint la 
capitana a gran trihunfo prcngucren terra c moltes delles 
posaren scales en terra . . . ." 

This extract is very interesting, as it is taken 
from the diary of an eye-witness. Mr. Jal 
further remarks that Joinville speaks of "filripa 
in mourning, 9 * and, lastly, quotes another in- 
teresting instance : — 

"Longtemps, au dix-septieme sieclc, on vit dans les 
eaux de Livournc, la capitane des chevaliers de Saint- 
Rtienne porter autour de sa poupe une large raie noire, 
te'moignage d'un regret que le temps n 'avait pas adouci, 
embleme du deuil que l'ordre gardait pour la perte qu'il 
avait faite dans un combat, d'ailleurs glorieux, contre les 
Tures, de sa galore capitane. Ce demi-deuil de la capi- 
tane avait succede a un deuil plus complet ; avant la 
simple raie noire qui attristait les mngniflques ornements 
de la poupe, eette poupe toute entiere tftait peinte en noir. 
L'ordre avait fait serment de n'eftacer la bande lugubre 
que le jour i»ii il aurait pris une capitane au Turc. Je ne 
sais ce qu'il advint de ce serment solennel." 

I hope that some of your learned correspondents 
will deveiope the subject more fully. 

G. A. Sen rum pf. 

Book-plate nv Sir I{. Straxob. — I have a 

book-plate of a very interesting character, de- 
signed and engraved by Sir J!. Strange. It con- 
tains a minute bust of Cicero, and another of 
Craig. As this is not in the list of M. Charles le 
Klanc, it seems to have been overlooked. The 
work is exceedingly delicate. li. II. 0. 

Inscription over Raphael's Door at Ur- 

bixo. — This inscription is prettily expressed, and 
though now unknown, may not "be unworthy of 
your pages. It runs thus : ■ — 


Exiguis hisce in anlibus 

Eximius ille Piotor 

Raphael Xatus est, 

Oct. ID. Aprilis, Ann. mcd.xxciii. 

Venerare igitur Hospes 

Xomen et Genium Loci. 

Ne mire re, 
Ludit in humanis divina potentia rebus. 

Et sa?pe in par vis 

claudere magna solet." 

<; 1525. Dilluns (Monday) a xviiij de juny. En aquest 
dia entre le sis e set ores apres mig jorn arribaren en la 
platja de la present ciutat de Barchna (Barcelona) lo 
molt III. S r Don Charles de la Noy vis Rey de N a poise 
capita general del victorios exercit del Emperador y Rey 
X re s<>r v en sa companya lo molt magnifich et valeros 
capita alarcon ab xxi galeres delesquels las xveren desa 
Mag 1 molt armades y ornades. e les sis eren del Rev de 


The hexameter line is found in Ovid (Ep. ex 
Pont. iv. 3, 49). Can any of your correspondents 
point out the source of the pentameter r Is 
known who penned the inscription? Raphael 
was born on April G, a.d. 1483. It is a curious 
mode of expressing eighty-three: xxciii., t. c, 
20-103=83. Is this the usual mode of ex- 
pressing such numbers in those early times? I 

4*S.I. Feb. 15, '68.] 



have never observed it anywhere else. I have | tended to suggest a reminiscence of my old 
looked into Lanzi, Storia Pittorica deUa Italia 

(Bassano, 1809) ; the inscription is not mentioned, 
but perhaps it may be found in Vasari, or in the 
Life of Raphael by Abbate Comolli. 

Craufttrd Tait Ramagk. 

Ovid's " Metamorphoses." — The writer of the 
article "Ovid/' in "Biography" (tol. iv. col. G13 
of the English Cyclopedia) appears to have fallen 
into an error respecting the translation of the 
Metamorphoses by George Sandys. He says : 

" The best translation of Ovid into English verse is 

Ovid's Metamorphoses in Fifteen Books, translated by tlie 
most Eminent Hands, foL, Loudon, 1717. There have 
been numerous reprints of* this version. The translators 
were Dryden, Addison, Congrcve, Rowe, Gay, Amb 
Phillips, Garth, Croxall, and Sewell. Sandys translated 
the first fire books, fol. London, 1G27: and separate books 
have been translated by others." 

I have now before me a fine old copy of 

" Ovid's Metamorphoses Englished, Mythologiz'd, and 
represented in Figures, An Essay to the Translation of 
Virgil's jEneis. By G[eorge] S[andys J. Imprinted at 
Oxford, By John Lichfield. An. Dom. mdcxxxii." 

This appears to be a second edition, and con- 
tains the whole fifteen books, illustrated by cop- 
per-plate engravings, and explained by learned 
commentaries appended to each book. In the 
address " to the most High and Mightie Prince 
Charles, King of Great Britaine, France, and 

Ireland/' I find a curious use of the prefix un 
for what we now write im f as ?m-perfect, &c., for 
i m-perfect, &c. ; and this leads me to ask two 
questions: — First, when did im take the place of 
un? And, secondly, in what authors, if any, may 
we find an indiscriminate use of both forms ? 

T. T. W. 


Robinson Crusoe. — How happens it that the 
name of our old friend Robinson Crusoe (a simple 
name enough, one would say) has always proved a 
difficulty to French translators ? They persist in 
making three syllables of the surname, and write it 
either Crusoe or Cruso6. In an illustrated edition, 
to which a Life of Defoe by Philarete Chasles is 
prefixed (Paris, 1836), the same odd spelling is 
seen; and even our respected Xotaquerid, who 

such a master of Ensrlish. not only 


is sucn a master of English, 

" Crusoe," but calls the author " De Foe. 

Both French and Germans, too, seem to fancy 
it a matter of indifference whether they speak of 
Defoe's hero a3 Crusoe or as Robinson. I well re- 
member how, as a boy, I used to be puzzled with 
the title of a then popular book, The Swiss Family 
Robinson. At that time I knew no German, nor 
was I aware of the work having been originally 
written in that language. I only thought it very 

strange that any 


wiss family should be called 

and never suspected that, by the ori- 
ginal author of the tale, u Robinson " was in- 

acauaintance Crusoe. 

It would be worth while for all French ad- 
mirers of Defoe's work to commit to memory the 
folio wing lines, with which the preface to Major's 
edition (1831) concludes : 

" There arc few books one can read through and through so, 
With new delight, either on wet or dry day, 
As that which chronicles the acts of Crusoe, 

And the good faith and deeds of his man Friday." 




I send you the following cutting from a 

newspaper : — 

" The month upon which we have just entered con- 
tains five Saturdays — a singularity which has not oc- 
curred in any February these scores of j*ears." — Globe. 

This seems to be quite a mistake. The 29th of 
February being on the same day of the week as 
the first — and as the last-named day moves one 
day forward in the week every year, except in the 
first after leap-year, when it moves two — it will 
follow that the 29th, when it next occurs, will be 
moved five days on in the week, or two back. 
I now suppose the 29th in a certain leap-year to 
fall on a Sunday: next time it will tall on a 
Friday, then Wednesday, Monday, Saturday, 
Thursday, Tuesday; then Sunday again, and so 
on. To satisfy himself, let the reader arrange 
the days of the week in a circle, and calling Sun- 
day zero, count Monday one and five forwards 
(or Saturday one, and two backward), round the 
ring. He will light on the days in order, as above 
stated, until ho comes to Sunday a second time. 
Then all predisposing causes being as before, the 
same cycle will rocur: in other words, after 
twenty-eight years, the days of the week on which 
the 29th falls will again be Sunday, Friday, &c. 

The 29th this year being on "a Saturday, it 
must have been so in 1812, 1840, and will be 
once more in 1890. In the year 1900 a slight 
alteration will take place, but the cycle will be 
no more disturbed till A.n. 2100. A. E. 


Jrcnxs Letters. 

from the Pall Mall 
col. 1, thinking it 
" X. & Q." : 

I send the following cutting 
Gazette of Jan. 8, 1868, p. 3, 
may be worthy a corner in 

W. S. J. 


" To the Editor of the Pall Mall Gazette. 

" Sir,-— I do not know whether your readers will thank 
me for endeavouring to plunge them once more into the 
venerable game of cross-questions entitled the Junius 
controversy ; but as the following curious little instance 
of coincidence has been communicated to me by some 
anonymous friend who knows my interest in the subject, 
I trespass on you in order to make your pages my medium 
of acknowledgment. 

"On June 22, 17G9, Thilo- Junius,' speaking of the 
Duke of Grafton's intended marriage to a connection of 
the Duke of Bedford, says « I take it for granted the 



[4**8.1. Feb.U> 9 '6& 

venerable uncle of these common cousins has settled the 
etiquette in such a manner that, if a mistake should 
happen, it may reach no farther than from " Madame ma 
femme to Madame ma couaine." ' 

"On March G, 1771, Francis heads a letter to his 
brother-in-law Macrabie in the same odd form : ' Madame 
ma femme to Madame ma cousine.*— (Memoirs of Francis, 

vol. i. p. 257.) 

" Such a coincidence in itself would be worth little. It 

is the extraordinary number of coincidences which con- 

" A Franciscan." 

stitutes the proof. 

[What is there curious or extraordinary in this? If 
Francis had used the expression two years before Philo- 
Junius instead of two years after, the coincidence might 
have been worth recording. — Ed. "N. & Q."] 

Charles Cotton the Angler, and Sir 
IticnARD Fanshawe. — I possess a copy of the 
Pastor Fido of Guarini, translated by Sir 
Kichard Fanshawe (together with other small 
poems), which belonged to Charles Cotton of 
Meresford, the friend of Izaak Walton. I have 
been able by the courtesy of Mr. Sleigh of Thorn- 
bridge, near Bakewell, to identify the signature on 
the last page with his acknowledged autograph. 

Cotton has marked a few lines in the smaller 
poems which pleased him. He translated the 
same epigram of Martial that Fanshawe did, and 
he also turned into English two small pieces of 

Guarini. J. Henry Siiortiiouse. 


Tresham's Head at Northampton. — Is there 

any corroborative evidence of the head of Francis 
Tresham bring " sett up at Northampton/' as re- 
ferred to in the following extract from a letter 
in the State Paper Office (vol. xvii. No. (JO, 
Jas. 1.) : 

" Francis Tresham dyed of sickness, and thought to 
save the hangeman a labour belike, but notwithstandinge 
in respecte of his impenitcnceie, showing no remorse of 
the facte but rather seeminge to glory e in it as a relli- 
gious acte, to the minister that laboured w th him to sett 
his conscience straight at his ende, had his heade chopped 
of and sent to be sett up at Northampton, his body beinge 
tumbled into a hole w t,l out so much ceremonic as the 
formallitye of a grave." 

The letter is endorsed : 

" Beinge comanded upon my alledgiance to sett down 
whose hand the w th in written is, I confess hit to be myne, 
extracted out of a copie written by Mr. Thomas Phelippes 
his owne hande and was to be delivered by me to Mr. 
Hugh Owen. By me, Tno. Barney." 

John Taylor. 



Abyssinian Dates. — In the Atlumceum of last 
week was a letter signed by the late Aboonah, 
of whom we hear so much in the public prints ; it 
ends with the date " 4th Baoona, 1560," which 
does not convey much information to the un- 
learned in such matters. It appears to me pro- 

bable that the Abyssinians, as Copts, would use 
the Turkish months and the era of Diocletian; 
thus 4th Daooneh answers to our 10th June, and 
as the era of Diocletian commenced a.d. 284, ths 
year 15G0 would be the same as our 184f. Can 
any of your correspondents obligingly confirm or 
correct this reckoning ? A. II. 

Jan. 25. 

Altar Lights at All Hallows', Thames 
Street. — I have lately seen it stated that, within 
the memory of man, at the church of All Hallows, 
Thames Street, lighted candles were placed on 
the altar during the celebration of Holy Com- 
munion, and that the service was otherwise rituat- 

Can vou tell me whether this 

istically performed. 
was the case ? 

Alderley Kdge, Cheshire. 

p. m. ii. 

Articles of tiie Church. — Can any of your 

clerical correspondents state when (if ever) the 
penalties under the 33rd article of the Established 
Church were last enforced '? What is the nature 
and form of " excommunication " under the ar- 
ticles (which " the archbishops and bishops and 
whole clergy agreed upon in 1562, for avoiding 
diversities of opinions and establishing of consent 
touching true religion "), and in what way any- 
one so visited was treated, in accordance there- 
with, " as an heathen and publican " ? And also, 
how and when (if ever) he was " openly reconciled 
by penance, and received into the" Church"? 
Who was the "judge that had authority thereto/ 9, 
and by what power was such "authority" con- 
stituted ? 

And with a view of being further assisted in 
"avoiding diversities of opinions/' I wish to be 
informed with reference to the 35th article — 
declaring the homilies " necessary for these times" 
(*'. e." the second book, and also the former set forth 
in the time of Edward VI.") — when, where, and 
by whom they were last " read in churches by 
the ministers, diligently and distinctly, that they 
were understandea by the people " ? C. D. 

Passage in B£raxger. — 

" Vieux soldats de plomb que nous somme?, 
Au cordeau nous alignant tous, 
Si des rangs sortent quelques horn 

Tous nous crions : A bas les fous ! " — Birangcr* 

What is meant by " vieux soldats de plomb" in 
the above ? " Pauvrb Petit. 

Edward Cock, M.D.— This gentleman was, I 
believe, an eminent physician and clever ana- 
tomical modeller about seven or eight years since. 
Can any of your medical readers give me any 
particulars of his abilities in mechanical and 
anatomical designs and inventions as applied to 
clinical science ? Where can his models be seen, 
or any account of him be found ? B* 

4*8.1. Feb. 15, '68.] 



Curious old Custom. 

* 4 Ti8 an old custom at Okeham in Rutlandshire, That 
the first time anv Baron of the Realm comes through it, 
he shall give a rtorse-shooc to nail upon the Castle-gate : 
And in case he refuses, the Bay 1 iff has power to stop his 
Coach and take one off his Horse's Foot." — Moll's System 

of Geixjraphy, 1 701. 

Is this custom discontinued ? and since when ? 

S. L. 

Dixham : Lord Pinhah. — A Dinham married 
the heiress of Arches or De Arcis. What is the 

It was before 1400. 

William Grey. 

date of this marriage P 

judge. Was Captain Alexander Smith a real 
person or a fictitious one ? J. M. 

Griff, orGrlief (A.), a Flemish Painter. 
I have a picture by this artist, of whom but little 
seems known, as lie has different Christian names 
assigned to him, and indeed his proper name is 
spelt in various ways. He painted dead game 
and other objects in still life : is called a pupil of 
Snyder's, and consequently belongs to about two 
ceuturies back. My picture is signed, and so in- 
teresting, that I am anxious to be told of any 
other accessible work by the same artist in this 
country. 15- II. C. 

Gilderoy: Captain Alexander Smith. — In 
a little duodecimo i 

" A full and com pleat History of the Lives, Robberies, 
and Murders of all the most notorious Highwaymen, &c. 
•Printed for S. Crowder at the Looking-glass on Loudon 

there is the following strange anecdote of Gil- 
deroy, otherwise " The Red Roy," which we sus- 
pect is apocryphal : 

" Three of Gilderoy 's companions were hung in chains 
in Glasgow. The judge who tried them was met by him 
while on his road to Aberdeen in his coach, attended by 
tfcro footmen. He, apparently single-handed, took the 
coachman and two attendants prisoners, stript them of 
their clothes, tied them neck and heels, and threw them 
into a pond. He next robbed the judge, and killed the 
four carriage-horses. Then taking him to 'the tree,* 
which 'in Scotland is like a turnstile,' he hanged his 
victim ' upon the fourth beam, saying, ' By my Sol, man, 
this structure, erected to break people's crags, is not 
uniform without another, Tse must e'en hang you upon 
the vacant beam." 

That there was a miscreant so called, a native 
of the Highlands of Perth, is true enough ; but 
the authority for the legend, so far as can be 
traced, is not supported by any one of the charges 
tained in the indictment before the Court of 

Age of Irish MSS. 

Is there the slightest 

authority beyond the wild uncritical history of 
the last century for dating a single Irish manu- 
script higher than the invasion of Ireland by the 
1 >anes ? and where can I meet with any sound cri- 
ticism on the subject ? II. II. II. 

Lennock. — The word Umnock, or hmnock, is 
applied in East Lancashire to a corpse which 
does not stiffen when cold. "He isvarra lennock" 
said a friend to me the other day ; " and I don't 
like ont; theerl be another deeoth it famaly 
soon." From what may this expressive term be 
derived ? T. T. W. 

Jean de Logis. — Was Jean de Logis, who 
went to the first Crusade with twenty-four men- 
at-arms under his command, father of Ordardus 
de Ix>gis, who, in the time of William 1 lulus, 
was infeoffed by Ranulphus de Meschines in the 
barony of Wigton in Cumberland 1' The Norman 
noble of the name who accompanied the Con- 
queror to England was Guarinus de Logis. 


Justiciary in virtue of which he was tried, con- 
victed, and hung in chains with some of his ac- 
complices about 1633 or 1634; and it is im- 
probable so startling a murder could have been 
overlooked. There is a similar story in the second 
volume of Captain Alexander Smith's Highteay- 

Mak*laughter and Cold Iron. — On the 13th 
of June, 171(5, General Macartney was tried for 
being concerned in the murder of the Puke of 
Hamilton in a duel. The jury acquitted Mr. 
Macartney of the murder; "and he was dis- 
charged of the manslaughter by the formality of 
a cold iron immediately made use of to prevent 
, which preceded Johnson's folio work, and appeal." What was this ceremony ? 
which we are assured by dealers in old and rare Sebastian. 

books to be when the three volumes are com- p AKEXrIAM Family. -I am desirous of in- 
plete, exceedingly scarce ; but this book first ap- 
peared at the beginning of last century ; and where 
Captain Alexander Smith got the anecdote has 
not been ascertained. 

Gilderoy, whose real name was Macgrejror, was 
the subject of a sonjjin the Wedtnituter Drollery , 
which was popular in the reign of Charles II. ; 
and there is a Scotish version attributed to Lady 
Wardlaw or her brother, Sir Alexander II alket, 
in which the English ballad is partially intro- 
duced; but in neither one nor the other is any- _ t , # w „ 

thing said as to the capture and hanging of the a pair of glasses at a gold coin in his right hand. 

formation as to this family, with reference to 
Sussex. Pid any members* of it, in the reign of 
Henry VII., possess the manor of Lordington ; 


Painter Wanted. 

F. II. Arnold. 

an old halt-leng 

picture, a warm and pleasing sketch of an old 
man seated in a chair before a table, upon which 
is a pile of gold and a bag of the same. The sitter 

wears a red cap, and looks admiringly through 



[4* S. I. Feb. 15, f GS. 

The gentleman has plenty of beard, but little or 
no hair on his head. I should like to learn if this 
design can be referred to any known artist. The 

picture is a foundling*, 

and at present quite 

B. II. C. 

Petition of Hight. — Is there any full report 
or journal of Charles I/s second and third Parlia- 
ments containing the speeches and names of the 
members ? J. C. J. 

Philo. — I have long been in search of a pocket 
edition of Philo, but without success. On reading 
the Preface to Mr. Ilepworth Dixon's Holy Land, 
it struck me that he must possess the very thing 
that I want. His words are — " In reading my 
camp Bible (with the help of Philo and Joseph 
on the spots which he describes so well, &c." I 
presume he did not carry with him the ponderous 
folios of Mangey or the numerous volumes of the 
Leipzig edition, and that therefore he must be 
the fortunate possessor of Philo in some more 
portable form. I should also bo glad to know 
which of Philo's writings bears upon the topo- 
graphy of Palestine. Philo- Jud.txs. 

Psalms in the Order kor Morxixu and 
ong Prayer.— 

Evening Prayer. — In the "Report of the Royal 
Commission on Ritual," Mr. Hubbard appears to 
have put the following question to the incumbent 
of St. Andrews, Wells Street, and to the incum- 
bent of St Matthias, Stoke Newington : 

" When your people are reciting the Psalms in the 
Morning and Evening Services, do you announce the 
day of the month and the number of the psalm ? '' 

The answers from both were to the effect : 
We do not; we let them find it out for them- 
selves. I think it does 
sometimes to individuals. 


cause inconvenience 
Thev could ask their 

Mr. Hubbard appears to have closed his inquiry 
on the subject without asking what was the 
practice in these two churches on Christmas Day, 
Ash Wednesday, and Good Friday, when proper 
psalms are appointed. 

I shall be obliged to any of your readers who 
will kindly inform me on this point. 

Geo. E. Frere. 

Roydon Hall, Diss. 

Philosophy and Atheism. — No doubt Pope 
(Ess. Crit., v. 215) was indebted to Bacon (Ess. 
xvi.). But Mr. Trepolpen's note (3 rd S. xii. 501) 
reminds me to ask, Was this "memorable saying" 
originally Bacon's ? and if not, wide derivator? 
Bacon's introduction of it looks very much like a 
quotation : 

" It is true, that a little Philosophy inclineth mans 
mmde to Atheisme ; But depth in Phflosophv, bringeth 
mens mindes about to Religion." 

And in the corresponding passage in the Ad*. 
of Learning, part i., he uses the expression: 

" It is an assured truth, and a conclusion of experience, 
that a little or superficial knowledge of Philosophy may 
incline the mind of man to Atheism, but a farther pro- 
ceeding therein doth bring the mind back again to 

Both passages do, by their form, suggest the 
idea of a reference to a well-known maxim. And 
still more so does Harrington's use of the expres- 
sion (Commonwealth of Oceana, 1650, p. 171) : — 

" But if you do not take the due dose of your medicines 
(as there be slight tasts which a man may have of Philo- 
sophy that incline unto Atheisme), it may chance be 
poyson, there being a like taste of the Politique* that 
inclines to Confusion, as appears in the Institution of the 
Roman Tribunes." 

His reference to the maxim here, in illustration 
of his own argument, seems to imply a more 
treneral familiarity with it than his readers iniirht 


gained from Bacon. Can it be 



Rodin and Marian. — Hallam, in a note to his 

account of the French and Provencal pastourelle 
poems of \ the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, 
says : 

u 1% obi n and Marion are always the shepherd or pea- 
sant and his rustic love ; and a knight always interferes, 
with or without success, to seduce or outrage Marion. 
We have nothing corresponding to these in England." 

the ballads about Robin Hood and 


Maid Marian have some connection with 

troubadour poetry. 

Can any of your correspondents inform me of 
the age to which the English ballads referring to 
Kobin Hood have, with any degree of probability, 

be traced 

been assigned, and what connection 

between them and the pastourelles referred to by 

Hallam? II. II. II. 

Thomas "Wash bourse, D.D., Author of 
" Divine Poems" (1054). — I am desirous to know 

more of this too little known and valued worthy. 
I have already the university dates in Woods 
- tthena , the inscription over his remains in Lady 
Chapel, Gloucester, and the short notice of his 
poems in the Gentleman 8 Magazine. I wish very 
much to meet with his single Sermons, two of 
which are named in the old Theological Catalogue 
(2nd edition, 1G68),* and to have other references 
to sources of information concerning him. The 
registers of his native parish, as well as of his 
rectory parish (Dumbleton), are destroyed up to 
within one hundred years of the present date. 



Widows' Christian Xames. — Can a widow 

correctly use her deceased husband's Christian 


name ? Clericus. 

[* Washbourne's two Sermons are in the Bodleian: 
1.) A Funerall Sermon on Ps. xc. 0, Lond. 1655, 4 to. 
2.) The Kepairer of the Breach ; a Sermon, Mav 29, on 
I«a. lviii. 12, Lond. 1661. 4tc— EiO 

4* S. I. FfcB. 15, 'G8.] 



York, Hereford, and Sarum hreviaries 

Where, in England, can I see copies of the York, 
Hereford, and Salisbury Breviaries? Lowndes 
(Bohn's edit) says that there is only one copy 
known of the York Breviary. Perhaps Dr. Rock, 
or the Rev. F. C. Husenbetii, would kindly in- 
form me of any library where these valuable books 
are preserved. W. II. Hart, F.S.A. 

Folkestone House, Roupell Park, Streatham, S. 



Mid : Mis 
: Palm 


and Easter Day," 

W. II. s 




OucttrS tottj) STnStoenf. 

[ Another version of these names reads 

" Tid, Mid, Misera, 
Carling, Palm, Paste Egg day/' 

In Brand's Popular Antiquities, ed. 1818, i. 11G, is the 
following note on these lines: — " In the Festa Anglo- 
Romano, 1G78, we arc told that the first Sunday in Lent 
is called Quadragesima, or Invocavit ; the second Remi- 
niscere ; the third Oculi ; the fourth Lata re ; the fifth 

n t* r\ a' m 4 j» Judlca; and the sixth Dominica Maqna, OculL from 

" EriSTOi^*: Obscurorum \ irorum. — Arjedi- . . ' .. . m .. .:' n . ' .. 

r .«. * i ii. i i . T i I the entrance of the 1 1th verse of the % 2ot\\ Psalm, * Ocuh 

tion of this famous work was published iu London, 
dated 1710: " Impensis Hen. Clements, ad in- 
signe Lunae falcatte, in Ccemeterio -Edis Divi 
PaulL" with a Latin dedication, addressed u Isaac 

the entrance of the 1 Itli verse of the 25th Psalm, * Oculi 
mei semper ad Dominum,' &c. Reminiscere, from the 
entrance of the 5th verse of Psalm 2b, ' Reminiscere 
miserationum,' iicc, and so of the others. Thus our 

Bickerstaff, Araiitrero, Magna) Britannia) Censori, Tidm *y >>»ve been formal from the beginning of Psalms 

S." Can I be informed who the English editor was 
by whom this dedication was written ? 

Apropos to the name of Isaac Bicker*taflT, what 
was the real name of the author of Love in a Vil- 
lage, Love in the City, T/u> Hypocrite, and a variety 
of other dramatic works purporting to be written 

J. II. C. 

Tr. f/i'iiin — Mi f/eus — Miserere mcL" The same explana- 
tion is given in Brady's Claris Calendaria, ed. 1815, i. 


Lord TJeorge Sackville. — In 1760 Lord G. 
Sackville wa9 tried by court-martial (for his con- 
duct at Minden) apparently after he had left the 
army. He was cashiered and declared incapable 

by Isaac Bickerstaflf? 

[The edition of 1710 of the above celebrated Epistles of serving the king again. Some years afterwards 
was superintended by Michael Maittaire, who no doubt he was Secretary of State, and finally was raised 
wrote the " Dedication The text is of no authority, and to the Peerage. Was the sentence quashed in 
swarms with typographical blunders. consequence of his not being in the army, or was 

Dean Swift was the lirst who assumed the name of Bick- he Dardoned ? Sebastian. 

•ersUff in a satirical pamphlet against Partridge, the alma- 
nac-maker. Steele determined to employ the same name 
which this controversy hail made popular ; and, in April, 
1709, it was announced that Isaac Bickerstaflf, Esq., 
astrologer, was about to publish a paper called Tlit Tatler. 
Swift is said to have taken the name of Bickerstaff from 
a smith's sign, and added that of Isaac as a Christian 
appellation of uncommon occurrence. Yet it was said 

a living person was actually found who owned both 
names. This appears extremely probable, as we find a 
dramatist named Isaac Bickerstaff was born in Ireland 
about the year 173.>, and appointed to be one of the pages 
of Lord Chesterfield when Lord Lieutenant in 1 740. He 
served for some time as an officer of marines and died 
abroad in extreme old age and redu 


circumstances ; 
but the date and place of his decease remain in uncer- 
tainty. Garrick, in a letter to Col man, dated June 30, 
17G6, writes: " I have had a letter from Bickerstaff; he 
is at Paris, and is going to give some account of our 
theatre in the Journal Encyclopedia ue. You will see it, I 
suppose." — Posthumous Letters, published by George Col- 
man, juii. j 

Ecclesiastical Rhyme.— What is the expla- 
nation of the following memoria technica, said (in 
Guardian newspaper, Jan. 22, 18(38T) to be current 
in some remote villages of the East Riding of 
Yorkshire ? It is supposed to contain an enumera- 
tion of the several Sundays in Lent : 

he pardoned : 

[The sentence of the court-martial, and the severe 
manner in which it was carried into execution, did not 
at the time pass without observation, and many persons 
were of opinion that the misconduct of Lord George 
Sackville was not sufficiently proved to warrant either the 
sentence or the punishment. These sentiments probably 
prevailed at the court of George III. (who succeeded to 
the crown a few months after the disgrace of Lord 
George), and one of his first acts was the recall of this 
nobleman to court.] 

Marriage Banns. — When was the publication 

of banns of matrimony first used in churches? 


[We learn from Tertullian (ad Uxorem, lib. ii. cap. 2 
and !*, De Pudicitia, cap. iv.) that the church, in the pri- 
mitive ages, was forewarned of marriages. The earliest 
existing canonical enactment on the subject, in the Eng- 
lish church, is that in the 11th canon of the synod of 
Westminster, or London, a.i>. 1200, which enacts that 
" no marriage shall be contracted without banns thrice 
published in the church, unless by the special authority 

of the bishop/* (Wilkins, Concilia Magna' Britannia, i. 


It is supposed by some that the* practice was introduced 

into France as early as the ninth century ; and it is cer- 
tain that Odo, Bishop of Paris, ordered it in 1176. The 
council of Lateran, in 1215, prescribed it to the whole 
Latin church. 

1 50 


[4* S. I. Feb. 15, '68. 

Before publishing the banns, it was the custom for the 
curate anciently to affiance the two persons to be married 
in the name of "the Blessed Trinity ; and the banns were 
.sometimes published at vespers, as well as during the 
time of mass. Bingham, Antiquities, lib. xxii. cap. ii. 
sec. 2 ; Martene, De Ant. Bit., lib. ii. cap. ix. art. v. 
pp. 135-G.] 

Fleet. — In the borough of Lynn Regis, Nor- 
folk, the word " Fleet v frequently occurs in the 
discussions of the Town Council, as reported in 
the Lynn Advertiser. It seems to mean a main 
sewer, or at the least a channel of some sort for 
the passage of sewage. Is a sewer called a feet 
in any other part of England ? and was the Fleet 
river in London so called because it, from the 

earliest days, served the purpose of a sower ? 

FiLirs Ecclksle. 

[According to Junius, the Anglo-Saxon fleotan is the 
frequentative from flow- an, fhiere. Hence the noun is 
applied to an estuary, drain, ditch, or sewer. Fleet Ditch 
is a tautology. The Fleet prison was so called because 
situated upon the side of the water that floated in from 
the river. 

"They have a very good way in Essex of draining of 
lands that have land-lloods or fleets running through 
them, which make a kind of a small creek/'— Mortimer, 

Husbandry. ] 

Rabelais. — Can you explain how the phrase 
a le quart d'heure de Rabelais " acquired its 
meaning of waiting for one's bill ? The story 
about Rabelais finding himself at an inn with no 
money to continue his journey, which is given as 
the origin of it, doe3 not seem to explain its con- 
ventional meaning. IIydaspes. 

("The story about Rabelais, to which our correspondent 
alludes, is told in various ways. It would appear that 
Rabelais found himself at a loss, not only for money to 
continue his journey, but for the means of paying his 
reckoning at the Lyons hotellerie* Hence it is that the 
" Quart d'heure de llabelais " signifies the sometimes 
critical and anxious moment when we are expecting our 


for instance, after dining at an hotel. 

And accord- 

ingly, the phrase " Le quart d'heure de Rabelais " is ex- 
plained by Bescherelle, " Le moment oil il faut payer son 
e'cot ■■ ; t. e. the moment when one must pay one's bill. ] 

The Battle of the Forty. — In the picture- 
gallery at Hampton Court Palace is a piece by 
P. Snayers, entitled the "Battle of the Forty." 
What was the battle of the forty, and when did 
it take place? " Lydiard. 

[The Battle of the Forty, we believe, is only mentioned 
in some old romances. The picture belonged to William 
III., and represents, says Mr. Edward Jesse, a battle fought 
between twenty French and twenty Italian cavaliers with 
their leaders. Mrs. Jameson (Handbook to the Public Gal- 
levies of Art, ed. 1842, p. 312), however, informs us, that 
" this contest between two rival commanders in the Spanish 
Netherlands was decided before the walls of Bois-le-duc : 

forty chosen men, mounted and properly equipped, on each 
side, entered the lists, and the desperate encounter lasted 
till only one combatant remained on the field."] 

Test for "Wells. — There was a simple test for 
impure wells published recently by some autho- 
rity. Can you refer me to the paper in which it 
appeared? " Clericus liusTicus. 

[Though this is rather a scientific query than such a* 
" X. & Q." was intended to solve, we have so many sub- 
scribers in the countrv to whom the information may be 
of value, that we have taken some pains to procure it. 
We presume our correspondent refers to the following 
44 Easy Test for Sewage in Wells," bv Professor Attfield,. 
in The Times of January IN last : — 

'• Polluted water does not generally betray its condition 
till possessed of a strong odour; earlier intimation may 
however be obtained by the following means : — Half fill 
a common water-bottle, cover its mouth with the hand, 
violently shake for a minute, and quickly apply the nose. 
If nothing unpleasant is detected, lightly cork the bottle ; 
set it aside in a warm place, at about the temperature of 
one's body, for a couple or three days, and repeat the 
shaking, &c. Water of very bad quality may thus be 
recognised, without the trouble and expense of analysis."} 

Pickering's Crr. — Dean Stanley says, in his 

Memorial* of Westminster Abbey (p. 303, line 1, 

&C.) : 

44 In the year of the Armada, Pickering ("the Keeper of 
the Gatehouse at Westminster] presented to the Bur- 
gesses of Westminster a fine silver-gilt ' standing cup/ 
which is still used at their feasts, the cover being held 
over the heads of those who drink, with the quaint in- 
scription : — 

4 The Giver to his Brother wisheth peace, 

With Peace he wisheth Brother's love on Earth, 
Which Love to seal, I as a pledge am given, 
A standing Bowie to be used in Mirthe. 

4 The gift of Maurice Pickering and Joan his wife, 


I wish to know who is the keeper of this inter- 
esting relic, and where it is kept, as with many 
inquiries I have been unable to ascertain either 
of the above. W. E. Harland-Oxley. 

8, King Street, Whitehall, S.W. 

[Our correspondent has been unfortunate in the direc- 


Court of Bunresses 

the custody of their officers ; and we can have no doubt 
that if he applies either to the Deputy-Steward, S. T. 
Miller, Esq., or the Town Clerk of Westminster, W. M. 
Trollope, Esq., he will experience no difficulty in seeing 
this interesting relic of the old Keeper of the Gatehouse. 

u Efficacity." — Is there such a word ? It is 
used by Sir Henry Bulwer in the first volume of 
Historical Characters, p. 227, line 13. 

H. A. St. J. M. 

[" The power of whiche sacramentes is of suche effyca- 
cite, that cannot be expressed." — A Boke made by John 
Fryth, p. 10.] 

4* S.I. Feb. 15, 'G8.] 





(3' d S. xii. 467. ) 

I shall try to relieve the difficulty felt by 
C. A. W., and in doing so I fancy I shall be able 
to fix the reading of u air " for " earth " in the 
fifth line of the stanza in question as the cor- 
rect one. Buds are of the air ; roots are of the 
earth ; "wherefore, if Shelley so meant it to be un- 
derstood, its finds its antecedent in the word air. 
Now Shelley uses nearly the same language in 
" Queen Mat),'' vi.,— 

u The building of the heaven-breathing trees, 

• • 

where we have bud*, breath, and air (heaven= 
ether = atmosphere ) without any reference to all- 
sustaining earth — buds in fact " hanging upon 
nothing, and quite unattached " save to the parent 

The o)ie delight is the common rapture of all 
nature in the opening spring and noontide hour 
of Southern Europe, but quirt rapture — "soft" — 
in harmony with the poet s subdued feelings. All 
their voices blend into one *oft sound — a softness 
probably due in part to the indistinctness arising 
from their combination, and the " slightness " of 
"the air" which carries them. So slight is it 
that the hum of the city, heard from the sea shore, 
scarcely exceeds the almost silent ripple of the 
wave on the lonely beach. 

The nouns in the penultimate line are evidently 
in the possessive case (a note for Mr. Moxon), and 
should be printed thus — as, in fact, I have never 
vet seen them 

" The wind's, the bird's, the "ocean -flood's, 

the only doubt being whether the first two nouns 
are not plurals, and to be varied accordingly. 
The modern ear, which is so exacting, demands 

ferfect symphony of sound in rhyming couplets, 
ut ought to be indulgent to triplets or quadru- 



rare pastime, yet when l do read them I try- to do 
so with my eyes open. Of the facts of his history 

I only know enough to have enabled me to furnish 
an essay for the Eclectic Review a few years ago. 

In third line of second stanza of u The Ques- 
tion," Shelley wrote " pearled Arcturi," printed 
" pied Arcturi. ,, 

Allow me to suggest a correction, at least 
plausible, of a text of Shelley, in his fragment on 

II The Waning Moon " : — 


And, like a dying lady, lean and pale, 
Who totters forth, wrapt in a gauzy veil. 
Out of her chamber, led by the insane 
And feeble wanderings of her fading brain, 
The moon arose upon the murky earth 
A white and shapeless ma**" 

In the penultimate line for upon read up in, an I 
for earth read east, and you will probtbly catch 
the poet's real words and intended idea : — 


The moon arose up in the murky East* 
A white and shapeless mass/' 

It must be noticed here that the fragment is, so 
to speak, complete, and the parallel perfect. But 
" the lady " is alone — there is no object to which 
she bears relation — no space she occupies — no eye 
to scan her — while " the moon," if the present 
reading stands, has relation to the earth, and thus 
a new element is introduced which disturbs the 
correspondence. In our emendation, however, the 
ki murKy East '' corresponds with the " gauzy 
veil" of the similitude, and accounts for the in- 
distinct appearance of the moon — u a white and 
shapeless mass." But no analysis would make 
this reading acceptable to any one who does not 
see its congruity at a glance. I find in Ben bow's 
edition the reading " up in the earth," which 
conveys no sense, but at the same time establishes 
the solution of upon into up in. A friend has 
obliged me with this little volume since I wrote 
my first note on Shelley. 

I proceed to note a defect or two in Milner's 
very cheap edition of the poet's works. The notes 
to u Queen Mab r are omitted, to the great detri- 
ment of the poem ; for though in themselves not 
commendable, they are exegetical of the poet's 
meaning, and present a study of the poet's mind 
at a critical period of his history. 

The well-known verses called " Love's Philo- 
sophy " are quoted in full in the preface with the 
eulogy of being li one of the purest sweetest gems 
that ever flowed from mind or heart of poet, 
and are said to be addressed to Mary- \V oilstone- 
craft : but the editor, it is presumed, intended bv 
the name her daughter, M. W. Godwin, the wife 

of Shelley. 

Two lines are printed in halting fashion in the 

verses : — 

41 I fear thy kisses gentle maiden, 
Thou needst not fear mine. 
My spirit is too deeply laden 
Ever to burthen thine. 

u I fear thy mien, thy tones, thy motion, 
Thou needst not fear mine, 
Innocent is the heart's devotion 
With which I worship thine." 

In the second line of each verse, Milner should 
have read needed, as the dullest ear will detect 
the lack of a syllable. Moxon is here correct. 

Again : 

" Swifter far than summer's flight, 
Swifter far than youth's delight, 
Swifter far than happy night, 
Art thou come and gone : 
As the earth, when leaves are dead. 
As the night when sleep is sped. 
As the heart when joy is flea, 
I am left lone, alone. 



- f 



[4* S.I. Feb. 15, '68. 

into alone, which would read more smoothly ; but 
that alteration would not catch Shelley's subtle 
rhythm, which seldom or never fails. The line 
should be printed and read with strong accent on 
the first syllable 

" I'm left lone, alone." 

All the editions retain some curious violations 
of grammar : for instance, the poem beginning 

" Mine eves were dim with tears unshed." 

The last verse is printed thus : 

" We are not happy, sweet ! our state 

Is strange, and full of doubt ^nd fear ; 
More need of words that ills abate : — 

Reserve or censure come not near 
Our sacred friendship, lest there be 
No solace left for thou and me." 

Even if this came thus from Shelley's pen from 
a sheer oversight, editors should not perpetuate 
the mistake ; but most likely it is a simple mis- 
reading of the printer's. I would observe further 
here, that instead of an indicative sense in the 

It miglfrt seem obvious to change the first lone Quarterly Hevieic, and complains of the injustice 

which those who doubt the instances of longevity 
sutler at his hands. I think, on the contrary, that 
those who have been at the pains of giving in- 
stances known either to themselves or their fami- 
lies have rather reason to complain of Mr. Thoms 
and his doubting companions. It is somewhat hard 
to be^ exposed to the charge either of stating 
what is untrue or else of being culpably credulous, 
even when clothed in terms ever so bland and 



the lyric spirit of the piece Avill find an imperative 
sense much more expressive and telling 

" Reserve or censure, come not near 
Our sacred friendship." 



u That time is dead for ever, child, 
Drown'd, frozen, dead for ever ! 

We look on the past, 

And stare aghast 
At the spectres wailing, pale and ghast, 
Of hopes which thou and I beguiled, 

To death on life's dark river." 

For " thou and I," read " thee and me." 
I know no works of any great modern poet 
which need to be more carefully revised for the 
press than those of Percy Bvsshe 'Shelley. 

O. T. d. 

In " The Triumph of Life/' one verse reads 
thus : — 

" And near him walk the [ ] twain, 

The tutor and his pupil, whom dominion 
Follow'd as tame as vulture in a chain," 

I suggest " Macedonian " as the word Shelley 
would have employed, had it occurred to him, 
being sonorous, simple, adequate, and poetical 
pace domini Westwood. A Cobbler. 


(4 th S. i. 95.) 

In the present age of unbelief, it is perhaps 

idly surprising that some are found unbelievers 

centenarianism. Mr. Thoms falls foul of the 


I should not have trespassed again on your 
space in a matter which, after all, has probably 
little interest beyond the family circle, had not 
the Reviewer been good enough to quote an in- 
stance of longevity which I sent some time since 
to your journal ("N. & Q.," 2 nd S. xi. 58), and 
which is included " in the names of seven or eight 
old women of reputed ages, varying from one 
hundred and two to an hundred and ten," — in- 
stances which Mr. Thoms undisguisedly calls in 
question ; but which perhaps it is due to the 
Reviewer, and also to the cause of truth, for me 
to verify by such existing proofs that remain as to 
the age of the lady in question : for I need hardly 
say that all her children, still more her contem- 
poraries, are long since passed away. It is quite 
true, we do not know either the date or place of 
her baptism ; but November 18 was always re- 
garded and kept as her birthday, and all her 
family believed her to have been born on that 
day in 1 730 — the year she always spoke of as that 
of her birth. The fourth and youngest daughter 
of Francis Chassereau, Esq., of Marylebone, for- 
merly oiXiort (not Nint } as misprinted in 2 nd S. xi. 
58), in France, she was married to my great-grand- 
father (he died 1814, aged seventy-nine,) Oct. 27, 
1704, as the entry in her Bible now in the posses- 

grandson, the present Mr. Robert 
Williams of Bridehead, co. Dorset, testifies. 
I have myself in my possession a large Bible 
given by her to my father on his twenty-first 
birthday in 1820, with his name and an inscrip- 
tion written by her in a very uneven and wander- 
ing handwriting; against which my father has 
put this note, followed by his initials : — 

"Written in her 81st year, having the cataract in 
both eyes. c. M. W." 

To which he afterward . 

" She was afterwards couched and perfectly restored to 
sight by Henry Alexander, Esq., on the 22nd of Nov., 
1820, being 81 years of age." 

On the opposite page, and two years after, she 
has again written his name, &c, but now in a 
good clear hand, having then the use of her sight, 
which she preserved to the last; to which my 
father has again added this note : — 

" Oct. 1823. Written in her 83rd year." 

Mr. Thoms will hardly doubt the possibility or 

4* S. I. Feb. 15, 'G8.] 



probability of anyone living to be eighty-one, or 
even eighty-three years of age. As, therefore, 
the subject of the present communication died 
Oct. 8, 1841, her exact age can be readily com- 
puted. There followed her to her grave, on 
Oct. 15, 1841, her eldest and only surviving son, 
then in his seventy-fifth year ; her two sons-in- 
law, the late Sir Col man Rashleigh, Bart., and 
the Rev. J. W. Cunningham, late Vicar of Har- 
row; numerous grandchildren, great-grandchil- 
dren, and other relatives and friends. I will only 
add, that she was no less remarkable for her age 
and vigour than eminent for the childlike sim- 
plicity of her earnest piety. 

'Montague Williams. 

Woolland House, Blandford. 

I would call Me. Thoms's attention to the case 

of John Taylor, a miner, buried in the church- 
yard of Leadhills, Lanarkshire. Me. Thoms will 
find a statement of it in the Histonj of the Upper 
Ward of Lanarkshire, vol. iii. p. 10. The first 
document there cited is in my possession, and was 
drawn up at the date it bears by Sir George Cock- 
burn, then engaged in a mining adventure at 
Leadhills, in the presence of my paternal grand- 

The notice in Household Words of August, l*o2, 

is in many respects erroneous, and even absurd. I 
pointed out its numerous mistakes in two articles 
which appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine for 
May and June, 1853. I suspect that the statement 
on Taylor's tombstone is slightly beyond the 
truth, but only to the extent of six years at most. 
I have often wished to consult the register of 
the parish of Alston, or Alston Moor, in Cumber- 
land, where Taylor was born, for the exact date of 



neighbourhood may be able to make this inquiry, 
to facilitate which I quote the commencement of 
the first document above referred to : — 

44 John Taylor, son of Bernard or Barnabas Taylor (he 
calls him Barny) by his wife Agnes Watson, was born in 
Garry Gill, in the parish of Alston, in Cumberland. John 
had two sisters older, and a brother Thomas younger, 
than himself. One of the sisters married William Hog- 
gard or Haggard, a miller at Penrith, whose children 
were alive there not many years ago," (say about 1760.) 

George Vere Irving. 

incredulous, knowing well tbe tendency of un- 

educated old people to talk themselves, into old 
age. I was, therefore, induced to send to East- 
wick yesterday, the ith inst, for a copy of the 
register of her baptism, which I enclose. She 
seems remarkably healthy, and likely to live for 
some years. The tradition is, that she was not 
baptised till two or three years old ; in fact, that 
she u walked to church to be christened.'' 

18G8, February 4th. 

Copy from the Baptismal Register of Eastwkk, Herts, 

near Harlow. 

" Smith, Elizabeth, Daughter of John Smith & Susan- 
nah his Wife, was Baptized Sepf y* 20th, 1767." 

Thos. Rivers. 

Iionks Hill, Sawbridgeworth. 


so, what, and why ? 

Another Genuine Centenarian } Elizabeth Buckle. — 
I hope Mr. Thoms will accept the annexed, and 
have all his doubts dispelled. In the hamlet of 
High Wyck resides a widow of the name of ( 
Elizabeth Buckle, reputed to be one hundred and I long user : just as, not long ago, in a case of an- 

(:}^S. xi. 327, S08; xii. 15.) 

At the above references is carried on a dis- 
cussion as to the legal effect respectively of grants 
and confirmations of arms. Ihere is, however, 
another and deeper question lying behind, namely, 
have either of them any legal effect at all ? and if 

Unluckily, lawyers have 
troubled themselves little with the law of arms, 
and the heralds little with the law: the latter 
naturally feel themselves bound by the practice 
and precedents of their office, and possibly know 
but little more. Now, as the law of arms is 
parcel of the common law, it is from the known 
sources and authorities thereof that we must 
gather its principles, and not from the practice of 
the Heralds' College. 

The difficulty lies on the surface. The right to 
coat armour is either an honour or a simple right 
of property. If the former, it cannot be conferred 
by the Earl Marshal and the Kings-at-Arms, on 
the well-known principle that the king is the 
fountain of honour (which means, as we all know, 
that the power to confer honours cannot be dele- 
gated, unless when the sovereignty itself is dele- 
gated). If the latter, its creation is not within 
the prerogative of the crown : it is of the nature 
of a monopoly, and would require an Act of Par- 
liament. In Scotland a statute for the purpose 
exists. In England, that particular incorporeal 
hereditament — the right to a given coat of arms — 
must be based, like all other hereditaments of the 
kind, upon user time out of mind, that is, from 
the 1st of Richard I. "The presumption thereof 
must be established by evidence of reasonably 

three years of age. She is plump, rosy, and lively ; 
full of chat about old times. As she waa in her 
youth the nursemaid of my grandfather, I have 
for many years felt interested in her circumstances 
and her soi-disant great age, about which I was 

cient surplice fees, a usage of sixty years would 


rector's claim ; and he was only defeated on ac- 
count of the unreasonableness of their amount, by 


In pre- 



[4t>» S. I. Feb. 15/68. 

cisely similar manner, in the leading case of 
Scrope v. Grosvenor, did the plaintiil proceed to 

prove his case. 

Of course, questions will still lie behind as to 

the limitations and conditions under which a legal 
owner may assign his coat, or parcel thereof, and 
as to the effect that may be given to the patents 
of the Kings-at-Arms, as adding to their common- 
law powers ; but as your correspondents seem to 
assume broadly the "principle that a neiv right 
may be created (I presume by royal prerogative), 
I must challenge them in all courtesy to break a 
lance upon the point ; and invite them to favour 
us with the rationale of their belief, and to show 
that the law they lay down does not belong to 
what Lord Denman called " that extensive branch 
of the law — law taken for granted/' L. 1*. 

Alexander Neckham, writing in the latter half of 
the twelfth century, says : — 

" A noble garden will give you medlars, quinces, the 
pearmain (rolema), pears of St. Regie, pomegranates, 
citrons, oranges, almonds, and figs. Let there also be beds 
(arete) 9 enriched with onions, leeks, garlic, melons, and 
seal lions (Jtinnullis)" 

The Quince (French eoing, from Cydonia, a town 
in Crete,) was known to the Romans, who intro- 
duced it into this country. The Saxons called it 
cod-ceplc, or bag-apple. 

The Cherry (Greek Ktpaaos, from Cerasus, a city 
in Pontus,) came originally from Asia, and the 
Romans brought it into England. In the Sylvan 
Sketches (384) the wild or black cherry is called 
a native of England. The Ansrlo-Saxons are said 

to have lost it, 

Harris, fruite 

Middle Tempi 

r to 




(4 th S. i. 53.) 

The Apple (Saxon appel, from the root of ball), 
introduced by the Romans, was the chief fruit of 
the Anglo-Saxons ; but the only varieties men- 
tioned, according to Wright, are the surmelst- 
apiddcr } or souring apple-tree, and the mcitc-apidder , 
or sweeting apple-tree. They had orchards con- 
taining only apple-trees, called the apuldcr-tun } or 
apple-tree garden. France gave to us in the days 
of Queen Mary the nonpareil, and pippins came to 
us from the Continent in the reign of Henry VIII. 

King Henry MIL, to have reimported it; 
Warton has proved by a quotation from Lydgate, 
who wrote circa 1415, that the hawkers of London 
were wont to expose cherries for sale early in the 

One kind — the Kentish- 

season . 

was brought to 

us by the Knights Templars on their return from 
the Crusades, and was tirst planted near Sitting- 
bourne, in Kent. 

The Plum (Saxon plume) is said to have been 
derived from the common wild sloe. It was known 

say 8 that Lord 
Cromwell introduced the Perdrigan plum temp. 
Henry VII. The greengage was first cultivated 
in England by a family of the name of Gage. It 
was brought from France, where it was called 
" La Ileine Claude/' from the wife of 

to the Anglo-Saxons. 



Francis, with whom it was a great favourite. 
The Pear (Saxon pera) was introduced by the The Orleans came to us from Orleans, in France; 

Ilomans, and was in great reputation in England 
among the Saxons. In the time of John and of 
Henry III., Ilochelle was celebrated for its pears, 
and the sheriffs of London purchased one hundred 
for Henry in 1223. Several kinds of pears are 
enumerated in the accounts of the Earl of Lincoln's 
garden in Holborn (London), in 1290. Worcester 
was celebrated in early times for the growth of 
this fruit-tree : three pears are delineated on its coat 
of arms. The only kinds of fruits named in the roll 
of the household expenses of Eleanor, Countess of 
Leicester (third daughter of King John, and wife 
of the celebrated Simon de Montfort who fell at 
Evesham), are apples and pears. Of the latter, 
three hundred were purchased at Canterbury, 
probably (says Mr. Timbs) of the monks. Mat- 
thew Paris, describing the bad season of 1257, 
observes that apples were scarce and pears scarcer, 
while quinces, vegetables, cherries, plums, and 
all shell-fruits, were entirely destroyed. In the 
wardrobe-book of 14 Edward I. we'find the bill 
of Nicholas, the royal fruiterer; in which the 
only fruits mentioned are pears, apples, quinces, 
medlars, and nuts. The supply of these, from 
Whitsuntide to November, cost 211. 14s. l±d. 

and the damson, or damascene, from Damascus. 

The Peach (Latin persicum, from Persicus, be- 
longing to Persia) was introduced into England 
by the Romans, called by the Saxons pcrsoc-trcou\ 
In 127G we find slips of peach-trees mentioned in 
an official record as planted in the king's garden at 

The Nectarine is only a variety of the peach, 
with a smooth skin, introduced about 15G2. 


The Apricot (Latin prcccocia, from pracox, early 

ripe), in Persia, is called "the fruit of the sun. 
The first apricot-tree was brought to England in 
1524 by Henry YIII.'s head gardener; but Stow 
says it was not introduced till 1578. It was 
called, in old English, abn'cots or apricocks. 

The Orange (Italian arancia, Hindostanee ma- 
runjj akin to ndr, fire, from its colour) is con- 
sidered by many to have been brought to England 
by Sir Walter Kaleigh, and the first trees planted 
by Sir Francis Carew, who married his niece, at 
Beddington in Surrey ; but Timbs, in his Nooks 
and Corners of English Life, proves that, though 
Le Grand d'Aussv coulcf not trace the fruit in 
France to an earlier date than 1333, we find it 

4* S.I. Feb. 15/68.] 



known in Ei . 

Spanish ship came to Portsmouth bringing tigs, 
raisins, dates, pomegranates, and seven oranges. 
Some of the trees at Hampton Court are said to 
be three hundred years old. 

The Lemon (Turkish limun) and Citron were 
much used in the Middle Ages, but it is very 
uncertain when they were first introduced into 
England (Du Cange v. " Citron us. ") 

The Melon (the abattochim of the Bible, mean- 
ing to vKng close), according to Gough, was very 
common in England during the reign of Edw. III., 

with cucumbers, &c; but soon after 
entirely unknown till the reign of Henry VIII., 
being unattended to during the wars of York and 

The Medlar (Saxon nurd) was a favourite fruit 
of the Saxons. Chaucer mentions the tree : 


'• I was ware of the fairest medlar tree. 


The Fig (Saxon Jic, Latins/Few*,) was known to 
the Greeks, for we find by the laws of Lycurgus 
they formed a part of the ordinary food of the 
Spartans. They were introduced here by the 
Romans, but the first trees planted in England 
are said to have been brought from Italy in 1">48 
by Cardinal Pole, and planted by him in the 
garden of the archiepiscopal palace at Lambeth 

(Loudon's Arbor, et Frntic. Britann.) 

The Goosebemj (corrupted from German krau*, 
or kramclbcerc, the rough oerry,) was known to the 
Saxons under the name thefe-thom. 

The Currant (from Corinth) is a native of Great 
Britain. Evelyn says it was formerly considered 
to be a species of goosebern-, and had no other 
name till the fruit was called corinth*, from their 
resemblance to the small Zante grapes. 

The Raspberry (from the ra*ping roughness of 
the plant) formerly grew wild in England. Called 
by the Anglo-Saxons hynd-berige. 

The Strawberry (Saxon streow-bcrie, from the 

vines brought from Syria were plauted at Wel- 
beck Abbey, the residence of the Duke of Port- 
land, in Nottinghamshire. They thrived, and 
produced fine fruit — one bunch, sent as a present 
to the Marquis of Kockingham, weighed 10 lbs. 

The Chestnut (derived from Anglo-Saxon eyste- 
hnutu, the nut of the cyste-tree) was introduced 
by the Romans; that is, the Spanish or sweet 
kind. There is a tree of this kind at Tort worth, 
Gloucestershire, which was in its prime in the 
reign of Stephen in 1135, and calculated to have 
been a sapling in the time of Egbert about thr 
year 800. Loudon savs this mav even have been 
planted in the time of the Romans. The oldest 
chestnut-tree in the neighbourhood of Loudon is 
that at Cobham, Kent. In 1250 the Sherifls of 

London were ordered to buv 2000 chestnuts 

the king's use. 

chestnuts for 
The horse-chestnut was brought 
to us from the northern parts of Asia about 1550 : 
but the scarlet variety, from Brazil, was not cul- 
tivated till 1712. 

The Walnut (Saxon val-hnut, icalh-hnutu, a 
foreign nut,) is a native of Persia. Loudon says, 
in all probability it was introduced by the Uo- 

Evelvn informs us that u there 

mans, iwelyn miorms us mat " mere were con- 
siderable plantations of this tree, particularly in 
the chalk hills of Surrey." Collinson, in hia- 
History of Somersetshire, says that at Glastonbury 
there grew in the abbey churchyard, on the north 
side of St. Joseph's chapel, a miraculous walnut- 
tree, which never budded forth before the Feast 
of St. Barnabas (June 11). lie adds that 

" Queen Anne, King James, and many of the nobility of 
the realm, even when the times of monkish superstition 
had ceased, gave large sums of money for small cuttings 
of the original." 

In the roll of the Countess of Leicester, before 
quoted, the following esculent plants are men- 
tioned: dried pease and beans, parsley, fennel, 
onions, green-pease, and new bean*. 

The Artichoke (Arabic ardisehauki, the earth- 

spreading nature of its runners,) was common in thorn,) was introduced into England in the reign 
the time of Lydoate (fifteenth century). The of Henry VIII. ~ * '"' " ~"" v 
alpine was first cultivated in the king's garden in 
1700. I 


The Mulberry (Saxon muulberc; Celtic mor, 
black,) is considered by AVhitaker (Manchester, 
ii. 40) to have been introduced into Britain by the 
Romans. Gough says that the first known were 
at Sion House, now standing. The white mul- 
berry was introduced from China before 1500, 
and the paper-mulberry from Japan before 1751. 

Grape (Welsh grab, a cluster ; Italian grappo,) 
Vines are said to have been first brought into 
England by command of the Emperor Probus about 
280, the year ite culture was introduced into Gaul ; 
and Venerable Bede speaks of vineyards as common 
in this country in 731. The vine was called by 
the Saxons win-treoic, or wine-tree ; and its fruit and Sentiments (p. 204), says the Leek (Saxon 
win-berige, or wine-berries. Some years ago grape- leac) was the principal table vegetable among the 

u Tis not very long since this notable thistle came 
first into Italy, improved to this magnitude by culture, 
ami so rare in England that they were commonly sold for 
crowns a piece; but what Carthage yearly spent in them, 
as Pliny computes the sum, amounted to *sestertia sen a 
millia/SO, 000/. sterling." 

The Asparagus was introduced, Whitaker thinks, 
by the Romans into England. 

* The Cabbage (Latin caput, the head,) was known 
in England, according to Henry, temp. Edw. IV., 
but neglected. Gough says that Sir Anthony 
Ashley introduced it; and that there is a cabbage 
at the foot of his monument at Winborne St. Giles, 

WVicrhf in hi» Jftstom of Domestic Manners 



[4* S. I. Feb. 15, 'G8. 

Anglo-Saxons : its importance was considered so 
much above that of any other vegetable, that 
leac-tun (the leek-garden) became the common 
name for the kitchen-garden ; and leac-weard (a 
leek-keeper) was used to designate the gardener. 
Varieties of the leek — ennc-leac, or onion; and 
f/ar-Ieac, or garlic — were also known under these 
names to the Saxons. 

Bean is an Anglo-Saxon word ; and the same 
people were acquainted with cresses, parsley 
(Anglo-Saxon peterselige), mint, sage, rue, and 
other herbs. John Pig got, Jrx. 

Sea-cole, cir. 1775. — In answer to X. Y., I can 
give him the history of the introduction of sea- 
cale, as I happen to know all the details. Sea- 
cale grows wild on Slapton beach on the south 
■coast of Devon. It was noticed there by a person 
named John Morgan, a native of Uplowman, 
Devon ; then gardener in the employ of J. H. 
Southcote, Esq., of Stoke Fleming. Morgan no- 
ticed that the sea-cale was bleached by the sand 
of the beach ; and brought some roots from thence, 
and cultivated them in Mr. Southcote's garden. 
They were served up to his table, and being ap- 
proved of, several roots were sent as a present to 
Mr. Southcote's friends at Bath : which place was 
at that time, about 1775, a great resort of fashion. 
When once known and talked of in Bath, it soon 
became famed throughout all England. I have 
understood that it was first sold to the public at 
Exeter market, where its price was half-a-crown 
a root. 

The son of this John Morgan, Mr. Joseph 
Morgan, is the owner of a well-known nursery- 
garden at Torquay. W. G. 

St. Marychurco, Torquay. 

that if the artist had intended to represent by 
this object the head of a cabbage, he would have 
preferred the natural foliation of the vegetable, 
and that the gauntlets would be very incongruous 
accessories. In short, his device would be a 
wretched failure. But viewing it in another light, 
as a cannon-shot or shell, whose hard grim outline 
lie has tonod down to harmonise with his general 
design, then the device becomes an appropriate 
military symbol allusive to the siege of Cadiz 
which is recorded in the inscription on the monu- 

How or when the tradition was first associated 
with this particular symbol I have not yet dis- 
covered. Ilutchins (Hist. Dorset, first edition, 
177 J) does not give it; but I find it distinctly 
stated in Christie's Memoirs, Letters, and Speeclves 
of the first Lord Shaftesbury, 1859, vol. i. p. 3, 
note *, also noticed in " N. & Q." 3* S. xii. 287. 
Nevertheless I am persuaded that this statement 
should be consigned to the category of fancies 
that are accepted and pass as historical facts 
simply because no one takes, the trouble to scru- 
tinise their pretensions. W. W. S. 



(3 rd S. xii. 5:50.) 

A. A. of Foets' Corner, who by this time, I 
hope and wish, will have left his dull retreat and 
be restored to health and activity, inquires whether 
there is " any other mention of the word (Fenian) 
in Ossian or any other published work ? v 

The most interesting and obvious account and 

explanation of it I have met with is in Dr. W. H. 

Drummond's Ancient Irish Minstrelsy, Dublin, 

1852. This interesting volume owes its origin. 

SIR ANTHONY ASHLEY'S MONUMENT: THE the author tells us, to a proposal of Dr. Mac- 

Donnelly Provost of Trinity College, Dublin 

" To investigate the authenticity of the Poems of 
Ossian, both as given in Macpherson's Translation, and 
as published in Gaelic (London, 1807), under the sanction 
of the Highland Society." — Minstrelsy, p. vi. 

In consequence of this proposal, which was 
u assuredly the means of stimulating inquiry," 
Dr. Drunimond collected and translated these old 
Irish lays — thirty-two in number — and edited 
them with most interesting notes. The word 
reman occurs very often in this volume ; directly 
in the second line of his " Preface/' the author 
says : — 

" Of the Irish poems usually known by the name of 
Ossianic or Fenian, there are still extant many of great 
poetical beauty and interest, amply deserving of being 
introduced, in an English dress, to "the general reader." 

— Minstrelsy, p. ix. 

(3 rd S. xii. 287, 5:33.) 

I have lately made a pilgrimage to the shrine — 
nay, to the line old monument of Sir A. Ashley 
and his wife in the church of Winborne St. Giles, 
Dorset, to refresh my memory as to a certain part 
of its details which is said to be commemorative 
of the introduction of the cabbage from Holland 
into England. The result has confirmed my anti- 
cipation, and convinced me that the proof "of the 
worthy knight's claim on the gratitude of posterity 
must rest on a more substantial foundation than 
what is afforded by his monument, to be of any 
value. What this is I will endeavour to describe. 
Near the head of the recumbent effigies stands a 
low pedestal supporting a casque plumed, and at 
the feet a similar pedestal surmounted with a pair 
of gauntlets and a ball, some six or eight inches in 
diameter, having its surface ornamented with hex- 
angular reticulations incuse. Now it seems to me 


And again : 

" After the lapse of ages, the fame of Macpherson's 
Ossian excited the wonder of our Irish bards and sena- 

4* S. I. Feb. 15, '68.] 



chies. They heard with astonishment indescribable, that 
their own long well-known countryman, Fin Mac Cum- 
hal, who held his chief place of residence at Alinhuin 
(the Hill of Allen in Leinster), the general of the Fe- 
nians — renowned for his martial achievements — the glory 
of their green isle — was no longer theirs, but discovered 
by the new revelations of a wonderful magician, to be no 
son of Erin, but a Caledonian king named Fingal — the 
King of woody Morven — a kingdom of which they had 
never before heard even the name. Strong feelings of 
indignation succeeded the first emotions of surprise. They 
claimed Finn and his son Ossian as their own, and in no 
measured terms expressed their resentment at the piratical 
attempt to rob them of their martial and minstrel fame. 
Those who were acquainted with Irish history, though 
but partially, soon saw through the imposture." — jtftn- 

xtrelsy y pp. x. xi. 

This Fin or Finn, then, was the leader or head 
of the so-called ancient Fenians. General Val- 

lancey ( Vindication of the Ancient History of Ire- 
land, pp. 355-358) seems to think this Irish Finn 
an altogether imaginary character, drawn from 
the Persian Asfendyar, surnamed Kuitan, or bod;/ 

of brass, on account of his great strength. He 
says : 

" The Irish Fiand or Fiann is a word of oriental origin. 
It signifies troops for the defence of a country ; — the 
Italian Finite and the French Fantassin arc derived from 
our Fiana, as is also the English infantry. The Persian 
Asfendyar is grandson of Lohorash, Fionn is the grandson 
of Treinemor, a mighty monarch* . . . Fionn Mac 
Cuil opposes the Bocvimh, or royal tribute laid on by the 
King of Leinster.'' 

Hereupon the author of the Ancient Irish 
Minstrelsy remarks rather sarcastically, but appa- 
rently justly : 

" The mode in which the learned antiquary pursues his 
argument is marvellously entertaining. VeVily he seems 
to have taken a lesson on ' comparisons ' from that in- 
genious and renowned dialectician, Captain Fluellen, on 
whose fame the pages of Shakespeare have conferred im- 
mortality. "—Minstrelsy, p. 82. 

Dr. Drummond's argument relating to Finn is 
as follows : He thinks 
long before any decided or fornii 
the Danes, the latter had now and then visited 
Ireland, for the sake of commerce or plunder, and 
had even formed settlements, most probably in 
some of the principal maritime cities. To prevent 
these invasions, the princes of the country raised 
a kind of militia, known by the name of Fiona 
Frionn, a well-armed and disciplined force under 
tried and valiant leaders. Of these military men 
there were two principal septs, or clans, between 

3f Cumhal, commonly known b 
Mac CooL a strong: and valiant 

Finn, the 

commander of one of these septs, it being called 
Clanna Boisgne. Of this Finn much has been 
said and written that is altogether fabulous and 
incredible. Dr. Drummond says : 

u Finn is the beau-ideal of an Irish hero and prince, 
unconquered in the field, magnanimous, courteous, hos- 

pitable, ever ready to espouse the cause of the weak, to 
avenge and redress the wrongs of the injured, to reward 
the songs of the bards. He is also gifted with a know- 
ledge of futurity, and is skilled in oneiromancy and in 
the virtues of medicine. He is gentle and forbearing — to 
females, tender and polite — to his relatives and friends 
kind and affectionate." — 3Iinstrelsy, p. xvi 

He became, he elsewhere (Minstrelsy, p. 82) 
observes, " to the Irish what King Arthur was to 
the ancient Britons," and was of course made the 
subject and hero of innumerable legends, like the 
British hero. 

" By some he has been described as a giant — by some, 
in the rank of historians, as a Dane — by others as a Cale- 
donian — by Macpherson as the monarch of woody Mor- 
ven, a kingdom in terra incognita — whereas those who 
are best acquainted with the genuine and authentic an- 
nals of Irish history, prove incontestibly that he was a 
true-born Irishman; . . . that the Hill of Allen (Kildare) 
was his principal place of residence — that he was the 
son of a noble chief named Cumhal (pronounced Cool), 
— and that he was the father of the celebrated 

bard Ossian, who was the father of Osgar, who fell in the 
battle of Gavra, and with whom, it is presumed, this 
genealogical line terminated." — Minstrelsy, p. 82. 

The above statement is taken from a most in- 
teresting introduction of Dr. Drummond's to his 
translation of the battle of Gavra, a The Lav of 
the Battle of Gavra " (Minstrelsy, pp. 82-104). 
One of the author's authorities is Mac Curtin, 
11 an author held in no small estimation by Irish 
historians/' who published his Brief Discourse in 
Vindication of the Antiquities of Ireland in 1717, 
collecting them u out of many authentic Histories 
and Chronicles, and out of foreign learned au- 
thors." Mac Curtin says : 

" In this Cormuc's time, nourished the famous cham- 
pion Fionn, the son of Cumhall, a wise and warlike man. 
He was general of the Irish militia, consisting of seven 
battalions, that is 21,000 men . . . This Fionn was neither 
giant, nor Dane, nor other foreigner, as no more were 

any of his commanders, captains, or soldiers He 

was an Irishman both bv birth and descent .... It is 
allowed that Fionn and his army were the best warriors 
in lrlund (sic) iu their time, and were kept in constant 
pay by the monarchs, princes, and other nobility of the 
kingdom."— See Brief Discourse, pp. 113, 114. 



itself in its nobler adaptation. It seems, too, that 
after the death of their great leader, the Fenians 
abused their privileges, and became the oppressors 
of the country of which they were the appointed 
guardians. It now only remains to quote some 
of the verses in which the word Fenian occurs, 
which is very often applied, sometimes also under 

• • ■ 

the appellation of tl Fiona," as for instance : 

" Let not the Fians hear the tale, 
Lest idle fears their hearts assail." 

In the same poem ( u The Lay of the Death of 
Oscar," — see Minstrelsy, pp. 105-114), there are 
these verses : 



[4* S.I. Feb. 15, '68. 

• 4 Cairbre. — Yea, though the Fenians stood around, 

And thy noble sire beside,* 

As many and strong as they e'er were found 

In the days of their loftiest pride, 

By virtue of this arm alone, 

Whate'er I asked should be my own. 
■*' Oscar. — Were the Fenians by in half their prime, 

With my sire, thy boasts were vain. 

Of ground not a foot in green Erin's clime 

Should ever own thy reign." 

In Ossian's " Lay of the Chase of Glennasuiol," 

(Minstrels;/, p. 73), the minstrel, in continuation 

suggest, as its proper province, the following sub- 
jects for investigation : 

1. The examination of the remains of ancient 
art, in any way bearing on Homeric scenes and 
characters, e. y. the numerous Greek vases, the 
.Fginetan and Lycian marbles, &c, to ascertain 
how far they coincide, especially in the detail* of 
the armour, with our Homer. 

2. To discuss the language 
poems, and to account, if possible, for the 
bination of archaic words with numerous forms 

of the Homeric 

of his tale, informs Patrick that all the Fenians, and inflexions identical with the 

-except Conan, Oscar, and himself (Ossian), were 
overcome by magic spells, and that Finn had re- 
in this Chase the three 


language of 


course to supplication. 

great Fenian leaders, Finn, Ossian the bard, and refer 

< )scar were present. 

To ascertain precisely how many passages in 

i a i rn • • a vi x 

Pindar and the 

Ossian sings : 

" Our Fenian warriors, young and gay, 
Who to the isle had bent their way. 
On the cold ground beside us lay, 
By magic spells of life bereft 
But I, to tell the tale, was left. 
With Finn, magnanimous and kind, 
Bald Conan, of a cheerless mind, 
Young Oscar, my heroic son, 
And, woman's darling, Derm u id Dun/' 

Nobody can peruse this most interesting volume 
but with sympathetic feelings. The author, AY il- 
liam Hamilton Drummond, D.D., M.R.I.A. (born 
1778, died 1805), was a highly gifted, humane, 
and noble-minded Unitarian minister, who has 
written much, and with great taste, on almost all 
subjects: religion, ethics, painting, historical sub- 
jects, natural history, poetry. He is also known 
as an elegant translator of Lucretius (into verse), 
and of Oppian's IlalieiUics and Cyneyetic* (from 
the original Greek). Hermann Kindt. 

Sir Edward Cork's "Household JJook for 
1596-7 " (4 th S. i. 123.)— I purchased this manu- 
script at Mr. Craven Ord's sale in June, 1829 
(lot 554), for the late Mr. Coke of Holkham Hall 
(afterwards Earl of Leicester), and I presume it 
is still preserved in the library at Holkham. I 
had previously completed the catalogue of the 
MSS. there, and consequently this " Household 
Book " is not included in it. With regard to any 
•subsequent sale of the MS. I think some mistake 
must exist, and should be glad if the Suffolk 
Hector would give a more precise statement on 
the subject. F. Madden, 

25, St. Stephen's Square, \V. 

The Homeric Society (4 th S. i. 18, 79, 133.) 

As one who takes great interest in the " Homeric 
question," I hail with much satisfaction the for- 
mation of a "Homeric Society" ; and I beg to 

* It will be remembered that Osgar, or Oscar, was the 

grandson of Finn. It i-: Oscar who is addressed here by 

to be regarded as 

Tragic writers can be shown to 
to our Homer, and to explain on some 
plausible theory the undoubted fact, that by far 
the greatest number of references to the Trojan 
a flairs in these writers were borrowed from other 
epic poems which we have not. 

4. To investigate the diversities in the personal 
history or adventures of the Homeric characters, 
as described in our Homer and in the writers and 
works of art mentioned above. 

5. To collect instances of words which appear to 
have been altered in form or meaning from their 
more ancient and sound epic usage. 

It is clear that, if Homer i 
the father of poetry, and indeed of literature, all 
questions connected with the genuineness and nge 
of the poems which have come down to us under 
his name must be both interesting and important. 
The subject is so vast, that combination and co- 
operation among unprejudiced scholars can alone 
bring these questions to anything like a definite 
issue. F. A. Paley. 


No Love Lost (4 th S. i. 29.) — I would suggest 

that the following may be a satisfactory account 
of the apparent discrepancy in the usages of the 
phrase u There was no love lost between them." 
Where it is used of the loving couple, in '* The 
Babes in the Wood," it would mean that each, as 
it were, absorbed all the love of the other. In its 
ordinary use I imagine it means, there was not so 
much love between them that there was a surplus 
which could go to waste. Andromache. 

Gillray's "French Invasion " (4 th S. i. 5G.) 

I ought, to be sure, to have been more particular 
as to the description I gave of the caricature in 
question. I was staying in the country, and had 
it not by me at the moment. It is in fact the 
large oblong plate, published Feb. 1, 1798, by 
H. Humphrey, 27, St. James's Street: "The 
Storm Rising," or " The Republican Flotilla in 
Danger." The windlass is worked by Fox (not 
Pitt) ; and near his coat, which lies on the ground, 
is a scroll with a list of "The New Republican 
Ministry," of which the il Premier" is citizen Vol- 

4<»> S. I. Feb. 15, '68; J 



pone (the Italian for an old /or — an artful design- 
ing man). The person next to him, with spurred 
top-boots, has also a bill sticking out of his 
pocket with these words: "£1400 fined for, etc." 
W. Pitt's tempestuous blast carries with it the 
formidable names of Duncan, Curtis, Howe, Gar- 

Seymour, Parker, and Onslow. 

It was from Brest, not Boulogne, as I stated, 

P. A. L. 




was a castle near Shrewsbury, now, I believe, no 
longer in existence, but of which an interesting 
print is shown in the recently published book, 
The Garrisons of Shropshire, called after the 
country of its Norman possessors Catts, from pay* 
tie Caux. 'We must bear in mind the important 
conquests in that part of the kingdom by the 
Norman followers of William the Conqueror, 
whereby the name of Montgomery has retained 
its place until the present day: and it might be 
possible some other castle on the Welsh border 
may have, like Caus, borne a Norman name ; for 
if Ryiner be correct, it would be at any rate in 
those days impossible for the king to travel in 
one day from Shrewsbury to Rouen. 

Tiios. E. Winning ton. 

Ilothomagus, llotomagus, or Khotomagus, is 
certainly Rouen, the metropolis of Normandy. 
See Hadrianus Junius, Xomenelator, 8vo, Franc?., 
1590, p. 537 ; Laur. Beverlinck, Magnum Thea- 
trum, fol., Lugd. 1078, torn. iii. p. 250; Rob. 
Ainsworth, Thesaurus Lingwc Latina, ed. Tho. 
Morell, 4to, 1783; Alex. Keith Johnson, Diet, of 
Geography, 8vo, 1804. K. P. D. E. 

Costly Entertainments (4 th S. i. 73.)— I beg 
respectfully to direct Mr. Trench's attention to 

The Princely Pleasures of Kenihvorlh, whicli de- 

. Q . . --. , 

it is reported to have lasted for seventeen days, at 
a cost to the earl of one thousand pounds ner diem. 

under the editorship of Ileinrich Michelant, who 
has followed the MS., No. 7190, of the Royal 
(now Imperial) Collection at Paris, and added 
at the foot of the page a number of various 
readings from another MS. in the library of the 
Arsenal. A brief glossary is also appended of the 
most difficult words, and for the rest the reader 
is referred to II oque fort's Glossairc de la languc 
JRomane, and Ducange's Thesaurus Media* et In- 
finite Latinitatis. Headers who may be chiefly 
intent on the literary interest awakened by the 
poem will be somewhat annoyed by the frequent 
repetitions which impede the current of the story 
and produce weariness; but on the whole, the 
editor has rendered a service to the lovers of old 
French romance by this edition. The next in 
order of date was published at Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, in 1850, by Dr. Ileinrich Weismann, in 
2 vols. 12mo. This edition presents the German 
version of the poem, composed in the second half 
of the twelfth century by Lamprecht the priest, 
who declares that he has faithfully adhered to 
the recital of a French poet, Albert de Besan^on ; 
together with a modern translation in German, 
historical and linguistic explanations, a complete 
translation of the pseudo-Callisthenes, and ex- 
tracts from the Latin, French, English, Persian, 
and Turkish versions of the romance. Gervinus 
places Lamprecht's poem in the same rank with 
the Parzival of Wolfram of Eschenbach. The 
heroic deeds of Alexander the Great became the 
common property of all nations, and were strangely 
mixed up in the Middle Ages with home-borii 
great feats and prowess so as to form a whole 
bearing the distinctive character of each people. 

Another and later edition which I have seen 
was printed at Dinan in 1801, and edited by 
F. Le Court de la Villethassetz and Eugene Tal- 
bot, who have chiefly followed the edition of 
Michelant, but have abridged it in some parts 

scribes th^famous entertainment^accorded in 1575 that were tediously lengthened out, and added 

portions from other sources calculated to render 
the poem more attractive and interesting. Co- 

thousand pounds 

about sixty 


figures are far in excess of his quotations. A. II. 

German-English Dictionary (3 rd S. xii. 524 ; 
4^ S. i. 03.) — Without at all disparaging Lud- 
wig's Dictionary, which our learned friend F. C. II. 
recommends, I would record my testimony in fa- 
vour of Hilpert's (2 vols. 4to, 1828-40). I know 
of nothing equal to it for fulness and accuracy. 


11 The Alliterative Romance of Alexander 


— Several editions of The Alliterative 

Ilomance of Alatander have appeared on the Con- 
tinent of late years. In 1846 the Literary Society 
of Stuttgart published a handsome edition in 8vo, 

pious notes are placed at the foot of every page, 
and a glossary of difficult words and a table of 
proper names are appended. All these editions 
are in the library of tne Taylor institution. 

J. Ma CRAY. 

The Use of the Word " Pabty" (3 rd S. iii. 
427,460; xii. 365, 424 ; 4 th S. i. 30, 87.)— The 

following extracts, showing the use of tne word 
party, in the sense of a person, may be worth 
adding to those already quoted in the pages of 
"N. &Q.": 

** Let the party? that bleedes cliawc the roote of a 
nettle in his mouth." — Thomas Lupton's A Thousand 
Xotahle Things of sundry Sortcs. At London, Printed 
for Edward White, &c. BI. let. sign. II. 

" A Count rev woman at an Assize was to take her oath 
against njxtrty. The said party entreated the Judge that 



[4* S. I. Feb. 15, 'G8. 

her oath might not bee taken."— John Taylor's Wit mid 
Mirth (Workcs, 1630), p. 185. 

Edward F. Kimbattlt. 

In the reprint of Caxton's Paris and Vienna 
(just issued by the Roxburghe library), I find 
this word party used in a quite unusual manner. 
Its meaning is '"'state," "condition;" and it seems 

or else "the Farmer," holding a moderately long 
pipe in the left hand, and a similar jug in the 
right hand, the thumb passing through the handle 
while the fingers grasp the neck. These figures 
are separated by a hedge, with a tree and a stile 
through which a dog is passing, while another 
dog is leaping over it ; in trie lower row, a stag is 

anglicised from the French parti (see Cotgrave, being chased by eleven other dogs in two lines 
sub voce.) (si* °f them in couples), followed by a mounted 

- — - - - * huntsman blowing a French horn. I am not sure 

Paris and Edward, serenading Vienna, have 
been seized by ten ambushed knights. 

" Thennc wente Parys & edward a parte & spake to 
gyder / ye see fayr brother said Parys to Edward in what 
party we be now." (P. 5.) 

John Addis, Jr>\ 

Rustington, Littlehampton, Sussex. 

Cobsik, Corset (3 rt S. xii. 390, 516; 4 th S. i. 

Many thanks to Mr. Skeat for his note 

The use of the word 



upon this puzzling word. 

in the E. E. T. S. book, as a real material caustic, 
goes far towards proof of its original meaning. In 
all other passages that I know, its use is meta- 
phorical. I have met with it again lately in the 
Arcadia : 

" To these speeches he would couple such gestures of 
vexation, & would fortifie the gestures witli such effects 
of furie, as sometimes offring to teare vp his wounds, 
sometimes to refuse the sustenance of meat, 8c counsel 
of Physitians, that his perplexed mother was driuen to 
make him by force to be tended, with extreamc corsey 
to her selfe, <fc annoyance to him." (Arcadia, b. iii. 
p. 297, ed. 1020.) 

Jonx Addis, .Tin. 

Toby Jug (3* S. xii. 523).— Did the appella- 

ion "a Toby jug" involve any reference to 

Sterne's lieutenant ? and is not the " Toby " the 



proper vessel to be drawn in any representation of 
a my friend and pitcher"? and does any one 
know what a real " Toby " was P— 
it, when it was made, and where it can be seen ? 
I mean the jug on which there appeared in relief 
two persons seated in an arbour at a table with one 
of these jugs upon it, using u churchwardens " 
for their tobacco, and viewing a foxhunt, which 

{)assed round the jug to the other side of the 
mndle — (this may not be very accurate, as it is 
described from memory) ; all self-coloured ; a drab 
colour on the convex part of the jug, except to- 
wards the upper part, which, with the neck, had 
the warm-brown tint of stoneware ; the neck was 
upright, rather less than half the height of the 
lower part, and wa,s cut square with a small lip. 
Was this the earliest typo ? and if so, where was 
the reference to Toby ? There is a comparatively 
modern variation of it, showing two lines of re- 
liefs, consisting of a single figure in breeches, and 
I suppose vandeloups, seated on a barrel, with the 
left elbow on a table supplied with the same jug 
(trees in the distance), on each side of the strap 
handle; opposite the handle is "Uncle Toby, 

that this is older than the representation of the 
plough, ladder, pitchfork, reaping-hook, &c. ; nor 
whether these farming implements were (like the 
men, dogs and trees of the stag-hunt) all moulded 
(not modelled) and stuck on the body of the jug. 
But I feel sure that both of these variations were 
produced previously to another type, in which a 
tree, apparently bearing grapes with vine leaves, is 
opposite the handle, and separates the upper half 
of a leering male figure irorn another with a 
feather in his cap, who is holding a Toby jug 
away from a female. The foliage is repeated at 
tho handle, and similar leafage, fruit, and tendrils 
run round the neck. J. W. P. 

It seems impossible that any one in the costume, 
or surrounded by the implements of a farmer, 
could represent that wonderful impersonation of 
Sterne, the kind-hearted, simple-minded, chival- 
rous soldier, Uncle Toby. His representation in 
all sorts of delineation or sculpture was once as 
popular a3 Paul Pry and Pickwick used to be 
lately; but he is always drawn in a soldier's 
uniform, and with a long Kamillies wig, and 
generally with one foot wrapped up for the gout. 
The "Toby" is most probably the Toby Philpot 
of the old song, "Dear Tom, this brown jug which 
now flows with mild ale," &c. Among several 
who first made curious points connected with the manufactories of 

pottery, not the least seems the fact of their sudden 
migration or disappearance even in tho time of 
prosperity, and the scanty traditions left behind. 
Where were the spots on which those of Bow, 
Mortlake, and Chelsea stood ? As to the latter, it 
is a curious fact that Nollekens the sculptor (Cun- 
ningham's Lives, iii. 159) says the concern failed 
because they could get no more clay from China; 
and yet the transfer of the business to the Derby 
firm could only have taken place a few )'ears be- 
fore, and he says himself his father worked there. 

A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 

Snakes (4 th S. i. 57.) — I am reluctant to be- 
lieve the assertion that no snakes live in the 
lordship of Bletchingdon, Oxfordshire, though I 
have never actually seen one during the thirteen 
years I have had the supervision of two farms 
there as a land-agent. I have seen snakes in the 
parish of Kirtlington immediately north of Bletch- 
ingdon, and in that of Islip exactly south of it ; 

4* S. I. Feu. 15, '68.] 



and it is scarcely likely that these reptiles are 
such good geographers as to know parochial limits. 
Moreover, the soil in the parish or lordship of 
Bletchingdon varies greatly, as I know from the 
fact that I surveyed the whole of it for rating 
purposes ten years ago, upon which occasion I 
personally entered on foot every separate inclo- 
sure. West and north-west of the village the 
soil consists of oolitic or cornbrash land of rich 
quality, and of the alluvine of the Thorwell valley ; 
north and north-east there is a wet variety of 
oolite, partly woodland; and due south of the 
village the land is a stiff tenacious clay, very 
difficult to drain or cultivate successfully. Surely 
all these soils are not equally insalubrious to 
snakes and vipers. The fact is, that reptiles are 
far less common in the Midland Counties than 
they were forty years ago ; they disappear as cul- 
tivation is extended. But, while I am on the 
subject, I would embalm a " snake discovery " in 
the pages of "N. & Q." On May Day, 1862, I 
had a professional appointment with a gentleman 
of much experience, as a naturalist, as well as a 
man of business on the permanent staff of the 
Great Western Railway. We met at Oxford, 
and walked along the line of the West Midland 
Railway to the village of Yarn ton. In taking this 
walk we found no less than six wakes dead, severed 
by the wheels of a passing train. They had evi- 
dently crawled on to the u metals " of the line 
(but for what purpose who can say ?), and there 
inadvertently committed suicide. The spot 
whereon we discovered these self-immolated rep- 
tiles was on a gravelly soil near the eastern edge 
of the Isis valley. William Wing. 

Steeple Aston. Oxford. 

Tallis's Song or Forty Parts (3 rd S. xii. 

529.) — Your valued correspondent u from a sick- 
room " (I hope by this time convalescent), says : 
u I have heard tnat this extraordinary composi- 
tion is extant in MS., but have forgotten where." 
Many years ago — nearly a quarter of a century 
the following Prospectus was issued ; but the 
publication was not proceeded with, as a sufficient 
number of subscribers could not be procured : 

" Tallis's Forty-Part Song on Motet, a.d. 1570. 

It is proposed to print this celebrated Composition in 
Score for Forty Voices (eight choirs of five voices each), 
provided One Hundred Subscribers can be obtained. The 
publication will be superintended by Thomas Oliphant, 
Esq., Honorary Secretary to the Madrigal Society, from 
■whose almost unique copy the work will be printed. 
London : C. Lonsdale (late Birchall and Co.), 26, Old 
Bond Street, by whom Subscribers* names will be re- 
ceived. The Subscription (One Pound) to be paid when 
the number is completed." 

Edward F. Rimbault. 

Quotations W anted : " Ne'er 

DEEP-TONED THEBAN " (4 th S. i. 30.) 

commencing u Ne'er since the deep-toned Theban 

is the concluding one in an u Irregular 


The stanza 

Ode on the Death of Lord Byron/' by the Rev. 
C. C. Colton, author of La con 9 &c. 

Edward Riggall. 




The line desired (4 th S. i. 77.) << Though 
lost to sight, to memory dear/' is causing much 
search on this side of the Atlantic also. May I 
suggest that your readers give any example of its 
use in any book, so that we may know in what 
limits of time to expect its first appearance ? 

I find a somewhat similar phrase in a stanza by 
W. Rider, in the London Magazine for 1755, p. 589. 
It is on Ilendrick's son hearing of his fathers 

death : 

<r The? lost to sight, within this filial breast 
Ilendrick still lives, in all his might confest ; 
Then learn, ye slaves, this fatal arm to shun ; 
You'll feel too soon that I am Ilendrick's son." 

I have thus far found no similar phrase in all 
the numerous epitaphs in many volumes of that 
magazine. W. II. Wuitmore. 

Boston, U.S.A. 

ANONY3IOFS (3 rd S. xii. 225.) — The Modest 


Apology, 8cr. was probably "written by Mr. Josepl 
Boyce : 

" A vast number of Scotch Presbyterians having lately 
quitted their native country, and settled in his diocese, 
Dr. King's endeavours to persuade them to conform, en- 
gaged him in a fresh controversy with Mr. Joseph Boyce, 
one of their ministers ; in which, as usual. Dr. King had 
the last word.*' — Ryan's Riographia Hibernica, 1821, 
vol. ii. p. 353. 

Chalmers says that the bishop** Discourse con- 
cerning the Inventions of Men in the Worship of 
God (Dublin, 1694), having engaged him in a 

controversy with the dissenters 

" Mr. Joseph Boyce . . . published Remarks, $c, . . . 
Upon this the bishop returned an answer, under the title 

of An Admonition to the Dissenting Inhabitants of the 
Diocese of Derry, concerning a book lately published by 
Mr. J. A., entitled Remarks, §v., 1695, 4 to. ; to which 
Mr. Boyce replying, the bishop rejoined in A Second 

Admonition to the Dissenting InJiabitants, §V., published 

the same vear at Dublin in 4to ; and thus the controversy 
ended."— 'jBiog. Diet, art. " King/' 

As the tract possessed by Mr. Shirley is dated 
1701, the concluding statement of Chalmers must 
be erroneous ; though it is strange that six years 
should have elapsed between the bishop's re- 
joinder and the publication of the Modest Apology. 

William E. A. Axon. 


Sea Laws (4 th S. i. 77.) 
the law library of the late Dr. Lee of Hart well 

In the catalogue of 

ing entry : 


1 vol. 4to, London. 

" 1230. Sea Laws, Treatise on. 
No author or date given. 

" [A MS. note appears on the fly-leaf— 4 It was from 
gleaning this volume, that Lord Nelson made his own 
interpretation of Commercial Treaties.' J M 



[4* S. I. Feb. lo, ? 68. 

I wonder whether this note is made in a copy 
of the same impression of the same work as that 
which your correspondent Mr. Gibson possesses, 
enriched with the autograph of Lord Nelson. If 
so, it is a curious fact, adding considerably to the 
value of Mr. Gibson's treasure. 


Literary Pseudonyms (.3 rd S. xii. 305.) 

Horace Walpole, it appears, published The Castle 
of Otranto as Onuphrio Muralto. Clearly he 
meant to convey the idea of a wall and a pole, but 
I do not think this the correct etymology of his 
name. I would conjecture that it is another 
form of Welshpool; being derived from one of the 
many pools, wells, or springs, that were visited by 
the ancient Cymru, to whom their Saxon con- 
querors gave the name of Walliser or Walsch. 
Welshpool, in Montgomeryshire, is called Trallwng 
or Trellyn=Lake City ; but we have also Camber- 
well, i e. the well of the Cymru, called Cambrians, 
in the Latin form; Britwell, Prittlewell, versions 
of Britwn and Prvdain; and I think we must 

claim Bridewell, it being the substitution of a 
canonical saint's name for the obsolete Brit. 

Pascal's famous Letters to a Provincial were 

published under the name of Louis de Montalte. 
It appears that Pascal was born at Clermont, in 
Auvergne, and I assume that Montalte is an ana- 
grammatic translation of it. I have found this 
objected to, but there is some confirmation for it 

by analogy. 

Near Mold, in Flintshire, is an eminence called 
Bailey Hill — evidently from the keep, or inner 
ward of an old castle. Its ancient name was 
Wydd-grug, or Ambygrwydd (root ivd, ambicg), 
" the conspicuous/' — this, to my mind, is evi- 
dently the same thing as Clair-mont ; and, to 
follow the analogy, we find that when settled by 
the Normans it became called Mom-attus, hence 
Montalto, the name of a family of owners : this is 
clearly the source of Pascal's pseudonym. A. II. 

General Hawley (4 th S. i. 75.)— I believe 
General Hawley belonged to an old Wiltshire 
family. But information might be obtained from 
his relative, Major Hawley, of the 14th Regiment. 

Charles Rogers, LL.D. 

2, Heath Terrace, Lewishain. 

Plays at English Grammar Schools (3 rd S* 

xi. 378.) — For the last seven years the boys at 
the King's School, Peterborough, have acted a 
play before breaking up at Christmas. I believe 
I can supply R. I. with a set of programmes, and 
with copies of the verses which have been dis- 
tributed with them, if he will send me his address. 

W. 1). Sweeting. 


Itinerant Mendicant Clergymen (3 rd S. ix. 

412.) — The above may perhaps be illustrated by 
an extract from the register of burials in St. John 

Baptist's church, Peterborough, under date March 
23, 1754 : — u Richard Wellton, a Vagrant Clergy- 

W. 1). 8. 



Rood-screen Bell (3 rd S. x. 373; xi. 389.) 
Another instance of the sanctus-bell remaining 
upon the screen occurs at Ilawsted church, Suf- 
folk. It is attached to a cylindrical piece of wood, 
which works in two uprights fixed at the top of 
the screen. The bell is at the south side, and is 
about six inches in diameter at the mouth. 

W. 1). s. 


St. George's CnuRcii, Liverpool (3 rd S. xii. 

0.) — Some account of the ministers of St. 

George's church may be found in Dr. Thorn's 
paper published in vol. iv. of the Transactions 
of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, 

1851-52. It is entitled — 

<; Liverpool Churches and Chapels, dc. With Notices 
of Clergymen, Ministers, and others. \W the Rev. D. 
Thorn, D.D." 

J. Harris Gibson. 


The Conquest of Alhama (3 rd S. xii. 391.) 

I cannot answer S. II. 's main point of inquiry as 
to the text which Lord Byron followed in his 
translation of the ballad referred to. 
turning to 1 

z de Ilita's 

But, on 
(hierras CHviles de 

Granada } I find there mention made of the siege, 
and three ballads relating to it. 

1. The one alluded to by S. II., which Byron 
translated in his first eleven stanzas, beginning 

" el rev Moro," 

differing however, in some slight particulars, from 
the Spanish text given in Byron. 

2. Nearly similar to the former one, which 
Hita prefaces by saving: " despues se canto en 
lengua Castellana de la misma manera, que decia/' 


3. This ballad, in Ilita, begins 

** Moro Alcaide, Moro Alcaide," 

and is quite distinct from the other two, being 
addressed to the Alcaide (or governor) of Alhama. 
According to Ilita, this Alcaide had leave to go 
to Antequera to attend the marriage of his sister ; 
and though he returned eight days sooner than his 
leave extended, in the mean time the Christians 
had taken Alhama, whereby he lost his children, 
wife, honour, and fame. However, the excuse 
did not avail him. He was taken to Granada, 
where his head was cut off. 

Now Byron's version, from stanza 15 to the 
end, seems substantially taken from this third 
ballad ; but differs greatly in the narration, both 
in omissions and insertions. But what seems to 
me most unaccountable, is, that he confuses to- 
gether the ballad addressed to the Alfaqui (the 


Mussulman doctor) 


4*8.1. Fee. 15, 'G8.J 



dressed to the Alcaide (or governor) of Albania : 
substituting (stanza 15) Alfaqui for Alcaide. 
Hence, what is addressed to and by the Alfaqui 
does not relate to him, and thereby, as it seems 
to me, makes an inconsistency — contrary to the 
view of it by S. H. 

If my view of it is correct, it makes S. H.'s 
inquiry as to Byron's text still more requisite for 
the right understanding of his version. 

I will just mention that I do not see, as S. II. 
does, that the titles Alfaqui and Alcaide are used 
as proper names, but names of office. 

The refrain " Ay de mi Alhama ! " is omitted 
in my copy of Hita. C. J. 

Duke of Roxburghe (3 ,d S. xii. 284, 422 ; 
4 th S. i.00.) — I am quite aware of the supposed de- 
rivation of "Floors Castle" from the terraces there, 
but took no notice of it, being convinced that it 
belonged to that fanciful class of etymologies 
which were so much in vogue in Scotland about 
the close of the last century, and of whicli so 
many examples are to be found in the Caledonia, 
and in both the Statistical Accounts of Scotland. 

Terraces, whether natural or artificial, are to be 
found in Scotland to an extent that has not been 
generally noticed. In many cases they remind 
one of the terraced vineyards of the Rhine ; but the 
question is, were these ever known k$ floors/ I 
know no passage in our old Scotch writers which 
countenances any such idea, and until W. E. pro- 
duces a quotation from them to support it, I shall 
continue to doubt its truth. 

Of the French word Jleur, as occurring in a 
Scotch name, we have an undoubted example at 
Cluimpfleury in Linlithgowshire. I believe, more- 
over, that this French or rather Norman nomencla- 
ture prevails in the Lowlands of Scotland to an 
extent that, in consequence of the words having 
been corrupted and altered during the course of 
time, has not hitherto been suspected. I am happy, 
however, to state that a work by Mr. Ogilvie, a na- 
tive of Normandy, will shortly be published under 
the title of The Conquerors of England, which 
will throw much light upon this subject. 

I may mention the instance of one family — viz. 
the Maxwells of Galloway — whose Norman origin 
he clearly proves to be a fact, which I believe has 
never been previously established. Rusricus. 

Thud (4 th S. i. 34, 115.) — I am afraid Mr. 
Gaspey has mistaken my reasons for feeling a 


ster of Frankenstein 
of different bodies. 



language of my native land, in which I often 
find words more suited to express my meaning 
than are recorded in any imperial lexicon where- 
ever published. 

2. Thud belongs to a class of words, the root of my ear certainly for fifty years. 

which it is unnecessary to seek in any particular 
dialect, for the reason that they are neither more 
nor less than attempts to convey or express in 
written characters the description of, and to a 
certain extent reproduce, the actual natural sound 
which thev indicate. 

Mr. Gaspey will of course recollect the hack- 
nied quotation from Homer, which has been so 
much admired as consonant with the sound of 
the sea breaking on the shore. 

Now thud has most expressively this character 
to any ear which has heard the sound it repre- 
sents. Perhaps I may be able to bring this home 
to Mr. Gaspey by quoting the prayer of the 
Minister of Durrisdeer lor more favourable weather 
in a wet harvest — u Send us not a ranting, tanting, 
tearing win', but a thuddering, (laddering, drying 


We have another word descriptive of wind in 
Scotland, viz. sough, which, when properly pro- 
nounced, equally explains its origin. 

"Without the smallest intention of being per- 
sonal, I may also point out that the first part of 
Mr. Gaspey's own name is another illustration of 
this, Gasp being evidently derived from the sound 
emitted by persons struggling for breath. 

George Vkre Irving. 

Bummer (4 th S. i. 75.) — 1 find the following in 

Ilittel's Resources of Calif or nia : 

" Bummer. An idle, worthed fellow who does no work, 
and lias no visible means of support. It is probably de- 
rived from the vulgar German words ' Bummeln ' and 
1 Uumineler,' which are about equivalent to • loafer ' and 
'loaf.* It's origin has been attributed to Boehmen, the 
German name of Bohemia, a nation celebrated for the 
number of its sharpers and adventu 


It is probably derived from the Dutch bowmen, to 
sound as an empty barrel, to make a noise like 
that of the bittern. Chaucer says — 

u And as a bitour bumbleth in the mire. 

In Welsh the bittern is called bump y-gors, from 

bicmp, a hollow sound. 

John Piggot, Jun. 

Californian and Xevadan miners, of whom I have 
inquired the exact meaning of bummer, with a 
view to discovering its derivation, connect it with 

the same word as is used for a cockchafer in the 
Southern and Border States. I have myself heard 
a lady on a Virginian plantation speak of " bum- 
mers booming around. The word in its insect 
meaning is evidently formed from sound. 

Charles Wentworth Dilke. 

Lot, Lots (4 th S. i. 54.) — Living in the North 
of England, I can certify that this use of the word 
is no novelty there. A great lot of people ; lots of 
new houses ; lots of money ; lots of fun, &c. &c, 

s which have been quite familiar to 


are yulgc 



[4* S. I. Feb. 15, '68. 


Chronica Monasterii de Melsa, a Fundatione usque ad 
annum 13!>6. Auctore Thoma tie Burton, Ablate. 
Accedit Continuatio ad Annum 140G, a Monaeho quo- 
daw ipsius Damns. Edited by Edward A. liond, Keeper 
of the MSS. British Museum. Vol. II. 

Giraldi Cambrensis Opera. Edited by James A. Dimoek, 
.A I. A. Vol V. 

Chronica Monasterii S. Albani. Gesta Abba turn Moiuis- 
terii S(/neti Albani a Thoma Walsingham, reynante 
Ricardo Secundo, ejusdem Eeeles'ur Prccentore, com- 
pilata. Edited by l4enrv Thomas liiley, M.A. Vol. I. 
A.D. 7!^)-12iM). 

The same, Vol. 11. A.D. 1200-1310. 

The important series* of Chronicles and Memorials of 
Great Britain and Ireland during the Middle A^es which 
the present Master of the Rolls suggested to the Treasury 
for publication when SirCJcorge Lewis was Chancellor of 
the Exchequer — who saw at once the value and import- 
ance of the suggestion, and readily directed that it should 
be carried out — now forms a body of historical materials of 
which the nation may well be proud. Since we last called 
attention to them, four more volumes have been issued, and 
all maintain the high character foreditorial care, accuracy, 
and scholarship which their predecessors have acquired. 
The titles of these several works sufficiently point, out 
the periods of our history which they specially illustrate ; 
and we may content ourselves with stating, with regard 
to Mr. Bond's second volume of the Chronicle of Mean .r, 
that it continues Burton's Chronicle from \'2:\~> to 1339, 
and so far differs from the preceding, that what relates to 
public affairs bears a higher proportion in extent and in- 
terest to the purely monastic record. The two volumes 
edited by Mr. Riley are devoted to the Gesta of the Ab- 
bots of St. Albans — a compilation, to all appearance, of 
the last ten vears of the fourteenth centurv. The Cot- 
tonian MS. from which it was printed was evidently 
written under the supervision of Thomas Walsingham in 
the scriptorium of St. Albans, and naturally divides 
itself into three sections, — the first proceeding, to a great 
extent, from the pen of Matthew Pari? : the second com- 
piled by an anonymous hand, probably from a Chronicle 
of William Rishanger; the third being compiled by 
Walsingham. Of the tifth volume of the works of (ii- 
raldus Cambrensis, the editing of which has been en- 
trusted to Mr. Dimoek, we can only spare room to say 
that it contains his Topoaraphia Hihemica, and his E.t- 
puynatio llibernicu, well introduced, and with a very 
useful Glossary. 

English Reprints. John Milton's Areopagitica (21 Nor. 
1G44.) Preceded by Illustrative Documents. Carefully 

edited by Edward Arber. (A. Murray & Son.) 

English Reprints : Master Hugh Latimer, Ex-Bishop of 
Worcester* Sermon, on the Ploughers, 18 January, 1541). 

Carefully edited by William Arbcr. (A. Murray & Son.) 

Who can say that good literature is not now published 
at a price which all can pay ? These two remarkable 
little books, which Mr. Arber is justified in saying are 
" carefully '' edited — are published at sixpence each. 
They are to be followed by others equally interesting 
and at the same moderate price. 

Lake Victoria ; a Narrative of Explorations in search of 
the Source of the Nile. Compiled from the Memoirs of 

Captains Speke and Grant. By George G. Swayne, 
M.A. (Blackwood.) 

Now that the heart of England is gladdened by the 
apparently -well-grounded hope of Livingstone'* safety, 

renewed attention will be given to the vast subject of 
African discovery ; and the present little volume will be 
acceptable to many who may have neither the means nor 
the time to devote to the larger work from which it has 
been derived. 

Dr. Rimbault is preparing for the press a second 

edition of his History of the Organ. lie is also at work 
on a Glossary of Musical Terms, for which he has been 

making collections for many vears. 

Mr. E. Peacock? F.S.A., of Bottesford, near Brigg, is 
preparing for publication a Glossary of Words peculiar to 

A Caricature History of the Georges, or Annals of the 
House of Hanover, compiled from the Legends, Broad- 
sides, Window-Pictures, Lampoons, and Pictorial Carica- 
tures of the times, is about to appear from the pen of 
W. Thomas Wright, M.A., F.S.A. The book will con- 
tain nearly 400 spirited illustrations from the. caricatures 
of Gill ray, Savers, Rowlandson, and other masters of 
pictorial satire." It will be published at a very moderate 
price by Mr. Ilotten, who designs the book as a com- 
panion volume to his History of Signboards. 



Particular* of Price, Ate, of the following Books, to be sent direct 
to the gentlemen by whom they are required, whose names and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose: — 

Pkakjai.l ox tiik Position of English Baronets. 

Wanted by Mr. E. Clulow 4 Son. 3 >, Victoria Street, Derby. 
Rfv. Thomas Forhfster's Litany; or, a Saytre relating to Publi 

irs, lh3H-3«». 

Wantel by Cot. A7/is,8tarrross, near Exeter. 

Fifloino's Works. 10 Vols. 8vo, 1821. 
Ufwick'i Bird* and Qoadrupfds. 
Hoars'* Moo* h.n Wiltshire. 6 Vols, folio. 
Ancirnt Wiltsiiikk. 2 Vols, folio. 

SpFNSER's FaERIE QlPKNF. 1 f>96. 

Ortat's Criihtim. Itill. 

Holmf's Acadimv of Armory. Folio, 16*8. 

BaKIh'i HlSTOUV OF N"lll HAMI'TOMHIHr. 2 Vol*. 

Shaw's History or Staffordshire. 2 Vols, folio. 

Wanted by Mr. Thomas Sect, Bookseller. 15, Conduit Street, 

Bono Street, London, W. 

flatitti to Catxtipaiititnti. 

Universal Catal*hii k of Books oh Art. All Additions and Cor- 
rections should be addressed to the Editor, South Kensington Museum, 
London, W. 

T. TI. M. The Utters •• R. P." on CromwelTs crown piece stand for 
" Kei Publiccc." 

Longfvity. We. trust that Corrcupowlents who believe that thru know 
cases of centenarian ism which the*/ consider capable of being nuthenti- 
i ated will in future, foWnc the excellent example set oy Mr. Ilwjhts in 
the case if Sail >/ Clark (ante. p. 7 'I), find accompany their statements with 
the evidence which establishes the fact. 

G. S. E. The orioin and mean >n ft of the st/ry of the ftarmccide's 
Feast in the Arabian Nights will be found in "N. & Q." 1st S. xJ. 
367, 4. r >3. 

O. W. " Fine l>t/ degrees, and beautifully less" occurs in Prior's 
** Henry and Emma.** 

D. J. K. will flmlsix articles on " Contnrbabantur Constantinopoli- 
taniin " N. & <$." 1st S. vols. ix. xi. xii. 

Errata 4th S. i. n. 67, col. i. line 8, for •* Archombratus " read 

" Archomliroius; M p. 79, col. ii. line h from bottom and last line, for 
"4to volume" read " four- volume; " p. 80, col. i. line SI, for " To- 
nijrht" read "To Night; M line 5 from bottom, for "atomed" read 
" starred; " col. ii. line 12 from bottom, for "This '* read" Hi*«" p. 123, 
col. ii. line 2. for" Harlinpton " read "ffarlington;" p. 12*, col. I. Hue 
lo,/or " *73 " read "373." 

A Reading Case for holding the weekly Nos. of "N. ft q." is now 
ready, and maybe had of all Booksellers and Newsmen, price Is. 6d.\ 
or, tree by post, direct from the publisher, for Is. %d. 

••• Cases for binding the volumes of " N. ft Q." may be had of the 
Publisher, and of all Booksellers and Newsmen. 

'* NoTus and Queries" i* published at mum on Friday, and is also 
issued in Monthly Parts. The Subscription for Stamped C«>pi«* fur 
sir Months fin-warded direct from the Publish r (including the Half" 
yearly In dfx) is lis. Ad., which may be paid by Post Office Orders 
payable at the St run/ Post Office, in favour of William O. Smitr. 43, 
Wellington Street, Strand, W.C., where also all Communications 
for the Editor should be addressed. 

" Notes ft Queries " is registered for transmission abroad. 

4 th S. 1. Feb. 22, '68.] 





NOTES : — Gaspar Schott, 165 — The Talmud, 166 — MS. 
Annotations to Butler's " Hudibras," 167 — Oncyers : An- 
Heirea, 168 — Oueen's English, not King's, 168 — Method 
proposed for deciphering Cuneiform Inscriptions — The 
Admirable Crichton — Proverbs — Prolific Family, 169. 

QUERIES: — The Ash-tree, 170 — References wanted — 
Thomas de Beckington, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 1443- 
1466 — Carey Pedigree — Jean Caffart of Arras — Ecclesias- 
tical Colours — Courts Martial — Gildas — Gillingham 
Roodscreen — Heraldic — M Iconographie arec Portraits " 

— Special Licence — Lincolnshire Queries — Malone's 
Shakspeare — Patrons of Scotch Parishes — u St. Pawsle " 

— The Pixy and the Bean: Meaning of Patshaw — Pope 
and Mary Wort ley Montague — iBishop of Salisbury — 
Scottish Sports — Weston, Earls of Portland — We* toil : 
Nay lor— Chateaux of France, 170. 

Queries with Answers: — The Battle of Bannockburn 

— Wool-winders — Burs — ParneU's " Poems " — Lord 
Strafford's Dying Words — Handwriting of the Sixteenth 
and Seventeenth Centuries— Resignation of a Peerage, 172. 

REPLIES: — Calderon and Corneille, 174 - Espec, 176 — 
Longevity and Centenarianism, 177 — ' II Penseroso,"/6. 
Dice, 179 — The late Sir Edmund Head — Shorthand for 
Literary Purposes— Scotch Land Measures — M Dulcar- 
non " — St. Simon and Monseigneur de Paris — Wolwarde 
Hans in Kelder — Vaughan : Dock wra— School in Queen 
Square — Venice in 1848 — Brockett — Sisvphus and his 
8tone — " Auch ich in Arkadien " — Mathew Buckinger — 
Ged's8tereotypes-Ealing School -American and Spanish 
Notes and Queries — Masonry — Hour-glasses in Pulpits 

— Lots — " Ultima Ratio Regura," Ac, 180. 

Notes on Books Ac. 



If we go on improving in letters as fast as we 
have recently done in the arts of life, we may 
hope that some day a body of men will be found 
with sufficient learsiug and zeal to give the world 
a history of European civilization. A vision of 
such a work has floated before the eves of M. 
Guizot, the late Mr. Buckle, and sundry other 
scholars, both notable and obscure; but the field 
to be gone over is so large, the details so count- 



energy or leisure to accomplish it. The onlv chance 
we have is that some brotherhood like the Bene- 


of St. Maur will take the work in hand. 

But the times are now very unpropitious for reli- 
gious brotherhoods, and we doubt if any merely 
secular body could be held together or induced to 
work in concert for such a purpose. 

When such a work is undertaken, the writers 
(endeavourers our ancestors would have called 
them) will do well to read all the productions of 
the singularly learned and quaint Jesuit phy- 
sician, Gaspar or Caspar Schott. He was a Ger- 
man, born at Koenigshofen in the diocese of 
Wurtzburg in 1008.* He entered the Society of 
Jesus at the age of nineteen vears. His course of 

The Biographie Universetle savs 1606. 

study was finished in Sicily, as he was forced to fly 
from Germany on accoimt of the war then raging. 
He taught for many years moral theology, philo- 
sophy, and mathematics, at Falerino. After thirty 
years' absence from his native country, he returned 
to finish his earthly course there. His death 
took place at Wurtzburg, May 22,* 16G6.t He 
was evidently, during his whole life, a hard stu- 
dent, and a most industrious experimentalist and 
compiler. All his books were, however, pub- 
lished after his return to the Fatherland. None 

of them are much cared for now. though all are 
well worth reading by those who nave an interest 
in old methods of thought. The best known, 
though perhaps not the most curious, is the Magia 
Universalis, in four quarto volumes. It treats on 
optics, acoustics, mathematics, and physics, and is a 
perfect storehouse of fact, experiment, and legend. 
fey far the most amusing of his w T orks is the 
Physica Curiosa, a dumpy quarto of nearly four- 
teen hundred pages. In this great commonplace- 
book, the worthy physician treats of angels, 
demons, and spectres ; of dwarves, pigmies, and 
giants; of tritons, nereids, nymphs, and syrens; 
of sleepwalkers, and of men with wonderful me- 

mories ; of strange monsters and numerous births ; 
of unicorns, of the uses of ice and snow, and con- 
cerning fossil horns. As might be expected, he 
tells some very good stories by the way, and no- 
tably that of the Pied Piper of Hameln, which 
has been recently popularised by Mr. Baring- 
Gould,}: ft"d a strange history of a lady who had 
three hundred and sixty-five children at one birth. 
The following is, I believe, a complete list of 
Gaspar Schott's works : — 

" Mechanica Hydraulico-pneumatica cum experimento 
novo Magdeburgico." Herbipoli, 1G57, 4to. 

" Magia Vniversalis naturae et artis." [Four parts!. 
Herbipoli, 1657, 1658, 1650, 4to. 

[Reprinted at Bamburg, 1677, 4to. The treatise on 
optics, which forms part i. of the complete work, was 
translated into German by M. F. H. M. Bamberg, 1671, 
4to; Frankfurt-am-Mayn, 1677, 4 to. J 

" Pantometrum Kircherianum siuelnstrumentumGeo- 
metricum nouum." Ilerbipoli, 1660, 1668, 1669, 4to. 

" Itinerarium Extaticum Kircherianum." [Edited by 
Schott.] Herbipoli, 1660, 4to. 

"Cureus Mathematicus sive Omnium Mathematicarum 
Disciplinarum Encyclopaedia." Herbipoli, 1661 ; Frank- 
furt, 1674; Bamberg, 1677, fol. 

"Arithmetica Practica generalis ac special is e cursu 

mathematico extracta." Herbipoli, 1663, 1669, 


" Phvsica Curiosa sive mirabilia natune et artis." II 
bipoli, "1662, 1667, 1697. 

[The second and third editions are more complete than 
the first]. 


* The Nouvelle Biog. Generate says he died on March 22. 
t Ribadeneira Alengambe, et Sotwell, Bibliotheca Scrip- 
torum Soc. Jesu. Roma, 1676; Augustin et Alois de 

Hacher, Bihliotheqne des Ecrivaim de hi Compagnie 
Jesus. Liege, 1835, I. Sene, t. i. p. 727. 

X Curious Myths of the Middle Ages, part n. p. 152. 




[4* S. I. Feb. 22, '68. 

"Mathesis Osarea sive Amussis Ferdinands." Her- 

bipoli, 1GG2, 4to. 

[Edited only by Scliott. The work was written by P. 
Curtz, a Jesuit. J 

"Anatomia Physico-IIvdrostatica Fontium ac Flumi- 
num." Herbipoli, 1663, 8 vo. . 

[This book contains an account of Peter Pays of the 
Society of Jesus finding the source of the Nile in 1018, 

p. 426]. 

"Technica Curiosa siue Mirabilia Artis." Herbipoli, 
1664, 4to; 1687, 2 vols. lto. 

" Schola Steganographica in octo classes diuisa." Her- 
bipoli, 1665, lto ; Nuremburg, 1680, 4to. 

[A curious book on secret writing, which may still 
be found verv useful to anv one engaged in deciphering 
manuscripts in cipher]. 

" Joco-SeriorumNatuneet Artis." Herbipoli, 1666, 4to. 

[In the copy of this work in the National Library the 
title page seems to have been altered, and "Auctore 
Aspasio Caramuelio " printed in the room of something 
else. A manuscript note on the title says " auctor est 
P. Gasp. Schottus." It is confidently attributed to Schott 
both by Brunet and August in, and Alois de Bucker. In- 
deed no one who knows Schott's style and habit of treat- 
ing things can for a moment question the authorship. 
It would, however, be interesting to know whether any 
copies of the book exist with his name printed on the 

" Iconismi 56 Machinarum Ilydraulicarum." 4to. 
"Organum Mathematicum, opus posthumum." Herbi- 
poli, 1668, 1688, 4to ; Nuremberg, 1670, lto. 

The Biographic Vniverselle says that Schott in- 
tended to publish, had not he been hindered by 
death, a Dictionary of Mathematics, " L'lJorogra- 
phie Universelle, le Monde admirable, etleMercure 


The Abb*5 Barthelemy Mercier, called the Abbe 
de St. LtSger [born at Lyon, April 4, 1734, died at 
Paris, May 13, 1790], wrote a Notice raisonnee des 
outrages de Gaspard Schott. Paris, 1785, 8vo. I 
have not, however, been able to get a sight of it. 
There is no copy in the British Museum Cata- 

I shall be glad to know if any of the unpub- 
lished works of this curious author are yet pre- 
served in manuscript, and whether any of his cor- 
respondence still exists. He was just the sort of 

man to write long and amusing letters. AVhere 
was he buried ? Is there any monumental stone 
to his memory ? What portraits of him exist? 

K. P. D. E. 


present canon of the New Testament, this is not 
perhaps very wonderful. But be this as it may, 
the subject of the present note is the immorality, 
not the morality, which is taught in the Talmud. 
A novel in the Polish language, called Levi and 



or tne Jewish Lovers } by the well-known 
Julius UrsinusNiemcewicz, the friend of Kosciusco, 
was translated into English from a German edi- 
tion, and published by John Murray in 1830. 
The English translator was understood to be 
Mr. Jacob, the father of the late Queen's Counsel 
of that name,— the father, like the son, being a 
man of talents, and author of several works of 
economic science. The object of the novel is to 
show the pernicious effect of the teachings from 
the Talmud, and particularly of the teachings of 
a sect of Ultra-Talmudists, called Chassidim ; and 


the book contains a great number of p 
which purport to be literally translated from the 
Talmud. These passages are in many instauces 
so outrageously immoral, that it is difficult to 
conceive how any body of rational beings could 
ever have received them as rules of conduct. For 
example : 

Recent articles in the Quarterly Review and in 
the Revue des Deux Mondes have once more 
directed public attention to this prodigious mys- 
tery. The object of the Quarterly Reviewer would 
seem to be to show that the pure morality of the 
New Testament is to be found hi the Talmud. 

Inasmuch as I apprehend that no part of the wise, and in parts foolish, different readers will 
Talmud was reduced to writing till after the com- form different opinions ; and as the bulk of men 
pletion and acceptance by the churches of the will be able to judge only at second-hand — that is 

"It is permitted to a Jew to practise deceit on a Chris- 
tian ; with the pure to be pure, with the corrupt to be 
corrupt." " With regard to all who are uncircumcised, 
and believe not in the Prophets we are bound not only to 
defraud, but to beat them. When we have the power, we 
may root them out ; when we have not, we may by cun- 
ning prepare and further their ruin. If thou seest a 
Goi (that is, a Christian) fall into a well or pit, and a 
ladder is at hand, take it awav, and sav ' 1 will call mv 
son to help me, and will bring the ladder in a moment, 
but do it not." " He who has begun the reading of the 
Talmud will never turn back again to the Bible; if he 
were to do so, he would never after find tranquillity or 

After reading the above, which are by no means 
the strongest instances of the immoral teachings of 
the Talmud, we are almost tempted to take the 
side of Pfeffercorn against Keuchlin. I do not 
trouble your readers with examples of the ridi- 
culous puerilities which are abundant in the Tal- 
mud ; but Mr. Jacob, in his preface, says that 

44 Some of the quotations which the author bas ex- 
tracted from the cabalistic books are so grossly absurd, 
and so very blasphemous, that it was doubted if human 
credulity could be so far extended as to receive them for 

lie then gives satisfactory reasons for relying 
on his quotations as genuine. 

It may be safely assumed that no living man 
has read the Talmud ; and it may be doubted if 
any human being ever did read the twelve or 
thirteen folio volumes of which it consists. As 
different men have read different portions, and no 
man has read the whole, and as it is certain that 
the book is in parts good, in part$ bad, in parts 

4* S. I. Feb. 22, '68.] 



by the opinions of those who have read portions 
their judgment will be in suspense whether the 
elements of virtue or vice, wisdom or folly, pre- 
vail in the book. 

It does, however, contain passages of a grandeur 
and tenderness which it would be difficult to 
match in any other uninspired writing. The fol- 
lowing I give as I tind it given by Michelet : 

" L'Eternel, avant fait les ames, les regarda une a 
une. Et il lui dit : Va ! Mais Tame re'pond alors : O 
maitre, je suis heureuse ici. Pourquoi m'en irai-je, 
asservie, et sujette h toute souillure ? Alors le Saint (be'ni 
soit-il!) reprend: Tu naquis pour cela.— Elle s*en va 
done, la pauvre, et descend bien a regret. Mais elle 
remontera un jour. La mort est un baiser de Dieu ! " 

J. II. c. 


The following notes, differing from, or giving 
information additional to, those of Dr. Z. Grey, or 
the Key of L'Estrange, are selected from a num- 
ber of marginalia written in a copy of the edition 
of this poem, 18mo, London, 1710, on a leaf of 
which is also found the name of the writer and 
former owner — u E libris Phil. Lomax, ex dono 
ejus patri G. Lomax : " 

Part i. canto i. 

Line 15. "A wight he was/' &c. — Sir Samuel Luke, a 
self-conceited commander under Oliver Cromwell. 

Line 337. "... for Arthur wore in Hall."— P. Arthur, 
one of y e worthies of y* world. 

Line 648. " Didst inspire Wythers, Pryn, and Vicars." 
— Withers a fanatical poet, Prvnne a Barrister of Lin- 
coln's Inn, Vickers a Tub-preacher. 

Part i. Canto ii. 

Line 249. "The gallant Bruin march'd behind him." — 
Bruin or Turk, Bear or Dog, signify* y e different Sects 
in those Rebellious times confederating for suppressing 
Kingly Governm*. 

Line 365. "He Trulla lov'd," &c— The Daughter of 
James Spencer, a Quaker, Debauch d by her Father, and 
then by Magnano, y # Tinker aforemention d . 

Line 409. "The upright Cerdon next advane'd." — By 
Cerdon is meant one-ey'd Hewson y e Cobler, who from a 
private Centinel was made a Coll. in y« Humps Armv. 

Line 442. " Last Colon came, bold Man of WaV."— 
Colon hints at one Ned Tern', an Hostler, who, tho' he 
lov'd Bearbaiting, was nevertheless such a strange Pre- 
cisian that he would lye w h any whore but y e whore of 

Line 496. "What, CEstrum" — A gad bee or breez. 

Part i. Canto iii. 

Line 154. " Ears of the circumcised Brethren." — Prynne, 
Burton, and Bast wick, who lost y r ears, noses were slit, 
and Branded in v° forehead for Lampooning Henrietta 
Maria, Q. of England and y e Bishops. 

Line 312. "Upon a Widow's Jointure Land."— The 
precious Relict of Aminadab Wilmott, an Independant 
kill'd at Edge Hill fight, having £200 per annum left her, 
Hudibras fell in love w h her, or did worse. 

Line 1122. "By him that baited the Popes Bulir 
A Polemical peice of Divinity, s d to be wrote by Dr. 

Part ii. Canto i. 

Line 725. " For some philosophers of late here." — S r 
Kenelme Digby, who in his book of Bodys, gives relation 
of a German Boy, living in y e woods, and going on all- 


Part ii. Canto iii. 

Line 163. "Appear in divers shapes to Kelly." — An 
Irish Priest who fomented the Rebellion by preaching in 
Disguise among the Dissenters of those times. 

Line 325. " Hight irhachuin, bred to dash and draw." 
— A foolish Welchman, one Tom Jones, could neither 
write nor read, Zany to Lilly y e Astrologer. 

Line 404. " . . . . found out by Fisk." — A merry astro- 
loger, and friend of Ben Jonson's. 

Line 1113. " Before the secular Prince of Darkness ." — 

The watchman. 

Part in. Canto i. 

Line 866. " The same with those of Lewkntr's Lane.'* — 
A Nursery of Lewd women first resorted to by the Round- 

Part in. Canto ii. 


Line 220. "Until he was relieved by Stkruy. 
fanatical preacher, admir'd by Hugh Toby. 

Line 351. " 'Mong these was a Politician. 19 — S r Antony 
Ashly Cooper, afterwards Earl of Shaftsburv, try'd at the 
Old Bailey, 24 th Nov** 1681, for libelling y« King. 

Part in. Canto iii. 

Line 577. " An Old dull Sot ; who told the Clock." 
Old Prideaux, noted equally for extorting money from 
Delinquents as for Disloyalty. 

Line 145. " More plainly than that reverend Writer." 
— A. B. Dolben, whose son, or Grandson it was that im- 
peach'd D r Sacheverell of High Crimes and Misdemean", 
upon which a rigorous prosecution of him follow'd. 

The little edition of Hudibras, from which the 
foregoing extracts have been taken, is worthy of 
special notice, as containing, besides a good por- 
trait of Butler, eighteen plates, which, though of 
indifferent quality both as regards design and- 
execution, served Hogarth as the models for his 
well-known engravings in illustration of this 
poem. J. Nichols, speaking of the various sets 
executed by this great artist, says : 

" Previous to both, appeared another set of plates, 
eighteen in number, for an edition in eighteens of this 
celebrated poem. To these it is manifest that Hogarth 
was indebted for his ideas of several of the scenes and 
personages, both in his larger and smaller performances 
on the same subject. That the collector may know the 
book when he meets with it, the following is a transcript 
of the title-page : — 

" * Hudibras : in Three Parts, written in the Time of 
the late Wars, Corrected and Amended : with Additions. 
To which is added, Annotations to the Third Bart, with 
an exact Index to the whole; never before printed. 
Adorned with Cuts. London : Printed for R. (Jhiswel, 
J. Tonson, T. Home, and R. Willington, 1710.'— Nichols' 

Biographical Anecdotes of William Hogarth, edition 1785, 
p. 145." 

Lowndes mentions the edition, but omits to 
state that it contains plates. There is no name of 
either designer or engraver to these; they may 
not improbably be attributable to the same hands 
as the plates to Ned Ward's Vulyus Brita?micus, 
or the British Hudibrass, published in the same 
year. I may add that this edition was reprinted 



[4*S. I. Fkb. 22,*68. 


in the same form, 12mo, 1720. The plates are 
re-engraved, but are not so fine and brilliant in 
effect; the portrait is reversed. 


William Bates. 


In the Archiv f. n. SpracJtcn, band xxxix. 296, 
and band xl. 183, 1 have suggested that these words 
may be misprints of one ears, for cutting oft* one 
ear was a punishment often inflicted formerly, by 
the law of England, for certain offences. For 
example, chap. iv. of 5 & G Edward VI., after re- 
citing — 

" For as much as of late divers and many outrageous 
and barbarous behaviours and acts have been used and 
committed by divers ungodly and irreligious persons, by 
quarrelling, brawling, fraying, and fighting openly in 
churches and church-yards," enacts, — " That if any per- 
son whatsoever shall at any time after the first day of 
May next coming, by words only, quarrel, chide, or brawl 
in any church or church-yard, that then it shall be lawful 
unto the ordinary of the place where the same offence 
shall be done, and proved by two lawful witnesses, to 
suspend every person so offending : that is to say, if he 
be a layman, ah ingressu Ecclesia\ and if he be a clerk, 
from the ministration of his oftice, for so lung a time as 
the ordinarv shall by his descretion think meet and con- 
venient, according to the fault. And further it is en- 
acted, That if any person or persons after the said first 
day of May shall smite or lay violent hands upon any 
other, either in any church or church-yard, that then ipso 
facto every person so offending shall be deemed excom- 
municate, and be excluded from the fellowship and com- 
munion of Christ's congregation, and also it is enacted 
that if any person after the said first day of May shall 
maliciously strike any person with any weapon in any 
Church or church-yard, or after the same first day of 
May shall draw any weapon in any church or church- 
yard to the intent to strike another with the same weapon, 
that then every person so offending, and thereof being 
convicted by verdict of xii. men, or by his own confes- 
sion, or by two lawful witnesses, before the justices of 
assize, justices of Oyer and Determiner, or justices of peace 
in their sessions, by force of this Act, shall be adjudged 
by the same justices before whom such person shall be 
convicted, to have one of his ears cut off. And if the 
person or persons so offending have none ears, whereby 
they should receive such punishment as is before de- 
clared, that then he or they to be marked and burned in 
the cheek with an hot iron, having the letter F therein, 
whereby he or they may be known and taken for fray- 
makers and fighters ; and besides that, every such person 

to be and stand ipso facto excommunicated, as is afore- 

" GadshiU. I am joined with no foot-land rakers, no 
long-staff sixpenny strikers, none of these mad mustachio 
purple-hued malt-worms; but with nobility and tran- 
quillity, burgomasters and great oncyers, such as can hold 
in, such as will strike sooner than speak, and speak 
sooner than drink, and drink sooner than pray."— First 
Part of King Henry IV. Act II. Sc. 1. 

Cutting oif one ear was the punishment in- 
flicted upon those who maliciously struck any 
person in any church or church-yard ; and Gadshill 
says " he is joined with no long-staff sixpenny 
strikers, &c, but great oneyers, such as can hold 

in, such as will strike sooner than speak/' &c. 
And it may be worthy of consideration whether 
Shakespeare does not in these passages refer to 
persons upon whom this punishment had been 
indicted, and who had consequently only one ear. 
This statute itself testifies to the frequency of this 
punishment, for it enacts what punishment shall 
be inflicted upon those who have none ears. 

W L. Rushton. 


[The following curious specimen of modern English de- 
serves a place in"iN. & Q.] 

Talis, St. Crispin. 

My dearest Beatrice, — We arrived here on 
Monday all serene, our scheme having been well 
carried out. Paris is awfully jolly. The scarcity 
of lodgings is all bosh. It is out of my power to 
give you a graphic description of the Exposition, 
which is something marvellous and a decided 
success. Our country is not well represented in 
pictures, few being noteworthy. How idiotic not 
to have sent better! However, our prestige in 
water-colours is sustained. The pet utterance, 
" They do these things better in France," fre- 
quently crops up with us, but is not applicable 
to artistic matters. The French landscapes are 
less effective than ours, and their portraits are not 
so realistic. Such lots of lovely China, for which 
you know mv weakness! On mv return I am 
going in for Wedgwood, although my taste will 
be pooh-noohed. On leaving the a Palatial laby- 
rinth " the first day we were completely sold. 
It was indeed hard lines, for not a cab was to be 
found, and we had to trudge in the rain and through 
the mud for miles. What a sell it was ! How I 
longed for our little trap ! We pounced upon our 
new curate in the act of scrutinising the copes, 
chasubles, and church ornaments. Notwithstand- 
ing his antecedents and reticence, his proclivities 
are obvious — not that there is any thing yet abnor- 
mal in his proceedings. By-the-way, ritual is not 
likely to be stamped out. Think of our travellin 
with the Crofts on their wedding tour ! They were 
spooning awfully. How strange that a fast girl 
should marry such a muff! It seems she has made 
a mull of it. They were great fun. We fell in also 
with the Gordon girls with their aunt, in splendid 
get-ups ; their bonnets were stunning. A man of 
the party was sweet upon Clara. What gushing 
girls they are ! We have almost done Paris 
already ; for the governor, who knows a thing or 
two, has a speciality for lionising. He has many 
a good dodge, and has forked out well ; so we 
have enjoyed ourselves immensely, and are indeed 
intensely happy. We are not due till Saturday 
week, but he has elected to return, via Dover, 

sooner; so we may put in an appearance on the 
Friday. We spied poor Benson one day at a die- 

4*SbI. Feb. 22, '68. J 



tance, looking seedy. He has long been going to 
the bad, and I fear has come to grief. Short dresses 
are now an institution. Thanks many for your 
sensational letter. Your affectionate 


" N. & Q." keeps watch over the English lan- 
guage. Will you have the kindness to arrest the 
rapid downward progress of the unfortunate word 
w loyalty " ? It used to mean devotion to the 
crown, and we possess no other single word which 
expresses this so well. Newspapers are now be- 
ginning to use u loyal " as simply synonymous 
with " faithful " or li honourable." The Times 
recently commended King Victor Emmanuel for 
his loyalty. Loyalty to whom or what ? to him- 
self? I know of no one else to whom an inde- 
pendent sovereign can be loyal, unless indeed the 
word had been used in its highest sense (which 

in this case it was not) of loyalty to the King of 
Kings. iIermentrude. 

Method proposed for deciphering Cunei- 
form Inscriptions. — Assume the language to be 
Chaldee, Zend, or Persian. (1.) Count the number 
of distinct characters of like form in all the ac- 
cessible monuments, which I assume to be betwixt 
twenty and forty. If considerably more, say to the 
extent of forty to eighty, then there will be two 
distinct languages. If still more, say sixty to one 
hundred and twenty, there will be three distinct 
languages. (2.) But suppose that twenty to forty 
separate and distinct characters should be found, 
then we have only one language to deal with, 
such being about the number of letters in any 
language of this class. (3.) Count the number of 
times the X occurs in Chaldee, for example, from 
all the accessible books in that language. Do the 
same with 3, with J, &c, to the end of the alpha- 
bet. (4.) Then note the ratio that each letter 
bears to the whole ; and supposing that K was 
found to be by far the letter most frequently oc- 
curring, then it may be inferred that the cuneiform 
character oftenest occurring in inscriptions stands 
for K. (5.) Proceed in the same way with the 
letter that occurs seldomest in books, and assume 
that to be the one for that character which occurs 
seldomest in inscriptions. (6.) The intermediate 
letters must be dealt with in the same way until 
the whole twenty-two letters of the Chaldee 
alphabet are appropriated. (7.) If there still re- 
main some characters on the inscriptions unap- 
{>ropriated, they may be disposed of as terminal 
etters, D, |> &c. If the inscription is still unin- 
telligible, treat the Zend and Persian in succession 
as you have just done the Chaldee. 

The principle on which I proceed by this ge- 
neral method of deciphering is derived from the 
knowledge that the printer requires a stock of 

each letter according to the number of each used, 
of which his successive bills of parcels will supply 
the numbers of each letter : the e y for example, oc- 
curring oftenest, and next s. T. J. Buckton. 

Wiltshire Road, Stockwell, S. 

The Admirable Crichton. 

The following 

may be added to the note I formerly sent (see 
" N. & Q." 3 rd S. viii. 85.) 

"The Passions of the Minde in generall. In six bookes. 
Corrected, enlarged, and with sundry new discourses aug- 
mented by Thomas Wright." 4to, London, 1630. 

At p. 55 is the following passage : 

44 1 remember that when I was in Italy there was a 
Scottish Gentleman of most rare and singular parts, who 
was a retainer to a Duke of that count rey, he was a singular 
good Scholler, and as good a Souldier ; it chanced one 
night the yong Prince, either upon some spleene, or false 
suggestion, or to try the Scot's valour, met him in a 
place where hee was wont to haunt, resolving either to 
kill, wound, or beat him, and for this effect, conducted 
with him two of the best Fencers hee could finde, the 
Scot had but one friend with him ; in fine, a quarrell is 

fickt, they all draw, the Scot presently ranne one of the 
encers thorow, and killed him in a trice, with that he 
bended his forces to the Prince, who fearing, lest that 
which w T as befallen his Fencer might happen upon him- 
selfe he exclaimed out instantly, that he was the Prince, 
and therefore willed him to looke aboute him what he 
did : the Scot perceiving well what hee was fell down 
upon his knees demanding pardon at his hands, and gave 
the Prince his naked rapier, who no sooner had received 
it, but with the same sword he ran him thorow to death." 

T. A. C. 

Proverbs. — From John Hey wood's Proverbs and 
Epigrams (Spenser Society), I subjoin instances of 
certain proverbs discussed in " N. & Q." 3 rd S. 
xii. 413, 487, 631: 

" She tooke thenterteinment of the yong men 

All in daliaunce, as nice as a nun's hen. : ' 

(Spenser Society Reprint, p. 43.) 
•' In your rennyng from him to me, ye runne 

Out of God's blessing into the warme sunne" 

(P. 55.) 

" ' A foule olde riche widowe, whether wed would ye, 
Or a yonge fayre mayde, being poore as ye be ' (?) 

' In neither barrell better hearynge ' (quoth hee)." 

Jonx Addis, Jun. 

llustington, Littlehampton, Sussex. 

The following extract from 

Prolific Family. 

the seventh volume of the Funeral Entries in Ul- 
ster Office, Dublin Castle, is probably unique : 

"Capt. Paule Arundeil of Mayne in the County of 
Limerick, Esq., 25 th sonne of William Arundeil of Che- 
diocke in the Kingdome of England, departed this mor- 

tall life at Mayne aforesaid, the day of 1636, 

and was interred in the Abbey of Ardskettace in the said 

He married Ellen, daughter of Sir George 
Thornton, Knight, and Marshal of Munster, by 
whom he had surviving issue seven sons and six 
daughters. The certificate is dated Nov. 24, 1036, 
and signed by his eldest son and heir, Geonre 

Arundeil. II. Loftus Tottenham. 



[4* S.I. Fkb.22,'68. 


References wan 

Though I did not sue- 

ceed in getting a single reply to my last dozen, I 
shall make another venture. 

25. S. Bernard was wont to say, when he heard 

Are there any physical peculiarities in the 
structure of the ash to account for the exceptional 
reverence in which it seems to have been held in 

every age, and in almost every country? In Ire- , Transfiguration, vol. ii. p/174, folio, 
land it is the mountain-ash which, in popular 

his monks snore, thev did Carnaliter seu sccidariter 
dor mire. Bishop Hall quotes it, Med. on the 

belief, is an antidote to charms, and a talisman 
against witchcraft, the evil-eye, and disease. In 
Scotland, where it is known as the " rowan-tree " 
or u roun-tree," it is held in similar esteem, and 
a branch of it is placed above the door of the cow- 
shed for the safety of the cattle 

"Rowan-tree and red thread, 
Tut the witches to their speed ! " 

In Ireland the mountain-ash is said to be the 
only tree that is never struck by lightning. 

In the Scandinavian mythology the ash is the 
greatest of all trees, but from the size attributed 
to it, it would appear to be not the mountain-ash 
but the ordinary Fraxinus excelsior. In the prose 
Euda, " the holiest seat of the gods is under 
the ash Ygdrasill, where they assemble daily in 
council r? (ch. xv.). Pliny says such is the influ- 
ence of the ash-tree that snakes will not rest in 
its shadow, but shun it at n distance. lie adds, 
"from personal knowledge," that if a serpent be 
so encompassed by a fence of ash-leaves as that 
he cannot escape without passing through lire, 
he will prefer the fire rather than come in contact 
with the leaves (lib. xv. c. 24). In Isaiah the ash 
is enumerated amongst the trees out of whose 
timber idols were carved : — 

"He hev.eth him down cedars, and taketh the cypress 
and the oak ; he planteth an ash. He burnetii part thereof 
in the fire; he warmeth himself; and with the residue he 
maketh a god, even his graven image.''— xliv. 11, 17. 

Max Miiller, in his essay on the Norsemen in 
Iceland, says : 

" In the Edda man is said to have been created out of an 
ash-tree. In Ilesiod Jupiter creates the third race of man- 
kind out of ash- trees ; and that this tradition was not un- 
known to Homer is apparent from Penelope's address to 
Ulvsses — * tell me tiiv familv, from whence thou art, for 
thou art not sprung from the olden tree, or from the rock.' " 
Chips, §'c. vol. ii. p. 105. 

But the passage in Homer does not name the 
ash y and the question of Penelope applies to the 
oak — 

Oil *")&/> awo dpvos, etc. 

The allusion in Ilesiod is direct, although in it 
too the expression, <?* n.e\iav §*iv6v, is susceptible 
of implying men formidable from their use of the 
ashen spear, as Cook translates it 

"Potent in arms, and dreadful at the sjwar, 
They live injurious and devoid of fear." 

Can any natural ground be suggested for these 
recurring allusions, in a mysterious sense, to this 
particular tree ? J. Emerson Tennent. 


20. " Utilis lectio, utilis eruditio, sed magis 
unctio necessaria." — S. Bern. 

27. S. Bernard speaks of a traveller by sea as 
secundum sapientem tribus digitis distans a 

morte." — DeDiv. Serm. xlii. § 3. 

The Benedictine edition here, as in like cases, 
leaves the reader in the lurch. Who is the Sapiens 
here alluded to, and whose are the following lines, 
which I find appended by Lipsius to Seneca, Fp. 
40 ? — 

" Tabulam unam 
.. . dicitis a morte remotam 



28. " Intelliget qui orando pulsat, non qui 

S. Aug. 

29. %i Deus unicum habet filium sine peccato, 

S. Aug. Confess, vi. 

rixando obstrepit ad ostium veritatis." 

nullum sine llagello." 

So quoted in Burton's Anatomy, 8vo ed. p. 382 ; 
but the reference is wrong. 

30. " Would you have the bridge cut, because 

you are over r " — S. Aug. 

31. " Ure, seca, occide, O Domine, modo serves 
animara."— S. Aug. quoted in Burton, p. 734. 

32. The world's destruction by the Deluge of 
old, and at the last day by fire: — Aqua propter 
ardorem libidinis, ignis propter teporem eharitatis. 

" Quid moramnectimus, et quae nos misene 
tenent catenae ?" 



34. " Magnum iter ascendis, sed dat tibi gloria 

refert quaelibet herba 

35. " Prresentemque 

30. Homer, when one of his heroes weeps, ob- 
serves, Oi ayaOol 5' aptia.Kpv*s &vdpes. I have vainly 
tried to verify this quotation. 

37. u A certain captain being required to keep 
Milan for the king of France, went up to the 
highest turret and cried out three times, ' King 
of France,' and then refused the service, because 
the king heard him not." — Who was this peculiar 

hero ? 

38. Who was the Spanish king who, when a 

courtier wished that kings were immortal, replied, 
" If that had been, 1 should never have been 


39. A courtier said to some king or conqueror 

in the midst of a splendid triumph, " What is 
wanting here?'' "Continuance," was the reply. 
Who is here alluded to ? 

40. A dying courtier being asked what he would 
have the king do for him, pnswered, " Nothing, 

* Continued from 3 rJ S. xii. 330. 

4*8.1. Feb. 22, '68. J 



unless he can call back Time again. 9 ' — Is this the 
same story alluded to in Brooks' Apples of Gold: 

" I have read of one Myrognes, who, when great gifts 
were sent unto him, he sent thera all back, saying, I only 
desire this one thing at your master's hand, to pray for 
me that I may be saved for eternity." — 22nd ed. p. 25. 

41. " Tentanda est via qua nos quoque fas sit 
tollere huino." Q. Q- 

Thomas de Beckington, Bishop of Bath 
and Wells, 1443-1406.— I find it stated by the 
Rev. G. A. Poole, in his Synehronological Table 
of the Bishops of the English Sees, presented to 
the Architectural Society of Northampton in 1852, 
that the above-mentioned prelate had William of 
Wykeham as his first patron. What is his autho- 
rity for this statement ? What ancient authority 
is there who records the very considerable build- 
ings of this prelate ? And is there any ancient 
authority which would connect the bishop with 
the great church -rebuilding which prevailed 
throughout Somerset in the fifteenth and six- 
teenth centuries ? * W. G. 

Carey Pedigree. — Can any of your antiquarian 
or heraldic readers give me a clue to the connec- 
tion believed to exist betwixt the Guernsey and 
Devonshire Careys, or refer me to any book or 
MS. which treats of it ? B. 

Jean Caffart of Arras. — Is anything known 
about him, and what is the explanation of the two 
words "Correctier" (query , eotreyidor, justice de 
pair) and u Ovlowrier" (sic), in the inscription 
on his engraved portrait ? The following is a 
description of it, small folio, neatly engraved : 
Monogram, " T. G. F." (query, Theodore Galle, 
fecit). Head uncovered, wizened features; cloak 
with turn-down collar ; ruff and gloves. Inscrip- 
tion round the portrait : 

" De Jean Caffart d'Arras tu vois icy le traict. Cor- 

rectier en Colongne. Ovlowrier la portraict, JSta suas 50. 

With these lines Rrmpnrlnd • — 

" En toy Arras, ville de ma naiasance, 
J 'ay exerce' charge pnblicquement : 
A inon cher coust sans autre pavement 
Que le regret de ta mesjongnoissance : 
Tu m'as ban n is, et distraict ma substance, 
D'un Archiduc, foullant le mandement : 
Anvcrs m'a eu, jusqu'a lapointement : 
Sans d'icelluy, avoir la joyssance : 
Mais nonobstant, i>n«;u qui des siens a soin, 
A subvenu, tousiours a mon besoin, 

[• An interesting paper on Bishop Beckington, by the 
lie v. George Williams, Senior Fellow of King's College, 
Cambridge, was read before the Somerset Archaeological 
Society, and printed in the Bath Chronicle of Sept. 17, 
1863, and the Gentleman s Magazine of Nov. 1863, p. 553. 

Beckington is also noticed in Dr. Chandler's Life of 

Bishop IVilliam Waynflete.— Ed.] 

Et m'envoia, pour praticquer le change 
D'Aix en Colongne, ou son vouloir puissant 
Mes durs labeurs, a este benissant : 
Dont a jamais je lui rendray louange." 

Fredk. Hendriks. 
Ecclesiastical Colours. — There is an obvious 

symbolism in most of the colours used by the 
Church in her various seasons. But I fail to per- 
ceive the meaning of yellow, employed, accord- 
ing to the Sarum use, on the feasts of confessors. 
What is the meaning of yellow? 

Filius Ecclesije. 

Courts Martial. — In one of the early debates 
on the Mutiny Bill in 1718, Lord Ilarcourt, in 
speaking against the Bill, said : 

11 Martial Courts assume to themselves an arbitrary 
and unprecedented authority, of which they had a re- 
markable instance — an ensign of the (iuards having 
been sentenced to death without being heard, which w 
contrary to Magna Charta." 

Why was he sentenced 
to, and did he suffer, death ? Sebastian. 

Gildas. — To the inquirer into the early history 
of England, the name of Gildas is familiar and 
ominous of a profound verbiage disclosing hardly 
a single fact. There is so much that looks sus- 
picious about his narrative. Its whole appear- 
ance is so suggestive of a forgery, that I cannot 
help thinking it must have been pronounced so by 
some critic, although stamped with the approval 
of so competent a one as Mr. Petrie. I would 
therefore ask, Has the Jeremiad of Gildas ever 
been suspected ? and also how old is the earliest 
known manuscript of Gildas? Of course I do not 
dispute the existence of a Gildas, but only the 
reliability and genuineness of the book which 
bears his name. The Monumenta Ilidorica Brit- 

Who was the ensign ? 

tannica is familiar to me. 

Gillingham Roodscreen. 

II. II. H. 

The remains of 

the roodscreen in the parish church of Gillingham, 
Dorset, are surmounted by the royal arms as borne 
by the Stuart kings, boldly carved in wood, and 
painted. The plinth bears the following in raised 
letters on a sunk field : — 




Will some one kindly tell me what the first and 
last letters mean, and whether such or similar 
additions occur elsewhere? The plinth is evidently 
of one piece of oak, and each end appears to be 
complete. Quidam. 

Heraldic. — 1. Has a man the clear right to 
impale the arms of a deceased wife ? 2. Has a 
man the right to use a first wife's arms after he 
shall have married a second time ? A. II. 

u Iconographie avec Portraits," 2 vols, folio, 

the portraits being mostly etchings by Vandyke. 
Is this a work of great value ? F. M. S. 



[4* S. 1. Feb. 22, '68. 

Special Licence. — I am anxious to ascertain 

some particulars relative to the issuing and effect 
of a special licence for marriage, of which I 
can learn nothing il from book " nor from the 
clergy, in a town of more than two hundred thou- 
sand inhabitants — none of them having seen such 
a document. 1. Under what conditions is the 
licence obtained ? Are there any proofs of resi- 
dence, personal declarations, or sworn guarantees 
required? 2. Who grants the licence? the arch- 
bishop only ? If so, must the application be per- 
sonal, and made at a given office? or can the 
surrogate obtain the licence ? 3. Does the licence 

give me information as to the origin and meaning 
of a word which I never heard used but in one 
connection, and that upwards of forty years ago ? 
When I was a child, my favourite of all my 
grandmother's fairy tales was about a u Dixv " and 

a bean. 


This, by-the-bye, is the only one of those 
tales that 1 have never since met with in print. 
The " pixy " asks a dame to take charge of a bean 
that he has found, whilst he goes to play at "pa/- 
shaw " or " par/shaw " (I am not sure which). 

The bean of course is not forthcoming on his 
return ; so the pixy takes, instead, the cock that 
had eaten the bean. 

from Canterbury or York suffice alike for either This cock is given in charge to another dame 
diocese, for any part of the kingdom, and any whilst he again goes to play at u patshaw," and, 

I need hardly say, with similar consequences. 
This time he takes, instead, the horse that had 
and arbitrary ? Perhaps some correspondents of killed the cock, which is left with a third dame 
"N. & Q." will kindly answer these questions. ' whilst he once more goes to play at "patshaw," 

hour ot the day or night? 4. What does it cost? 
Is the charge tixed and uniform? or is it various 


Lincolnshire Queries. 


1. At what date was Ivo Tailbois prior of 

2. Where can I learn particulars of the abbey, 
or conventual house, at Winceby, co. Lincoln ? 


and so on to the end of the story. 

I may add that this tale, as told by my grand- 
mother, is remembered by two aunts and two 

Malone's "SiiAKsrEARE." — I have in my pos- 
session an edition of Shakspeare, entitled : — 

" The Works of William Shakspeare, in sixteen volumes, 
by Edmund Malone. London : Printed for the Proprie- 
tors, 1816." 

In all other respects the title-page is the same 
as in Malone's ten- volume edition of 1790. The 
frontispiece is the same as that in Malone's and 
Ayscough's editions, engraved by H. Brocas. I 
cannot find any mention of this edition in Bohn's 
Loumdes, Halliwell, and other Catalogues of 
Shakspeariana. What is known about it ? 

E. F. M. M. 


Patrons of Scotch Pari* 

I shall be 

much obliged to anyone who will inform me who 
was patron of the parish of Kincardine-in-Men- 
teith in 1730; and also, who was the patron of 
Cramond, near Edinburgh, in the same year. 

F. M. S. 

"St. Pawsle." — In a district in the North 
Riding this mythical saint is a subject of constant 
allusion, as onehaving superlative excellencies, but 
a saint whose day in the Calendar never comes. 
Of a bright copper show-kettle it will be said : 
16 That's fur better days an 1 Sundays ; it's fur St. 
Pawsle's, an' St. Pawsle e'ens." One youth will 
say to another : " AVhen's thoo boon to don thee 
new coit, Rich ? " " 0' St. Pawsle's." 

C. C. R. 
The Pixy and the Bean : Meaning or Pat- 

cousiii8, as well as myself (with a difference of 
twenty-five years between the age of the oldest 
and youngest), and that we are all clear about the 

" patshaw." R T. 

Pope and Mary Wortley Montague. 

1. What are the most detailed, and 2, the most 
authentic authorities for the conversations, inter- 
course, and correspondence of this male and female 

wit ? T. J. Buckton. 

Wiltshire Road, Stockwell, S. 

Bisnor of Salisbury. — I have a document in 

my hands at the present moment, of unquestion- 
able authenticity, and pronounced by a very com- 
petent judge to be in the handwriting of the 
latter part of the twelve century, which presents 
a difficulty that I am most desirous to have 
solved. It is addressed by one "Gauir de 
Pourtuna," — presumed to be Geoffry de Pourton — 
" Venerabili domino et patri suo. Got! Salesbiensi 
episcopo." As it relates to a parish in the diocese 
of Salisbury, there can be no question that this 
must be a bishop of that see : but the difficulty is, 
that the name, whatever it may be, in no wise 
coincides with either the Christian or surnames 
of any of the bishops of Salisbury contained in the 
lists. The above is almost the certain reading, 
though it might just possibly be Goci, or even 

The only suggestions I can make towards the 
solution of the matter are : (1) either that this 
abbreviation represents the name of some ad- 
ministrator of the diocese during a vacancy of the 
see; or (2) that it confirms a supposition, men- 
tioned by Godwin, that a bishop, whom he calls 
Galfridus, presided between the death of Bishop 
Roger in 1139, and the appointment of Bishop 

shaw. — Could any of your contributors kindly Jocelyn in 1142 j or (3) that we have here a 

4* S.I. Feb. 22, '68.] 



strange spelling of this latter name. Any hint 
would greatly oblige C. W. Binghax. 

Scottish Sports. — Does any work exist de- 
scriptive of ancient sports in Scotland ? 

Charles Rogers, LL.D. 

2, Heath Terrace, Lewisham. 

Weston, Earls of Portland. — Jerome, 
second Karl of Portland, is stated, in Burke's 
Extinct Peerage, to have had three daughters, 
viz. Henrietta, Mary, and Frances; who, after 
the death of their brother Charles, third earl, 
and their uncle Thomas, fourth earl, became the 
coheir to the family estates. Can any of the 
readers of "N. & Q." inform me whether either 
of these ladies were married, and where informa- 
tion relative to them, and in especial of the Lady 
Mary, can be obtained ? P. C. S. B. 

Weston: Naylor. — Robert Weston, LL.D., 

was Lord Chancellor of Ireland in lo73. His 
daughter was wife of Sir Geoftrey Fenton, and 
mother of Catherine, wife of the great